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Hwa Joong Kim 6 Articles
Current State of Occupational Health in Small-Scale-Enterprises of Korea
Soon Nyung Yun, Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Hae Yoo, Young Sook Song, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):90-104.   Published online June 30, 2000
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This study was carried out to investigate the current state of occupational health management and characteristics of employees working in small-scale-enterprises (SSE) employing less than 50 workers. Samples were chosen among the two thousands employees working in 838 factories where located in Youngdungpo-Ku, Seoul, Korea. The study results were as followed: 1. Most factories investigated in the study were manufactures (68.6%) which were established in 5 to 10 years ago (29.2%), employing less than 5 workers (72.9%) and registered in accident compensation insurance (23.0%). 2. Health screening was undertaken in 24.9% workplaces for periodic health examination and in 1.5% for special health examination. Environmental monitoring was done in 3.3% factories. Very few factories displayed Material Substance Data Sheet (MSDS) in 3.1% among the total factories. 3. Workplaces usually had their own toilets in 75.9% and washing basin in 58.6% as types of sociowelfare facilities. 4. Employees responded in the study were mostly in the range of age from 30 to 39 in 34.7%. male in 84.8%. the married in 70.3%. manual workers in 42.0%. mostly working regularly 51 hours per a week in 48.2% and earned 710.000 Won to 1.000.000 Won per month in 35.0%. Medical utilization for employees were covered by factories sponsored medical insurance in 12.7% and by provincial sponsored medical insurance in 83.4%. 5. Two point six percents of employees were suffered by diseases. The health complaints indicated were mainly digestive problems in 46.7% and hypertension in 24.4%. 6. Employees wore personal protective equipments for work such as gloves in 48.1%. safety shoes in 30.5%. ear plug in 5.5% and mask in 6.9%. Based on the results of study, we recommend that various types of occupational health management should be developed according to workplace working condition of each factory. In addition to the development of occupational health strategies. we think that it is more important to monitor and to allocate how effectively they operate each other on the basis of longitudinal continuity. Besides, we would like to insist that these all management effort should be focused on prevention of disease and occupational health education of employees.
Missionary Public Health Nursing of Korea during Japanese Colonial Period
Ggod Me Yi, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):455-466.   Published online December 31, 1999
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Western missionary nurses practiced in Korea from 1891. and the first trial to begin missionary public health nursing service in 1909 could not put into practice for short of nursing staff and budget. The main focus of missionary medical practice was not in public health program but in the management of missionary hospitals. A few of missionary western R.N. tried district nursing in 1910s. but their activities were personal and focused on the rescue of poor and sick patients. In 1917 the North American Methodist Church dispatched R.N. Elizabeth S. Roberts to begin district nursing in Korea. Roberts began maternal and child district nursing service. Her service was focused on teaching the method of bringing up children. bathing service, and home visiting for delivery. She could not but stop district-nursing service in 1918 to serve for a hospital in Siberia. The North American Methodist Church dispatched a few of R.N. to Korea in early 1920s and the missionary public health nursing of Korea could be activated. R.N. E. T. Rosenberger began public health nursing program in Seoul with Korean graduate nurse, Shin-gwang Han, and missionary M.D. Hall. Their public health nursing program was focused on maternal and childcare. They did home visiting in the morning, and served at a well baby clinic in the afternoon. The first baby competition began in 1925. and contributed to the teaching the method of bringing up children. They expanded public health nursing activity to school health nursing and milk station. Their public health nursing program was such a success that In 1929 Severance hospital. Eastgate Hospital. Taehwa Social Evangelistic center organized Seoul Child Health Union. Maren P. Bording, another missionary R.N. and midwife dispatched by the North American Methodist Church began public health nursing program at Kongjoo in 1924. Her program was focused on the maternal and childcare and close to that of Seoul. She started the first milk station in Korea in 1926. As she was a midwife and could get M. D. license in Korea, her program was more focused on maternal care than that of Seoul. The first day nursery school in Korea and the first graduate course for public health nursing in Korea began at Kongjoo in 1930. As the city of Choongcheongnam Province moved from Kongjoo to Daejeon in 1932, missionary public health nursing service in Kongjoo extended to Daejeon. There were lots of public health nursing program in Korea in 1920s and 1930s by missionary western nurses and Korean nurses. There were 13 missionary public health-nursing center in Korea in 1932. But in the late 1930s. Japan extended colonial war and drove out western missionaries. The missionary service in Korea was daunted. and the missionary public health nursing service could not but shrink.
The 'Nurses Ordinance' of Korea under Japanese Rule
Kod Me Yi, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(2):291-302.   Published online December 31, 1998
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The Japanese colonial authorities promulgated the 'Nurses Ordinance(Kanhoboo Kyuchick), in 1914. It was the first act that regulated nurses' licensure in Korea. The gendarme did the administrational work of the ordinance. After the Nurses Ordinance of 1914, nurses without licenses could no longer work with the name of nurse, and Korean nursing gained a more professional status. After the March 1st Movement of 1919, Japan realized that its iron rule had to be more sophisticated. The gendarme gave way to an ordinary constabulary force. The Nurses Ordinance was amended to set the nurses quality as good as that of Japanese nurses, and the nurses licensure of Korea could also be used in Japan. In 1931 the Japanese war against China began, and the Japanese imposed military rule once again. The Nurses Ordinance was amended to 'The Korea Nurses Ordinance'. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War(1937) and of World War II in the Pacific(1941), the Japanese desperately needed additional manpower to re plenish the dwindling ranks of their military and labour forces. To produce more nurses, the colonial authorities amended the 'Korea Nurses Ordinance' and lowered the age and educational status of nurses to produce more numbers. Until the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Korea was under Japanese rule. Koreans had no say in the passing of these acts, and the colonial authority could make and pass any act at will.
A study on a nursing curriculum after a basic 3-year diploma course for the baccalaureate degree
Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):159-177.   Published online December 31, 1997
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For the development of nursing curriculum after the completion of a basic program, this study was conducted by comparing the 4-year baccalaureate degree program with the 3-year diploma program. The results are as follows: 1. The curriculum of the 4-year baccalaureate and 3-year diploma program are similar to each other in philosophy, educational objectives, and practical experience. However, advanced nursing courses in practical experience were taught by the 4-year baccalaureate degree program only. 2. For the development of a more advanced and effective curriculum, the 3-year diploma program should concentrate on nursing core courses (80 credits) such as "adult nursing" "maternal nursing" "pediatric nursing" "psychiatric nursing" "community health nursing" "fundamentals of nursing" "managerial nursing". Furthermore, nursing related courses (20 credits) and liberal education courses (20 credits) should also be offered by the 3-year diploma program. 3. This nursing curriculum should be conducted by registered nurses who have graduated from a 3-year diploma program. The nursing educational philosophy and the educational objectives of this curriculum are the same as the 4-year program recommended by the Korean Nurses Association. This curriculum consists of 2 parts: advanced nursing courses and liberal education courses. The advanced nursing courses (20 credits) include "nursing theory(4 credits)" "nursing research(4 credits)" "nursing leadership(4 credits)" "nursing curriculum(4 credits)" and "seminar of nursing issues(4 credits)" total is 40 credits.
The role and responsibility of community health practitioner based on the rural community development and the reform of health care system
Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(2):101-108.   Published online December 31, 1994
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This study was conducted by community survey of 215 community health practitiner's posts and literature review of official documents. The result was as follows ; 1. The role and responsibility of community health practitioner's post must be studied by the community health practitioner and the community health leader, and on the basement of community health needs, community development plan, and reforom of health care system. 2. Comprehensive health care of community is very important role and responsibility of community health practitioners. However, it was supervised by the senior community health practitioner in provincial government. 3. The community health practitioner must be trained by formal inservice educational program focused on comprehensive health care. 4. The community health practitoner must be the health guider and health leader as the member of community.
Planning Health Promotion Program in Workplace
Kyeong Ja Chun, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):5-29.   Published online June 30, 1994
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In recent years, interests in health promotion have been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as lead ing causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and epidemiologic findings linking individual risk to morbidity and mortality. It is not surprising that the workplace has been targeted as a promising setting for health promotion. In Korea, national attention to the opportunities for workplace health promotion began in the first 1990s. But there is no in depth study to identify the relating factors to the health promotion program in the workplace. The objective of this study is behavioral and physical characteristics to find that in crease the person's risk for a range of health problems and to analysis other characteristics to influence the degree of his/her intention to change health behavior. In addition, this study is purposed to present the process of planning health promotion program in the workplace. To accomplish these objectives, one workplaces was selected. And 363 employees in those workplaces were served as subjects for the study. Major findings in this study are as follows. (1) They have many risk factors such as smoking, drinking, lack of sleep, law rate of regular exercise, irregular eating, stress. (2) Some of the health risk factors such as smoking, drinking, and stress have the negative correlation to the intention to change. (3) Among cognitive and socio-environmental factors, significant predictors to the intention are attitude and social support. (4) In the cluster analysis to segment the target population in to homogeneous unit, three clusters of lifestyle are specified. (5) Smoking cessation and exercise program are planned for the risk group to change their behavior.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing