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Yeon Hwa Kim 2 Articles
Physical Health Status, Depression and Activities of Daily Living of the Low-income Elderly Living Alone in Metropolitan Areas
Yeon Hwa Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):137-147.   Published online June 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate physical health status. depression. activities of daily living (ADL & IADL) of the low-income elderly who live alone in urban areas.
METHOD
The subjects were the 400 low-income elders who live alone in Daegu city and the following instruments were used: 1. The number of self-reported physical health problems and present diseases: 2. CES-D scale for depression by Jo Nam-Oak et al. (1998): and 3. ADL scale by Katz (1989) and IADL scale by Lawton and Brody (1969).
RESULTS
1. Visual difficulty was the most prevailing problem (55.3%) among physical problems. the second bowel elimination and the third hearing disturbance. As for present diseases. arthritis (26.5%), hypertension(24.3%) and DM (11.8%) were the most common diseases. 2. There were significant differences in physical health status according to age (t=3.115. p=.045). kind of medical security (t=-1.973. p=.049). perceived life satisfaction (F=4.966. p=.007) and the number of present diseases (F=2.937. p=.033). 3. There were significant differences in depression according to sex (t=-3.758. p=.000) . kind of medical security (t=-4.368. p=.000). perceived life satisfaction (F=35.743. p=.000) and the number of present diseases (F=4.246. p=.006). 4. There were significant differences in ADL according to sex (t=-2.136. p=.033) and age (F=4.863. p=.008). and in IADL according to sex (t=4.552, p=.000), age (F=3.090. p=.047) and kind of medical security (t=-3.306. p=.001). 5. Physical health state was correlated positively with both the number of present diseases (r=.140. p=.005) and depression (r=.352. p=.000), and negatively with ADL (r=-.176. p=.000) and IADL (r=-.230. p=.000). Depression was correlated positively with the number of present diseases (r=.169. p=.001) and negatively with both ADL (r=-.139. p=.005) and IADL (r=-.203. p=.000).
CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that general characteristics are important factors for physical health status, depression. ADL and IADL of the low-income elderly who live alone and there are close relations among physical health status, the number of diseases, depression, ADL and IADL. Therefore, these results must be reflected in community health programs for the low-income elderly who live alone. In addition, this kind of study must be extended to the low-income elderly who live alone in rural areas.
The Effect of Group Recreation Therapy on Depression, Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly
Yeon Hwa Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(1):19-31.   Published online June 30, 1999
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect. of group recreation therapy as a community nursing intervention on depression, self-esteem and life satisfaction. The period of data collection was from september 7, 1998 to November 14, 1998 and a total of 46 elderly were studied at a nursing home in Taegu, Korea. Among them, 25 elderly received group recreation therapy(experimental group) and the other 21 didn't(control group). The study design was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design considered to quasi-experimental research. The data analysis of this study was computerized by using an SPSS/PC and hypothesis testing was done with an ANCOVA and pearson correlation coefficient. The results are as follows. 1. The depression of the experimental group was significantly reduced compared with the control group(F=37.797, P=.000). 2. The self-esteem of the experimental group was increased compared with the control group, but significant differences were not found(F=1.604, P=.212). 3. The life satisfaction of the experimental group was increased compared with the control group (F=37.420, P=.000). 4. A significant negative correlation between depression and self-esteem and life satisfaction of the elderly(r=.-620, r=.-555, P<.001) was observed, a significant positive correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was observed(r=.477, P=<.001). In conclusial, it was found that group recreation therapy was an effective tool to redue depression and increase life satisfaction, thus helping the elderly cope with the problems of age.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing