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Young Hee Kim 13 Articles
Development of the Cultural Competence Scale for Registered Nurses (CCS-RN)
Kyung Won Kim, Sun Hee Kim, Young Hee Kim, Hyun Kyoung Kim, Hae Sook Park, Sun Hee Lee, Geum Hee Jeong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2019;30(3):281-294.   Published online September 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2019.30.3.281
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is to develop the Cultural Competence Scale for Registered Nurses (CCS-RN) and to examine its validity and reliability.
METHODS
The item pool was generated based on related scales, a wide review of the literature, and in-depth interviews with nurses according to Purnell's cultural competence model. Content validity was verified by nursing experts. Construct validity using exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity using correlation coefficients, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability were examined.
RESULTS
The CCS-RN consists of a 35-item/7-factor solution with 54.1% of the total variance explained. The convergent validity of CCS-RN was supported. Cronbach's α was .94 for the total scale and ranged from .77 to .90 for the seven factors. Test-retest reliability was moderate.
CONCLUSION
The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the CCS-RN shows that this scale is expected to be a valid and reliable measure of cultural competence among nurses. This scale may be useful for assessing nurses' own cultural competence and thus contribute to strengthening cultural competence.

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  • Effect of a transcultural nursing course on improving the cultural competency of nursing graduate students in Korea: a before-and-after study
    Kyung Eui Bae, Geum Hee Jeong
    Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions.2023; 20: 35.     CrossRef
Task Analysis of Managers in the Customized Visiting Health Services
Young Ran Han, Young Rye Park, Young Hee Kim, Hee Chung Choi, Mi Ja Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(2):165-178.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2012.23.2.165
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to analyze the tasks of managers who were working in the Customized Visiting Health Services (CVHS) and to prioritize analyzed tasks according to performance frequency, perceived importance, and difficulty.
METHODS
Job analysis method by Hartley (1999) was used for task analysis and performance frequency, perceived importance, and difficulty were used for prioritize as criteria. A total of 85 managers in the CVHS of public health centers nationwide were recruited through e-mail and mail survey. Using SPSS/WIN 15.0, descriptive statistics, such as frequency distribution, means, median, and standard deviation, were conducted to examine each subject's general characteristics, the frequency, importance, and difficulty of the tasks as well as to prioritize the each task.
RESULTS
The job description of the managers revealed 12 duties, 35 tasks, and 104 task elements. Of the 85 managers, 84.8% were classified as nurses, 40.5% were home health care specialists, and 32.9% were social workers. Their coretasks were management of client cases, budget management, and management of work performance and quality assurance.
CONCLUSION
Considering the analyzed managers' tasks and core tasks, we need to examine each manager's role precisely and provide various educational programs for improving overall manager competence.

Citations

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  • Contract Employment Experiences of Visiting Nurses at Public Health Centers in the Metropolitan Area: Focused on Employment Type and Treatment
    Hee-Gerl Kim, Soong-Nang Jang, Young Ran Chin, Jungyi Hur, Ryoun-Sook Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2022; 33(2): 175.     CrossRef
  • Job Analysis of Visiting Nurses in the Process of Change Using FGI and DACUM
    Jieun Kim, Insook Lee, Jina Choo, Songwhi Noh, Hannah Park, Sohyeon Gweon, kyunghee Lee, Kyoungok Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2022; 33(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Chewing Discomfort among Community-dwelling Elderly
    Seol Hwa Moon, Gwi-Ryung Son Hong
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2017; 28(3): 302.     CrossRef
  • Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of the Elderly under Visiting Health Care
    Keun-Yoo Lee, Young-Sik Cho, Soon-Ryun Lim
    Journal of dental hygiene science.2015; 15(3): 325.     CrossRef
  • An analysis on performance of visiting health care services by general characteristics of visiting nurse in public health center
    Jeong Sook Park, Yun Jung Oh
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2014; 12(12): 381.     CrossRef
Medication Status and Adherence of the Elderly under Home Care Nursing
Young Hee Kim, Mi Kyoung Lee, Sung Ja Lee, Myung Sook Cho, Moon Sook Hwang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2011;22(3):290-301.   Published online September 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2011.22.3.290
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is a descriptive research intended to clarify the medication status of community-dwelling elders and to identify factors affecting their medication adherence.
METHODS
Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews from 101 subjects who had taken prescribed drugs for at least 7 days sampled among elderly people using home care nursing at a general hospital in Seoul.
RESULTS
According to the results of this study, medication adherence measured by pill counting was 88.3% and that measured by self-reporting was 94.6%. There were statistically significant differences in medication adherence according to major disease (p=.006), the number of admissions (p=.032), the number of drugs (p=.051), the frequency of medication (p=.026), and depression (r=-.205). In addition, depression was found to be a significant variable explaining the medication adherence with explanatory power 3.8% (p=.035).
CONCLUSION
The presence of depression affected the elderly subjects' the medication adherence. Therefore, more concern and educational approaches are required to encourage elderly people to comply correctly with medication regimens particularly for elderly patients who have a malignant or long-lasting disease or who have to take multiple drugs or maintain a daily dosing frequency.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Analysis of the prescription trends of potentially inappropriate medications in Korean older outpatients by sex: A retrospective study using data from the health insurance review and assessment service
    Jae-Yong Dong, Jin-Han Ju, Young-Mo Yang
    Medicine.2023; 102(34): e34818.     CrossRef
  • Perceived New Normal and Inner Strength on Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy
    Sujin Ha, Eunjung Ryu
    Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing.2021; 8(4): 377.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Medication Adherence among the Elderly with Chronic Diseases
    Sook Hee Kang, Eun Ko
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2021; 33(2): 189.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing 1-Year Medication Adherence of Korean Ischemic Stroke Survivors
    Gye-Gyoung Kim, Duck-Hee Chae, Man-Seok Park, Sung-Hee Yoo
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2020; 27(2): 225.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of physical, psychological, and functional factors with independent medication adherence in Korean older adults with chronic illness: Using the 2017 national survey of older Koreans
    Hae Ok Jeon
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2020; 90: 104130.     CrossRef
  • Adjusting Process of Nurses to an Oriental Medical Unit
    Mee-Hun Lee, Hyoung-Sook Park, Jae-Hyun Ha
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2017; 29(6): 615.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the Job of Nurses Working on Oriental Medicine Wards
    Myung Ja Kim, Mi Hwan Kim, Hee Sug Jeong, Yun Seo Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.2015; 21(4): 341.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Asthma Control by Stepwise Treatment in Elderly Asthmatic Patients
    Ga-Young Ban, Young-Min Ye, Yunhwan Lee, Jeong-Eun Kim, Young-Hee Nam, Soo-Keol Lee, Joo-Hee Kim, Ki-Suck Jung, Sang-Ha Kim, Hae-Sim Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(8): 1042.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Medication Adherence in Hemodialysis Patients: Focusing on Primary and Secondary Medical Care
    Yon Hee Seo, Sun Og Lim, Eun Hee Hyeon, Hae Won Kim, Mi Ran Eom
    Perspectives in Nursing Science.2015; 12(1): 60.     CrossRef
  • Medication Status and the Effects of a Medication Management Education Program for the Elderly in a Community
    Young-Im Park, Kang-Yi Lee, Dong-Oak Kim, Dong Choon Uhm, Ji-Hyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2014; 25(3): 170.     CrossRef
  • Health Literacy: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis
    Sungeun Kim, Jina Oh, Yunmi Lee
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2013; 19(4): 558.     CrossRef
The Effects of a Low Intensity Excercise Program on Psychosocial Factors of Excercise and Physical Factors in Elderly Women
Mi Ra Nam, Young Hee Kim, Ok Hee Ahn, Bok Sun Yang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):373-381.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
An exercise program, which was composed of motions simple and easy to follow, was developed and applied to aged women as a way to improve their health conditions.
METHOD
To ascertain the effects of the exercise, which was conducted twice a week and 16 times in total for 8 weeks from September 10 to November 5, 2005 in two experimental groups (31 persons) and a control group (31 persons), this study conducted quasi-experiments of nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. Data were analyzed using SPSS/PC Win 10.0, the reliability of the measuring tools using Cronbach's alpha, the verification of equivalence for general properties and dependent variables using Chi-square test and t-test, and the verification of hypotheses using t-test and ANCOVA.
RESULTS
After the exercise program, the aged women showed profitable evaluation of decisional balance, high feeling of self-efficacy as well as improved subjective awareness of health. Their diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol were also reduced significantly after the exercise.
CONCLUSION
After the conduct of the exercise program for 8 weeks, aged women showed increased profitable decisional balance, self-efficacy and subjective awareness of health. This suggests that continuous and proper exercise is effective as an intervention for health improvement for the aged as well as the prevention of and recovery from geriatric diseases.
Factors Influencing Workers' Need for Health Promotion Programs
Soon Lae Kim, Young Im Kim, So Young Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Young Hee Kim, Young Suk Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(4):530-541.   Published online December 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Factors Affecting Middle School Students' Smoking Behavior
Kyung Hee Yang, Young Hee Kim, Jeong Ran Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(1):40-48.   Published online March 31, 2005
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No abstract available.
Sexual Life of Older Adults in Rural Community
Young Ran Han, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(4):646-656.   Published online December 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The Purpose of this study was to investigate how elders in rural communities maintain their sexual life.
METHODS
Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 participants who were 65 years old or older, and either were married couples or were continuing the sexual relationship though widowed. Data were analyzed based on Strauss and Corbin's (1990) Grounded Theory Methodology.
RESULTS
The core category of experiences of the elderly's sexual life was identified with "changeable sexual life at husband's mercy". This process could be divided into 3 stages, which were the stage of recognition of sex difference and obstacle in sexual life, the stage of observation of partner's attitude and the stage of husband's lead in sexual life.
CONCLUSIONS
This study found that sexuality was an important aspect for the elderly although their sexual interests and activities declined along with aging. In addition, the husband's sexual and economic capabilities and sexual difference were very important factors in the elderly's sexual life. It is suggested to consider sexuality as a normal aspect of life for the elderly when nurses plan for their care.
A Study on Model Development for Community based Health Life Enhancement Centers
Song Sil Choi, Hye Kyung An, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):520-532.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the health status and request of community residents. This study is part of development of efficient health life enhancement programs.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 586 households in a rural community and well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households for general information and health service utilization. The data were collected using a questionnaire for seven months from March 25 to September 24, 2002. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage by SPSSWIN (v 10.0).
RESULTS
1. 58.9% of subjects were above sixty, and 60.8% of them were women. 2. The most serious problems they identified were health problems (45.6%), and the second was(##-was +were) economic problems(22.0%). 3. Almost half of the study population regarded themselves as healthy (46.2%). The types of illness they had were neuralgia, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. 4. Most of the study population answered that they didn't do anything special for health enhancement. 5. Among medical facilities, hospitals or medical clinics (55.3%) were most commonly utilized when they were sick. 6. The highest request of the subjects was 'Home visiting service (45.4%)', and 'free treatment connected to the service of hospitals' was the second. What they needed most regarding health enhancement programs in health life enhancement centers was 'free health examination (58.2%), and heath education programs (57.7%). 7. As a result of investigating the subjects' demand for nursing services in health life enhancement center, 'the clinical examination' was the most requested, and next was 'blood pressure check', 'emergency treatment', and 'rehabilitation service', in that order.
The Study on the Family Functionality and Spousal Relationship of Middle-aged Women to Develop Health Promoting Program
Kyung Hee Yang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(3):680-695.   Published online December 31, 2001
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The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for developing nursing intervention for middle-aged women. This study identified health status, family functionality and spousal relationship and analyzed relationship between individual characteristics and family functionality/spousal relationship. The subjects of this study were 1,723 women from 45 to 55 years of age, who lived in J city. Data were analyzed using percentages, means, t-tests, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients with the SPSS statistical program. The results of the study were as follow: 1. The rate of women who perceived themselves to be healthy was 36.6%, those who did not was 30.8%. The most frequent health problem was a disease of the skeletal system (13.2%). 2. The mean score of family functionality was 3.25+/-.60, with cohesion score of 3.58+/-.66 and adaptability score of 2.99+/-.63. 3. The mean score of total spousal relationship was 3.22+/-.42; the relationship with in-laws was 3.78; sexual relationship, 3.74; life style, 3.44; and recreational activity, 3.39. 4. The women who experienced menopause perceived themselves to be unhealthier than those who did not. 5. Healthy women had a high score at total spousal relationship, personality of spouse, life style, recreational activity, and children's influence. 6. The women from 40 to 50 years of age, and women who graduated from middle or high school and had medium economic status showed a high score in family functionality. There was no correlation between family functionality and experience of the menopause. 7. Lower aged women were not good in personality of spouse (p<.05), sexual relationship (p<.05), and relationship with relatives (p<.05). Inexperienced women's menopause was influenced by their children (p<.05). Women who graduated from middle or high school (p<.001) and had medium economic status (p<.05) showed a high score in spousal relationship. 8. The higher the family functionality score, the higher spousal relationship score (p<.001); love and communication (p<.001), personality of husband (p<.05), and religion (p<.001), relationship with relatives (p<.05), but the lower the score of recreational activity (p<.05), and share of role (p<.001) in the spousal relationship. 8. The higher the family functionality score, the higher spousal relationship score (p<.001); love and communication (p<.001), personality of husband (p<.05), and religion (p<.001), relationship with relatives (p<.05), but the lower the score of recreational activity (p<.05), and share of role (p<.001) in the spousal relationship . 9. In the family functionality, the higher the cohesion score, the higher was the adaptability score (p<.001). 1) The higher the cohesion score, the higher were love and communication, personality of husband, life style, sexual relationship, and children's influence, but the lower were share of role in spousal relationship(p<.001). 2) The higher the adaptability score, the higher were love and communication, religion, but the lower were the personality of husband, life style, sexual relationship, recreational activity, relationship with relatives, share of role(p<.001), and children's influence in spousal relationship (p<.05). 10. Variables within the spousal relationship have relationships with other variables. 1) The higher the love and communication score, the higher personality of husband religion, life style, communication, relationship with relatives, and children's influence (p<.001). 2) The higher personality of husband life style sexual relationship, recreational activity, relationship with relatives, share of role, and children's influence (p<.001). 3) The higher the religion score, the lower the recreational activity score (p<.05). 4) The higher the life style, the higher were the sexual relationship, recreational activity, relationship with relatives, share of role, and children's influence (p<.001). 5) The higher the sexual relationship score, the higher were recreational activity, relationship with relatives, share of role, and children's influence (p<.001). 6) The higher the recreational activity, the relationship with relatives, share of role, and children's influence (p<.001). 7) The higher the relationship with relatives, the higher were the share of role, the higher children's influence (p<.001)). In conclusion, the spousal relationship was not good in unhealthy women, and the family functionality was related with the age of women and educational level. Also the spousal relationship was related with the age of women, personality of husband, sexual relationship, relationship with relatives by marriage and influence of sons and daughters. Menopause was related with spousal relationship, not related with family functionality. And the family functionality not related with perceived health status, but was correlated with spousal relationship. Therefore, the health management program for middle-aged woman should take place before menopause and must be based on promoting the family functionality and spousal relationship as well as physical health.
A Study of Nurse Legal Obligation and Responsibility Related to their work
Kyung Hee Yang, Jong Hoon Hwang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(2):303-312.   Published online December 31, 1998
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The purpose of this study was to survey the knowledge level, attitude and practice of nurses toward their work. The subjects of the study were composed of 98 nurses from 3 general hospitals, 1 oriental medical hospital, 2 health centers and several community health posts and schools. Data were collected from May to October, 1998. In data analysis, an SPSS PC program was utilized for descriptions. 1) 16 nurses (16.3%) experienced medical accidents on the 7 nurses(7.1%) 1 time, 6 nurses (6.1%) 2 times, and 3 nurses(3.1%) 3 times. 2) Concerning knowledge of their legal obligations; the prohibition of telling secrets was .89, the prohibition of reading medical records was .58, the keeping of medical records was 1.0 and the teaching of recuperation was. 79. The total mean score was. 86. Concerning attitude and practice; the prohibition of telling secrets was 81.6%, 63.3%. The prohibition of reading medical records was 61.2%, 60.2%. The keeping of medical records was 98%, 98%. The explanation for treatment, care and test was 91.8%, 66.3%. The teaching for recuperation was 63.3%, 63.3%. 3) Knowledge of their legal responsibilities; 29. 6% of the subjects thought that they should report a medical accident to their headnurse, but 75.5% of the subjects actually reported to the headnurse. 39.8% of the subjects thought that nurses were liable for the faults of nursing aides. The total mean score was .45. 46% of the subjects asked a senior staff's advide on difficult affairs. Nurses obeyed legal obligations when concern ing the protection of a client, but were passive when concerning self protection. Also, headnurses were required as adviser, guide and advocate.
A Study on the Health as Perceived by the Aged
Koung Hee Yang, Hey Sook Jang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):229-243.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purpose of this study was to develop a nursing model for the aged. This study was conducted to measure the physical, psychological and mental health status of the aged and to identify relationships between these health levels and various variables. The data were collected from 172 aged(over 60 years old) by interviews. The tools used for this study was a structured questionnaire which was developed and revised by the researchers. The tool consisted of 22 items on physical health assessment, 7 items on psychological health assessment, 9 items on mental health assessment and 10 items on an ADL evaluation. The major results of the study were as follows ; 1. In physical health, the aged complained of visual disturbance(60.5%), incontinence of urine (55.2%), back or muscle pain(73.3%), dizziness(70.3%) and diarrhea or constipation(44.2%). In psychological health, most aged people felt anger when they got some order from an other person(80.2%). Also, they had depression (69.8%) and felt like dying(64.0%). The ADL level was mostly normal for daily life. 2. The aged man was more healthy than the aged woman in physical and mental health especially the 60-64 year old group. The physical, mental health and ADL level had a positive correlation with age(p>.004), but psychological health had a negative correlation with age. 3. The physical, psychological, mental health and ADL level was positively interrelated with each other. 4. The physical, mental health, & ADL level lowered with inceasing age. Physical & psychological health worsened rapidly from 65-69 years, but for 10-15 years, their health level was preserved. Psychological health level was high in 80-84. 5. The physical health was affected by edu cational level, sex and pocket money (R=.4029, 16.24%). The psychological health was affected by the supportive style and pocket money (R=.5128, 26.30%). And the mental health was affected by education level, age, support ive style, sex and job(R=.4377, 19.16%). As seen above, we suggest the intervention of the young for the old to cope with their life and to maintain their healthy late adulthood. Also, if they have received psychological support in the institution, they will maintain healthy life condition. For further studies should be a search for variables that affect aged health, and should contribut to a nursing program better suited for the aged.
An Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate Body Fat, Body Weight, Symptoms of Stress Response: With special reference to the adult woman
Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1995;6(1):98-113.   Published online June 30, 1995
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The purpose of this study were two fold : first, to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on BP, pulse rate, body fat, body weight, symptoms of sterss response: and secondly, to apply the aerobic exercise on nursing practice in the healthy or ill subjects. In an attempt to investigate the physiological and psychological effect of exercise, a quasi -experiment, non-equivalent control group pre-test & post-test design was planned. Experiments were carried out from July 4, through August 30, 1994 with 37 subjects conveniently sampled from K & Y sports center located in Taejon. The 37 research subjects were assigned to experimental(16 subjects) and control(21 subjects) groups. Aerobic exercise was carried out for experimental group from three times to five times a week for 6 weeks in aerobic center. Data were analyzed with t-test, mean, per centage of change using SAS program.
Results
were obtained as follows: 1) Systolic blood pressure (M=123.75mmHg, % of change=1.12%) and diastolic blood pressure (M=74.38mmHg, % of change=5.79%) was increased on that of experimental group after 6 weeks experiment. But there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group. 2) Body weight was decreased on that of experimental group(M=56.54Kg, % of change=-1.60%) and that of control group(M=52.05, % of change=-0.99%) after 6 weeks. But there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group. 3) Body fat was decreased on that of experimental group(M=30.53%, % of change=-3.60%) and that of control group (M=28.75%, % of change=-3.52%) after 6 weeks. There was no significant difference between experimental group and control group. 4) Pulse rate was decreased on that of experimental group(M=69.19/min, % of change -8.43%) and that of control group(M=76.0/min, % change -0.07%) after 6weeks. There was significant difference(t=-2.621, P<0.05) between experimental group and control group. 5) Symptoms of stress response were decreased on that of experimental group(M=0.97) and that of control group(M=1.15) after 6 weeks. There was no significant difference between experimental group and control group. Therefore, adherence to aerobic exercise for 6 week seem to be affected mainly pulse rate of subjects. A futher study is necessary to determine the difference in the effect of variety exercise, programs, to study over 6 weeks, to produce professional educational program for exercise speciality nurses.
A Study on the Actual Conditions of Health Management, and Health Management Levels According to The Types of Industries
Koung Hee Yang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):45-57.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The study was conducted with 27 health mangers working in manufacturing industries. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health manager's employment status, health examination, and it's follow. up health management level(about the industrial type). The results are as follows: 1. Characteristics of Manufacturing Industries: The ratio of nurse to employees is 1 : 552.6 and the percentage of physician employed was 51.9% All of the physicians were part time except one. 2. Health Examination and Follow Up ; 1) Periodic screening examinations were provided to 92.39% of the employees. Of these 11.56% required a detailed examination. Follow up on routine cases were done for 51.69%. Follow up on intensive cases were done 13.97%. 2) 62% of all employees working in hazardous conditions(noise, artificial light 74.1%) are required to receive a special health examination bi annually. Of these 96.66% were examined. 11.24% of these employees required a detailed follow up examination. 3. Relevancy between health management level, industrial type, and health manager's status 1) Health clinic operated separately except one case. Nursing activity level :. health diagnosis(0.27) Occupational condition (0.97) Health education(0.81) Health assessment(0.74) Health education level is higher at the industries working in environmental technician(P=0.017). The other's significance is not shown by any type of the staff.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing