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Hee Sun Shin 2 Articles
Denver II Developmental Screening Test: A Cross Cultural Comparison
Hee Sun Shin, Kyung Ja Han, Ka Sil Oh, Jin Joo Oh, Mi Na Ha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(1):89-97.   Published online March 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore the validity of the application of the Denver II developmental screening test to Korean children. This screening test, which was developed and standardized in United States, was designed to screen for developmental delay in Korea, and to compare the levels of development of Korean children with the development of children from the U.S.
METHOD
Quota sampling. NP To facilitate field sampling, the age range used from 0 to 6 years old, was split into 10 different age groups. Sample size was estimated according to residence. 1,054 children were recruited from Seoul's metropolitan, urban and rural areas. NP To fill the quota established, the Recruitment and testing of children was done at public health centers, pediatric outpatient clinics of general hospitals and a child care center. The 25, 50, 75 and 90 percentiles were identified by using logistic regression analysis and were calculated as norms. The items in which the ages of both 50 and 90 percent passing differed more than 20 percent by the calculation was identified for comparison. NP RESULT: There were significant differences found in 45 items between Korean children and the children from the City of Denver as it relates to age differences. 90% of the sample passed items among 125 items from 4 sectors, e.g., personal- social, fine motor adaptive, language, and gross motor sectors. Korean children were found to be advanced in 9 items, whereas there were significant differences found in 38 items in our comparison of the two countries for age differences when 50% of sample pass items. Korean children were found to be advanced in 16 items. NP CONCLUSION: The result showed that there was a discrepancy in the developmental norms. It could be explained by the differences in the developmental environment, including child rearing patterns and ethnicity. Therefore, a restandardization of the Denver Screening Test is necessary as it relates to its application on Korean children. This restandardization is necessary in order to avoid both under and over-referrals of children with developmental abnormality. The modification of items in the language sector is especially suggested.
The Effect of Visual Health Promotion Program in Elementary School-Age Children
Jin Joo Oh, Hee Sun Shin
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(2):397-405.   Published online September 30, 2001
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The vision disturbances of school- age children has been recognized as and important school health problem. As the visual disturbances of the school-age children is recognized as the nation's health problem, the importance of the development of educational program for visual health should be emphasized. Recently, eyeball movement and other visual health management method has been introduced for prevention or recovery of decrease in visual acuity. But, the effect of eyeball movement was not confirmed yet. And, the controversy around the treatment effect is continued. The decrease of visual acuity is one of the important school health problem as well as it causes discomfort in daily life of the students. So, it should be considered as an important subject for school health and there is a need to develop an effective intervention program for visual health. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the program with the recognition of the need of the intervention for visual health. The visual health promotion program was developed by the researcher and the program was initiated by the school. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was applied for study which examined the effect of the visual health promotion program. The subjects were 742 children (experimental group: 398; control group: 344). The experiment was composed of health education and eyeball movement. Health education was provided 5 times to the children in the class room. Children of experimental group exercised eyeball movement in the class, watching video for 10 minutes two times a day. The exercise was continued for 10 weeks. The result of the study were as follows. 1) change of visual acuity Before the intervention, mean of the visual acuity was .86 for the experimental group and .91 for control group. After the intervention, mean of visual acuity was .95 for the experimental group and .90 for the control group. There was no significant difference in the change of visual acuity between experimental and control group. 2) change of refraction. In the experimental group, 327 eyes (41.08%) were normal vision and 469 eyes (58.98%) were eyes of refraction errors. 38.82% of the total eyes were myopia. There was no significant change in the refraction in the children with myopia after the intervention. 3) Awareness of visual acuity, change of knowledge, behavior, and attitude (1) After the intervention, there was a significant difference in the awareness of visual acuity (experimental group: 70.10%, control group: 50.97%, p<.01). (2) After the intervention, there was a significant knowledge increase in the experimental group (p<.01). (3) There was no significant difference in the visual health behavior after the intervention. (4) There was a significant positive change in the attitude related to visual health in the experimental group (p<.05). 4) There was a significant positive change in the subjective discomfort of the students. But, there was no significant change in the objective eye symptom after the intervention. Even though there was no effect in the visual acuity and the change of the refraction, subjective visual health as well as the attitude and knowledge of the children and parents toward visual health was improved significantly. Also, there was an increase in the intention of change and the awareness for the visual health management. It is suggested that various educational strategies for visual health promotion should be developed and examined for the visual health promotion of the students.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing