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Mi Ra Lee 3 Articles
A Model for Nursing Students' Stress
Mi Ra Lee, Mee Kyung Cho, Hyun Sook Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):321-332.   Published online December 31, 2000
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The purpose of this study was to test the hypothetical model designed to explain nursing students' perceived stress, coping levels, and stress outcomes. This hypothetical model was based on the Kim. Jung Hee(l987)' s stress model and stress-related literature. Exogenous variables were self-efficacy. hardiness. social support. and exercise. Endogenous variables were stress perception. coping levels. and stress outcomes. Empirical data for testing the hypothetical model consisted of 205 nursing students. SAS PC Program and LISREL 8.12a program were used for descriptive statistics and linear structural relationship(LISREL) modeling. The results were as follows. 1) The overall fit of the hypothetical model to the data was good(chi2=78.41(p=0.010), chi2/df=1.50. RMSEA=0.05, standardized RMR=0.05, GFI=0.95, AGFI=0.91, NNFI=0.90, NFI=0.94). 2) The results of statistical testing of the hypotheses were as follows. (1)As expected. self-efficacy had a significant effect on stress perception. But. hardiness. social support, and exercise did not have a significant effect on stress perception. Self-efficacy, hardiness. social support, and exercise explained 12% of the total variance of stress perception. (2) As expected, self-efficacy, hardiness, social support, exercise, and stress perception had a significant effect on coping behavior, Self-efficacy, hardiness, social support, exercise, and stress perception explained 53% of the total variance of coping behavior. (3) As expected, stress perception and coping behavior had a significant effect on stress outcomes. Stress perception and coping behavior explained 84% of the total variance of stress outcomes. In conclusion, the hypothetical model of this study was confirmed in explaining and predicting stress perception, coping levels, and stress outcomes in nursing students. And these findings suggest the need to develop nursing intervention to enhance self-efficacy, hardiness, social support, and exercise to decrease the harmful outcomes of stress.
The Reliability and Validity of the Health-Related Hardiness Scale in a Sample of Korean Nursing Students
Mi Ra Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):199-208.   Published online June 30, 2000
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The purpose of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Health-Related Hardiness Scale(HRHS) in a sample of Korean nursing students. The korean version of HRHS was administered to 234 nursing students including 135 college students and 99 university students. The Korean version of HRHS was measured on a 6 Likert scale, assessing three factors of HRHS : control, commitment, and challenge. Internal consistency was used to test the instrument's reliability. The internal consistency of the scale was measured using a coefficient alpha. The coefficient alpha was .69(control), .49(commitment). and .69(challenge). Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to test the instrument's construct validity. The item analysis identified that there were 13 items. which were lower than the .25 item-total correlation. CFA revealed that the scale's fadoral validity was not proper by showing unfit indices(RMSEA .07. stand, RMR .09. GFI .71). According to the findings of this study, the reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of HRHS is not satisfactory in the sample of nursing students. As a result. the researcher modified the scale through item analysis and repetitive CFA process, and proposed the revised 25-item Korean version of HRHS for nursing students. The revised scale's reliability(control .74, commitment .73. challenge .77) and factorial validity were within acceptable levels. The item analysis identified that there was no item, which is lower than the .25 item-total correlation. CFA revealed that the scale's factoral validity was proper by showing fit indices(RMSEA .08 stand. RMR .08. GFI .80).
Hardiness as a Stress-resistance Resource and as a Determinant of Health-promoting Behavior: in a Sample of Nursing Students
Mi Ra Lee, Hee Young So, Young Sin Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):21-29.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study was undertaken in order to examine the relationship of hardiness and health-promoting behavior and the effects of hardiness on stress-related physical symptoms. The subjects were 104 female nursing students of one college in Kongju. The instruments used for this study were a survey of general characteristics, hardiness(25 items), health-promoting behavior(44 items), and physical symptoms(35 items). Analysis of data was done by use of mean, Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression and a hierarchical multiple regression with an SAS program. The results of this study are as follows. 1) Significant correlations between health -promoting behavior and subscales of hardiness, that is, control(r=-.35, P<.00l), commitment(r=-.29, P<.0l), and challenge(r=-.23, p<.05) were found. 2) Control was the highest factor predicting health-promoting behavior. 3) Main and buffering effects of hardiness on current physical symptoms were not found.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing