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Jin Joo Oh 18 Articles
The Effect of Copayment on Medical Aid Beneficiaries in Korea
Jin Joo Oh, Jeong Myung Choi, Hyun Joo Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2015;26(1):11-17.   Published online March 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2015.26.1.11
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to ascertain whether there are differences in health care utilization and expenditure for Type I Medical Aid Beneficiaries before and after applying Copayment.
METHODS
This study was one-group pretest posttest design study using secondary data analysis. Data for pretest group were collected from claims data of the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation and data for posttest group were collected through door to-door interviews using a structured questionnaire. A total of 1,364 subjects were sampled systematically from medical aid beneficiaries who had applied for copayment during the period from December 12, 2007 to September 25, 2008.
RESULTS
There was no negative effect of copayment on accessibility to medical services, medication adherence (p=.94), and quality of life (p=.25). Some of the subjects' health behaviors even increased preferably after applying for copayment including flu prevention (p<.001), health care examination (p=.035), and cancer screening (p=.002). However, significant suppressive effects of copayment were found on outpatient hospital visiting days (p<.001) and outpatient medical expenditure (p<.001).
CONCLUSION
Copayment does not seem to be a great influencing factor on beneficiaries'accessibility to medical services and their health behavior even though it has suppressive effects on outpatients' use of health care.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of co-payment for outpatient utilization among Medical Aid beneficiaries in Korea: A 5-year time series study
    Ki-Bong Yoo, Hong-Uk Ahn, Eun-Cheol Park, Tae Hyun Kim, Sun Jung Kim, Jeoung A Kwon, Sang Gyu Lee
    Health Policy.2016; 120(8): 960.     CrossRef
The Effects of the Designated Doctor System on the Health of Medical Aid Beneficiaries
Jeong Myung Choi, Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(4):438-445.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2012.23.4.438
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Medical Aid Beneficiaries were surveyed to identify differences in health behaviors, adherence to drug regimen, and quality of life between those people in the Designated Doctor System and those who are not.
METHODS
A total of 1,327 study subjects were separated into three groups: those in the Designated Doctor System for 2 years, those in for 1 year, and those not in the system.
RESULTS
After the introduction of the Designated Doctor System, 55.8% and 67.9%, respectively, of the subjects in the Designated Doctor System complained of inconvenience in relation to hospital use and the patient referral process. Also, the rate of emergency room use or hospitalization guided by the Designated Doctor System was only 8.7% and 6.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and adherence to drug regimens between those in the Designated Doctor System and those who are not.
CONCLUSION
This study was carried out early in the introduction of the system. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the positive and negative effects of the Designated Doctor System for a full reflection of its impact.

Citations

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  • The Effect of Case Management Services for High-risk Medicaid Beneficiaries
    Young Jin Ahn, Yun-Kyoung Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(8): 5430.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of the Designated Doctor System on Health Care Utilization of Medical Aid Beneficiaries with Chronic Diseases
    Min Jung Kim, Young-Ha Cho, Nam Hee Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2015; 26(3): 278.     CrossRef
  • A Study on Influential Factors on Satisfaction with the Use of Medical Services by the Qualified Recipients of Medical Aid(focusing on the period after the introduction of the selected medical center system)
    Jin-Woo Lee, Se-I Yang, Kwang-Hwan Kim
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2014; 12(3): 289.     CrossRef
A Comparative Study on the Effects of an Individual Intervention Program and a Group Intervention Program on the Demented Elderly and Their Families
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(2):205-215.   Published online June 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was to compare the effects of individual and group intervention programs on the demented elderly and their families.
METHODS
The programs were applied to two groups, one by home visiting and the other by group intervention. The groups were composed of 14 elders and 12 elders, respectively, with their families. The programs were applied twice a week, ninety minutes per session for four weeks. Programs consisted of cognitive therapy, music and art therapy, and massage for the demented elderly, education on dementia, cognitive-behavioral intervention for problematic behavior, methods to lessen stress, and counselling for the families.
RESULTS
AER, problematic behavior, QOL of pts and QOL, caregiving burden, and relationship with the pts of caregivers were improved after each program but not significantly except QOL of pts (Z=-3.37, p=.00) in the group intervention. When the two interventions were compared with each other, the group intervention program was more effective than the home visiting program in all variables but not significantly except QOL of pts (U=32.00, p=.00).
CONCLUSION
In summary, both the individual and group intervention programs were helpful to both pts and families, and even though tthere was no statistically significant difference between the two intervention programs except in QOL of pts, the group intervention was more effective.
The Development of Community Health Service for the Demented Elderly in Cooperation Between Private Medical Facilities and Public Health Centers
Jin Joo Oh, Kyung Ae Kim, Jae Il Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(4):593-600.   Published online December 31, 2007
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PURPOSE
This research was carried out to present an ideal cooperative model between the public and private health sectors for the management of community dementia patients.
METHOD
In this study a public-private cooperative council was formed, basic data for dementia patients and their families were collected, and a dementia service program was carried out in cooperation between the two sectors.
RESULTS
The survey data shows the majority of the registered patients were undergoing a chronic diseases which would make the dementia health service inefficient. The cooperative public-private council adopted the reinforcement of medical service to the public enrolled dementia patients. The intensive medical service program showed effects on the health status of the dementia patients.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study pointed out that change of the health insurance program supportive to the private sectors to be made; a referral system for the public health sector to the private sector should be established; and expanding the capacity of the visiting health program in the public health sector is needed.
Family Functions Characterized by the Industrial Accident Disabled
Jeong Myung Choi, Jin Joo Oh, Hye Jin Hyun, Hyun Joo Lee, Soon Nyung Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):488-495.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was attempted to provide the basic data in order to develop a supportive system for the family by investigation of the general and disability-related features of the industrial accident disabled and their family function.
METHOD
Three hundred and forty six industrial accident disabled were randomly selected among those who resided in the Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi areas, and who were confirmed as disabled according to its severity from the first to fourteenth grade from January, 1998 to December, 2000. The data were collected for one month from August 1 to August 31, 2001. Each study team consisted of two members out of 20 researchers and they interviewed the disabled individually by visiting their homes. Collected data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and Correlation, etc.
RESULTS
The average score for family function was 102.60. The adaptability represented the highest score among the concepts dependent on the family function. The concepts were cohesion, adaptability and communication, which scored as 33.59, 35.38, 33.34, respectively. The family function was significantly different in education, marital status and subjective health status. In particular, the family function was excellent from the industrial accident disabled who had graduated from middle school, was married, and felt healthy. Depression and quality of life were other factors, which were also correlated significantly with the family function. The lower the degree of depression and the better the quality of life, the better the family function.
CONCLUSION
The industrial accident disabled who had been in poor health or faced with difficulties in daily activities even after the therapy for the disability was completed. In particular, their family always had a great burden to care for the disabled and to take financial responsibility. Therefore, the rehabilitation program for the disabled should be family oriented.
Nursing students' Experiences on Home Visiting Nursing Service in Public Health Center
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):299-311.   Published online June 30, 2003
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No abstract available.
The Use and Needs on Community Rehabilitation Service of Industrial Accident Victims at Home
Jin Joo Oh, Hyun Joo Lee, Jeong Myung Choi, Hye Jin Hyun, Soon Nyung Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):179-189.   Published online June 30, 2003
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OBJECTIVES
This study described the features of home-bound industrial accident victims and their needs for rehabilitation services. This study was also aimed to find a future direction of development of community rehabilitation programs that are suitable for their needs and demands.
METHODS
This study is a descriptive study. Data were collected through two phases using structured questionnaire. In the first stage, surveys were performed via telephone interviews. In the second stage, surveys were performed via home visiting. Subjects in the first stage included 2203 industrial injured victims staying at home, of whom, 368 individuals complaining of post-traumatic complications became the subjects of the second stage.
RESULTS
This study showed that the home-bound industrial accident patients were complaining of complications from the injury even after receiving treatment by IACI. However, they were neglecting their health problems without any intervention. Even if they use health care services, the treatment is mainly focused on acute medical care, which may not effective for them. Furthermore, they had unstable employment status and suffered from financial burden for health care costs. The Labor Welfare Organization has established a plan to remove barriers of industrial accident victims in reinstatement, and has been preparing various programs in order to establish an all-embracing service system for industrial accident victims from accident occurrence to reinstatement. However, these rehabilitation services can be truly helpful only when the injured are able to obtain enough information about them. The current restrictive system is also not appropriate for solving health problems of the industrial accident victims. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a plan that can provide industrial accident victims high-quality rehabilitation services so that they can use those services in the community without being dependent on hospitals. This study proposes visit nursing services as a way to provide various health services within community for the industrial accident victims.
Nursing Service Needs of Caregivers for Demented Elderly in the Community
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):120-131.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
to investigate nursing service needs of dementia caregivers in the community, and also to provide basic data that is helpful in developing nursing intervention for them.
METHOD
MMSE-K exam was administered on 15,216 men more than 65years old who live in Gu, Seoul city, and the subject of this study were caregivers of 792 demented elderly who were below 20 points in the MMSE-K exam.
RESULT
Total score of nursing service needs of family appeared lower than average. By specific area, information nursing needs was the highest(M=3.29), and therapeutic nursing needs (M= 3.31), welfare service nursing needs(M=3.32), emotional support nursing needs (M=3.34) followed in order. The factors which increased the total score of nursing service needs of dementia caregivers as general and physical characteristics were man (p=.04), lower ADL (p=.00) and IADL(p=.00), longer length of sick days(p=.01), having diseases(p=.03), decline of cognition(p=.00), existence of dementia symptom(p=.00). And, high economic status(p=.03), good caring attitude(p=.00) were family characteristics which increased the nursing service needs of caregivers. As predicting variables dementia symptom (10.4%), caring attitude(1.9%), existence of economic activity(1.5%), and length of sick days(1.2%) exhibited explanation power in order.
CONCLUSION
In future, active intervention methods that correspond to family nursing service needs have to be developed, and it is also needed to develop nursing intervention strategy on specific problem with dementia problematic behavior, exercise etc.. Also, it is needed to do research on the caring attitude of dementia family because active caring attitude of family was significant influencing factor on nursing service needs of family.
A Study on Factors Influencing Dementia Management Strategies and Their relationships with Primary Caregivers' Burden
Hyeon Sun Lee, Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):629-638.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The impact of chronic diseases on patients and their families depends on how well the family members cope with it. Therefore research on strategies for facilitation the coping of the families in a desirable manner is very important. Dementia management strategies reger to specific means families of dementia patients use to dope with dementing illness of their family members. This study was designed to examine type of dementia management strategies utilized by families and to identify factors influencing them. The subjects in this study were 103 conveniently selected demented patients and their primary caregivers who were registered to a public gealth center located in Chungcheong Province. The subjects were visited by 20 home visiting nurses and the data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The data were collected form May 2. 2001 to June 2. 2001 The finding of this study were as follows. 1. the most frequently used types of dementia management strategies were active management (M=3.36 S.D=.96) and encouragement (m=2.94 S.D=.99) Criticism was least used type of dementia management strategy (M=2.71 S.D=.99) 2. The factors influencing each management strategy were as follows: 1) The criticism management strategy was most frequently used by the primary caregivers who graduated elementary school (F=3.21 p<.05). 2) The encouragement strategy was most frequently used by the primary caregivers in a case when the patients were in the mild stage of dementia (F=2.76 p<.05) when the patients never had any treatment experience (F=2.01 p<.05) when the family could afford the provision of treatment for the patients (F=-2.44 p<.050) and when the primary caregiver had a job(t=2.90 p<.01). 3) The active management strategy was most widely used by the primary caregivers who could afford the provision of treatment for the patients (F=-2.31 p<.05) and were in their 70s (F=3.04 p<.05) This type of management strategy was significantly more used by those who discussed the difficulties of caring with their family members(F=3.46 p<.05). 3. The use of criticism management strategies was significantly correlated with the total level of burden of the primary caregivers But the types of encouragement and active management strategies had negative correlations with the caregivers' burden although they were not significant Since the findings of this study showed that the criticism management strategy had a significantly positive relationship with caregivers' burden those who are more likely to use the negative management strategy should be identified in future studies The primary caregivers who are more likely to use negative strategy should be more likely to use negative strategy should be more closely monitored and be focuse as th group sho should be intervened in future studies.
Validity Field Testing of Family Nursing Phenomen in Korea by the Retrospective Method of ICNP
Soon Nyung Yun, Hyun Sook Kim, Yong Suk Kwon, Kyung Min Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Ae Ko, Ae Young So, Soon Ok Yang, Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Jin Joo Oh, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Sook Kang, Ji Yun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(3):423-432.   Published online September 30, 2002
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This study was conducted to test the validity of characteristics of family nursing phenomena in Korea identified in a previous study by Yoon, S. Y, et al.(1999). Data for this study were collected from 355 (first measurement 186, second measurement 169) nurses whose family nursing careers were more than one year using a cross sectional survey method. The distribution per one characteristic ranged between 0 to 5. The phenomena that had two or more characteristics and had a score of 3.0 points or more included 'disturbance in marital role', 'disturbance in family communication', 'inappropriate family coping', 'lack of family intimacy', 'unhealthy life style', 'deficit of financial management skill and support', 'inadequate care management sick member', and 'inadequate home-making'. The essential characteristics of the 8 phenomena presented above included 27 items. Further studies on family nursing phenomena in Korea are needed to support the evidence through surveys of families in the field. A reconfirmation study, as well as qualitative research on the low validity of the characteristics, needs to be more performed in the future.
Nursing Students' Attitudes towards Sexually Active Elderly
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):343-353.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' attitudes towards sexually active elderly and to compare their attitudes with those of non-nursing students.
METHODS
Study subjects consisted of 118 nursing students, and 134 non-nursing students, recruited from two universities. The data were collected from September to November 2001. Vignettes, which presented hypothetical situations of sexual activities of the elderly (65 years of age, 80 years of age/sexual activity mentioned, non-mentioned). were provided as a research method, as well as the use of a structured questionnaire. Vignettes showed the hypothetical situations by male elder's sexual activity and their age, Respondents were asked to address their thoughts in the questionnaire.
RESULTS
1. Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the elderly than non-nursing students, regardless of the presence of sexual activity of the elderly. 2. No significant difference was found in nursing students' attitudes toward the elderly aged 65 and 80 years, between those who were sexually active and those who were no, These results were the same in non-nursing students. 3. Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the sexually active elders aged 65 years (5,6,1,43), than toward sexually active elders aged 80 years (4.89 1.55). This result was also the same in non-nursing students. 4. The variables significantly affecting attitudes toward the sexually active elderly in nursing students were familiarity with old person (p=.02), presence of living grandparents (p=.05), and the experience of caring for old people (p=.01). However, in non-nursing students, familiarity with old people was the only significant variable that affected their attitudes toward the sexually active elderly. 5. In nursing students, one variable to predict attitudes toward the sexually active elderly was the experience of caring for old people (p=.03), accounting for 10% of the total variance, In non-nursing students, familiarity with old people was the only variable to attitudes toward the sexually active elderly (p=.03), accounting for 3% of the variance for attitude, In both student groups, the sexually active elderly included college major (p=.03), school year (p=.01), familiarity with old people (p=.02), accounting for 12% of the variance for attitude by these variables.
CONCLUSION
Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the sexual activity of elders 65 years of age or over, than non-nursing students. However, both the nursing and non-nursing students showed negative attitudes toward the elderly who were 80 years of age when compared with those 65 years of age, There should be a consideration in nursing education curriculums that university students may have negative attitudes towards sexual activity of the elderly over 80 years of age.
Denver II Developmental Screening Test: A Cross Cultural Comparison
Hee Sun Shin, Kyung Ja Han, Ka Sil Oh, Jin Joo Oh, Mi Na Ha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(1):89-97.   Published online March 31, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore the validity of the application of the Denver II developmental screening test to Korean children. This screening test, which was developed and standardized in United States, was designed to screen for developmental delay in Korea, and to compare the levels of development of Korean children with the development of children from the U.S.
METHOD
Quota sampling. NP To facilitate field sampling, the age range used from 0 to 6 years old, was split into 10 different age groups. Sample size was estimated according to residence. 1,054 children were recruited from Seoul's metropolitan, urban and rural areas. NP To fill the quota established, the Recruitment and testing of children was done at public health centers, pediatric outpatient clinics of general hospitals and a child care center. The 25, 50, 75 and 90 percentiles were identified by using logistic regression analysis and were calculated as norms. The items in which the ages of both 50 and 90 percent passing differed more than 20 percent by the calculation was identified for comparison. NP RESULT: There were significant differences found in 45 items between Korean children and the children from the City of Denver as it relates to age differences. 90% of the sample passed items among 125 items from 4 sectors, e.g., personal- social, fine motor adaptive, language, and gross motor sectors. Korean children were found to be advanced in 9 items, whereas there were significant differences found in 38 items in our comparison of the two countries for age differences when 50% of sample pass items. Korean children were found to be advanced in 16 items. NP CONCLUSION: The result showed that there was a discrepancy in the developmental norms. It could be explained by the differences in the developmental environment, including child rearing patterns and ethnicity. Therefore, a restandardization of the Denver Screening Test is necessary as it relates to its application on Korean children. This restandardization is necessary in order to avoid both under and over-referrals of children with developmental abnormality. The modification of items in the language sector is especially suggested.
The Effect of Visual Health Promotion Program in Elementary School-Age Children
Jin Joo Oh, Hee Sun Shin
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(2):397-405.   Published online September 30, 2001
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The vision disturbances of school- age children has been recognized as and important school health problem. As the visual disturbances of the school-age children is recognized as the nation's health problem, the importance of the development of educational program for visual health should be emphasized. Recently, eyeball movement and other visual health management method has been introduced for prevention or recovery of decrease in visual acuity. But, the effect of eyeball movement was not confirmed yet. And, the controversy around the treatment effect is continued. The decrease of visual acuity is one of the important school health problem as well as it causes discomfort in daily life of the students. So, it should be considered as an important subject for school health and there is a need to develop an effective intervention program for visual health. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the program with the recognition of the need of the intervention for visual health. The visual health promotion program was developed by the researcher and the program was initiated by the school. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was applied for study which examined the effect of the visual health promotion program. The subjects were 742 children (experimental group: 398; control group: 344). The experiment was composed of health education and eyeball movement. Health education was provided 5 times to the children in the class room. Children of experimental group exercised eyeball movement in the class, watching video for 10 minutes two times a day. The exercise was continued for 10 weeks. The result of the study were as follows. 1) change of visual acuity Before the intervention, mean of the visual acuity was .86 for the experimental group and .91 for control group. After the intervention, mean of visual acuity was .95 for the experimental group and .90 for the control group. There was no significant difference in the change of visual acuity between experimental and control group. 2) change of refraction. In the experimental group, 327 eyes (41.08%) were normal vision and 469 eyes (58.98%) were eyes of refraction errors. 38.82% of the total eyes were myopia. There was no significant change in the refraction in the children with myopia after the intervention. 3) Awareness of visual acuity, change of knowledge, behavior, and attitude (1) After the intervention, there was a significant difference in the awareness of visual acuity (experimental group: 70.10%, control group: 50.97%, p<.01). (2) After the intervention, there was a significant knowledge increase in the experimental group (p<.01). (3) There was no significant difference in the visual health behavior after the intervention. (4) There was a significant positive change in the attitude related to visual health in the experimental group (p<.05). 4) There was a significant positive change in the subjective discomfort of the students. But, there was no significant change in the objective eye symptom after the intervention. Even though there was no effect in the visual acuity and the change of the refraction, subjective visual health as well as the attitude and knowledge of the children and parents toward visual health was improved significantly. Also, there was an increase in the intention of change and the awareness for the visual health management. It is suggested that various educational strategies for visual health promotion should be developed and examined for the visual health promotion of the students.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Demented Elderly staying at home
Jin Joo Oh, Jin Joo Oh, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):214-225.   Published online March 31, 2001
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The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of the demented elderly and normal elderly over 65 staying at home in Seoul. Here the demented elderly are defined as the aged who score under 20 on the MMSE-K testing. The subjects were 15.104 elders in home. The method is a cross-sectional study home visiting survey with questionnaires. Data analyses were conducted by using frequency percentage t-test and ANOVA procedures.
Results
are as follows: First general characteristics such as sex age marriage education physical health and family characteristics such as economic level and single living showed a significant variance between demented elderly and normal elderly. Second the demented elderly showed a significantly high point of AD and IADL. Third in contrast with normal agents the dementia showed a high need for assistance from the care giver but followed the same pattern. In conclusion the above findings suggested that a social support system should be developed for the demented elderly and care givers in the home.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Demented Elderly staying at home
Jin Joo Oh, Jin Joo Oh, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):214-225.   Published online March 31, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of the demented elderly and normal elderly over 65 staying at home in Seoul. Here the demented elderly are defined as the aged who score under 20 on the MMSE-K testing. The subjects were 15.104 elders in home. The method is a cross-sectional study home visiting survey with questionnaires. Data analyses were conducted by using frequency percentage t-test and ANOVA procedures.
Results
are as follows: First general characteristics such as sex age marriage education physical health and family characteristics such as economic level and single living showed a significant variance between demented elderly and normal elderly. Second the demented elderly showed a significantly high point of AD and IADL. Third in contrast with normal agents the dementia showed a high need for assistance from the care giver but followed the same pattern. In conclusion the above findings suggested that a social support system should be developed for the demented elderly and care givers in the home.
Factors Related to Visual Health Promotion Behavior of Elementary School Aged Children
Jung Sook Kim, Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):142-149.   Published online March 31, 2001
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The health education for elementary school students is a very important factor in the development of adult health practices. Particularly, eyesight is difficult to recover if lost. Therefore, prevention is better than cure. This study was conducted to investigate the factors that affect the visual health behavior of elementary school students and to furnish basic materials and directions for the promotion of elementary school health. The investigation was carried out for 4 days from 9. 18. 2000 to 9. 21. 2000 for 199 children in 3 elementary schools. A questionnaire was composed of 3 questions about general property, 20 questions about visual health behavior, 7 questions about visual self-efficacy, 5 questions about visual motivation, 16 questions about self-conception, 20 questions about the health locus of control. The data was analysed by an SAS program for t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and multiple regression tests. The results are as follows. 1. The visual health behavior of elementary school children was good (average 52.53). 2. For visual health behavior, school, year, and sex were influential factors, economic levels were not. 3. Visual health behavior had a significant correlation with visual self-efficacy, visual health motives and self-conception, but not with the locus of control. 4. In the multiple regression test, visual self-efficacy and self-conception were significant prediction factors -- the suitability of the regression model was 30.8%. Suggestions from the results are as follows: First, school year and sex had a significant influence on visual health behavior; therefore, it is necessary to consider these two factors when education programs are developed. Second, this study was carried out for students in a partial area only. Therefore, repeated studies for a large sample are necessary for the future.
Perception of Importance and Performance in the Infection Control of Visiting Nursing Personnel in Public Health Centers
Kum Nam Kim, Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):389-398.   Published online December 31, 2000
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The work of visiting nursing personnel consists mostly of direct nursing and it is absolutely necessary that training of the nursing personnel for infection control be emphasized because most of patients are composed of elderly people with chronic diseases and malnutrition who are highly susceptible to infection. Accordingly. this study was designed to provide basic data for the development of an infection control program in public health centers as well as the promotion of perception and performance of infection control by analysing the perception of importance and performance in the infection control of visiting nursing personnel who carry out visiting nursing services. The subjects of this study consisted of a number of visiting nursing personnel working for 15 public health centers. 15 health-center branches. and 16 health clinics. The collection of data was grounded on a questionnaire method. The questionnaire breaks down to 8 questions about general characteristics and 108 questions in connection with the perception and performance of infection control. The results of this study are as follows: 1. 82 subjects (78.1%) responded that it is necessary to control infection. 79 subjects(75.3%) responded that education is necessary for infection control. 50 respondents (47.6%) answered in the affirmative in regard to the role of infection carriers. 2. The mean score for the perception of importance in infection control was 4.55 and that performance accounts for 4.03. this turns out to be very high. 3. In terms of the perception of importance per each field of infection control. medication. the management of contamination and sterilization, the control of environments and instruments. washing hands and individual hygiene as well as the prevention of cross-infection and the supervision of infection stand at 4.72. 4.64. 4.60. 4.58. 4.52 and 4.21 respectively. In terms of performance. the supervision of infection. the control of environments and instruments, individual hygiene and the prevention of cross infection. medication. washing hands, and the management of contamination and sterilization was 4.21. 4.12. 4.10. 4.03. 3.91 and 3.81 respectively. 4. In terms of the correlation between the perception of importance and the performance of infection control. the score stands high in all fields: this means the high perception of importance leads to high performance statistically (P< .05). 5. In terms of the perception of importance in general characteristics. there is no significant difference while the form of working places. working career and the career as visiting nursing personnel show a significant difference in terms of performance(P< .05). From the results. it is suggested that the visiting nursing personnel should be constantly educated with the aid of the development of infection control programs and that instructions and instruments for the management of infection should be worked out so as to enhance the performance of infection control on the part of nurses in applicable communities.
A Study on the Effect of Sexual Education to Nursing Student Knowledge and Attitude to the Sex of the Aged
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):64-71.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study uses [the instrument of ageing anxiety] in order to find if a negative prejudice against the old affects the attitude toward sex of the aged. The result shows no significant relation between ageing anxiety and the knowledge of and attitude toward sex of the aged. However, it does show that the higher the ageing anxiety is, the lower the knowledge of sex and the more restrictive the attitude toward it. The knowledge of and attitude toward sex of the aged shows meaninggul changes after education. Nursing students who were educated come to have more knowledge about and are more open to it. This result supports the preposition of this study. As society grows older the endeavour to guarantee a high-quality life for the old is necessary and the old should be regarded as an entity which has its own characteristic desires. Especially for the old to enjoy a good life as a sexual being, the mystical barriers about sex and old age ought to be removed. In the future the old themselves may maintain sexual desires regardless of age and society will be required to correct its prejudice against the old having sex. Particularly nursing students, as an effort to provide the old with overall care, should examine the elderly's sexual desires in a physical, psychological, and social context and consider the normal sexual changes occuring during the aging process and finally integrate this information into their nursing plans. In order to fulfill this role successfully they should overcome their own prejudice and educate themselves about this particular problem. As the proportion of the old becomes bigger and the concern about the quality of their life grows, sex among the old will become more important in the nursing field. By putting an educational mediation programme into operation with nursing students and estimating the effect, this study supplies the foundation to activate new educational programmes. In short it tells us that education can be a practical method to confront the myth and conventions concerning sex among the aged.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing