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Young Im Kim 33 Articles
The Relationships among Experiences of Traumatic Events, Post-traumatic Stress and the Needs for Health Promotion Programs of 119 Paramedics
Mi Suk Kang, Young Im Kim, Hyo Geun Geun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2017;28(4):524-536.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2017.28.4.524
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aims to examine the relationships among experiences of traumatic events, post-traumatic stress (PTS), and the needs for health promotion programs of 119 paramedics.
METHODS
Experiences of traumatic events, PTS, and needs for health promotion programs were measured using a structured questionnaire. The subjects were 193 paramedics in Jeju Island. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and χ2 test.
RESULTS
The most experienced event out of the 16 different traumatic events was ‘retrieve a suicide's body.’ A high-risk classification of PTS was observed in 36.2% of the subjects. The rates of experiences were higher than those of the actual needs for all 26 health promotion programs. The programs reported as highly needed by respondents were stress management (75.5%) followed by exercise (74.6%) and PTS management (72.5%). Subjects with longer career periods, a fire sergeant, perceived obesity, numerous experiences of traumatic events, and in the PTS risk group had a higher need for a stress management program.
CONCLUSION
These findings indicate that a significant number of 119 paramedics experienced PTS. They also show that onsite strategic management is strongly required. In addition, implementation of health promotion programs based on the needs of 119 paramedics is highly needed.

Citations

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  • The Life Satisfaction Scale for Apostolic Women Religious can assist women religious congregations who seek a transformative and vivacious future
    Maria Clara Kreis, Debra W. Moore
    Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health.2024; 26(1): 32.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of a Job Stress Management Program Based on Acceptance-Commitment Therapy for Firefighting Paramedics
    Jae Woon Lee, Jae-Hyun Ha
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2021; 28(1): 56.     CrossRef
  • Validity and Reliability of Korean Version of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (K-PTSD) Measuring Attitudes and Knowledge of PTSD
    Kyung-sook Bang, Hwal Bang, Sun-Woo Hong, Jihee Lim
    Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2020; 26(1): 47.     CrossRef
Factors Affecting Tuberculosis (TB) Control Nurses' Job Satisfaction
Jin Beom Lee, Young Im Kim, Hyo Geun Geun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2014;25(2):128-136.   Published online June 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2014.25.2.128
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with perceived job satisfaction of TB control nurses in Korea.
METHODS
This study employed a descriptive survey research design using data for 189 TB control nurses. Variables included in this study were demographic, social, and work-related characteristics (including job stress), and job satisfaction. ANOVA, t-test,and multiple regression analyses were performed using SPSS/WIN 19.0 program.
RESULTS
The mean value of perceived job satisfaction was lower in the subjects (2.9+/-0.41) than in general nurses working in other departments. In multiple regression analysis, factors associated with TB control nurses' job satisfaction were job stress (beta=-.281, p<.001), marital status (beta=-.229, p<.001), and the number of TB control nurses employed (beta=.200, p<.001).
CONCLUSION
The results of this study showed that job satisfaction was associated more significantly with job-related characteristics than with non-job-related variables in workplace. Along with increased TB control nurse staffing, efforts should be made to reduce negative workplace issues such as job stress and inappropriate pay to improve the subject's job satisfaction.

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  • Predictors of job satisfaction and burnout among tuberculosis management nurses and physicians
    Hae-Suk Seo, Hyunjoong Kim, Se-Min Hwang, Soo Hyun Hong, In-Young Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2016; 38: e2016008.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Job Stress, Depression and Perceived Health Status on Job Satisfaction among Child Care Teachers
    Young-Ran Lee, Sun-Nam Park, Mi-Ran Lee
    Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing.2016; 25(4): 259.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting on the Work-related Performance Level of TB Control Manpower
    Jin Beom Lee, Young Im Kim, Sook Ja Choi, Young Choi
    Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing.2014; 23(4): 254.     CrossRef
Factors affecting Smoking Middle School Students' Intention to Quit Smoking: On the Basis of the ASE Model
Young Sook Seo, Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2013;24(4):471-479.   Published online December 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2013.24.4.471
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify factors for smoking middle school students' intention to quit smoking on the basis of the social influence and self-efficacy [ASE] model.
METHODS
Data were collected from 2,015 students from five middle schools in Daegu with a structured questionnaire in March, 2013 and analyzed by using chi2-test, ANOVA, pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS
The smoking rate was 6.1% among the total subjects and 85.4% of the smokers had intention to quit smoking. The mean value of attitude toward quitting smoking was 2.15+/-0.34, that of social influence 3.38+/-0.65, and that of self-efficacy 2.84+/-0.95. The multiple regression analysis showed an explanatory power of 24.7%, and experience of trying to quit smoking was the strongest factor affecting the intention to quit smoking (beta=.34, p<.01), followed by school years and social influence.
CONCLUSION
In order to increase smoking middle school students' intention to quit smoking, intervention strategies are needed to increase positive social influence or to offer public information to younger smoking students in low school years.

Citations

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  • Analysis of Factors Affecting the Intention to Quit Smoking in Stroke Patients
    Junghee Youn, Mee Kyung Shin
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2021; 24(1): 78.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of multidimensional factors in attempts to quit using tobacco by Korean adolescents
    Mi-Jung Kang, Hyunjin Lee, Mirae Jo
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of an Experiential Learning Activities-Focused Smoking Prevention Program in Elementary School Students: On the Basis of the Attitude-Social Influence-Efficacy Model
    Jin Hee Na, Jina Choo
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2019; 19(2): 96.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Strength Based I-Change Smoking Cessation Program for Smoking Middle School Boys
    Jung Hee Kim, Yeon Hee Choi
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2017; 47(2): 164.     CrossRef
  • Attitude, Knowlege, and Social Influence as Factors of Smoking Intention among Nonsmoking Middle School Students
    Young Sook Seo, Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee
    Journal of the Korean Society of School Health.2016; 29(2): 81.     CrossRef
  • Influencing Factors on Nicotine Dependency of Smoking in Middle School Students
    Jung-Hwa Chae, Yeon-Hee Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(3): 2109.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Attitude, Social Influence, and Self-Efficacy Model Factors on Regular Mammography Performance in Life-Transition Aged Women in Korea
    Chang Hyun Lee, Young Im Kim
    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2015; 16(8): 3429.     CrossRef
A Study on Coping Styles for Dysmenorrhea and Affecting Factors in Middle School Students
Young Im Kim, En Hee Lee, Ga Eul Jeon, Sook Ja Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2013;24(3):264-272.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2013.24.3.264
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to investigate coping styles for dysmenorrhea and explore factors related with their coping styles according to different health loci of control in middle schoolers.
METHODS
Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire for 572 students from three middle schools in Seoul from March 22 to April 2, 2010. The measurement included menstrual distress, coping method questionnaire and health locus of control. The data were analyzed by using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS
Middle school students used the active behavioral coping style more often than the avoidance style. There was a significant difference in means within each coping style including levels of stress, levels of health, and regular exercise. There were also significant correlations between each coping style and health locus of control. Regression analyses indicated that the health locus of control factor is the most powerful factor in each coping style.
CONCLUSION
We observed that various coping methods are used for dysmenorrhea in middle school students. However, the active behavioral coping style is dominant in such a condition. Based on these results, we need to develop a health locus of control to improve coping styles for dysmenorrhea.

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  • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea
    Romaana Kapadi, James Elander
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology.2020; 246: 40.     CrossRef
  • Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization with Menstrual Problems among North Korean Women Defectors in South Korea
    Hyun Kyoung Kim, Hee Sook Kim, Seog Ju Kim
    Psychiatry Investigation.2017; 14(6): 727.     CrossRef
  • Relationships among Menstrual Attitude, Premenstrual Distress, and Premenstrual Coping in Korean College Women
    Jee Hee Han, Sue Kim, Sang Hee Kim, Sun Kyung Lee
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2017; 23(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • A Structural Model for Premenstrual Coping in University Students: Based on Biopsychosocial Model
    Myung-Ock Chae, Hae Ok Jeon, Ahrin Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2017; 47(2): 257.     CrossRef
  • Premenstrual symptom clusters and women’s coping style in Korea: happy healthy 20s application study
    Chiyoung Cha, Su Jin Nam
    Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology.2016; 37(3): 91.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Magnetic Field Therapy Applied to Acupuncture Point on Dysmenorrhea Experienced by High School Girls
    Hyun-Jung Jang, Jeong-Eon Park
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(11): 7367.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Academic Stress, Somatization Symptoms, and Social Support on Coping Responses in High School Students
    Eun Hee Lee, Young Im Kim, Hyo Geun Geun, Young Shil Lee
    Journal of the Korean Society of School Health.2015; 28(2): 56.     CrossRef
  • Attitude toward Menstruation, Menstrual Symptoms, and Coping Behaviors among Korean Primary School Student
    Seoung-Uk Wie, Young-Me Kim
    The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.2014; 14(8): 297.     CrossRef
The Effects of a Walking Leader Program on Walking Knowledge and Self-efficacy
Chang Hyun Lee, Young Im Kim, Souk Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2010;21(2):178-187.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2010.21.2.178
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a walking leader program on changes in walking knowledge and self-efficacy.
METHODS
The subjects were 276 participants who participated in the nationwide walking leader program 9 times from May to September in 2008. Data were collected before and after the program by an organized questionnaire.
RESULTS
1) Knowledge related to walking exercise increased significantly to 4.14 point from 2.90 point after the program (t=-20.70, p<.001). 2) Self-efficacy related to walking exercise increased significantly to 4.08 point from 3.40 point after the program (t=13.93, p<.001). 3) Significant factors that affected knowledge and self efficacy before the program were regular exercise and subjective health status. The history of chronic disease and smoking were significantly affecting factors to knowledge and self-efficacy after the program.
CONCLUSION
The walking leader program promoted the participants' walking knowledge and self-efficacy. It is necessary to develop more specific programs tailored to socio-demographic characteristics of participants and to make efforts to increase participants with active public information.
Workers' Health Belief in Health Promotion Programs and Related Factors
Young Im Kim, Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Souk Young Kim, Hyun Ju Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):465-473.   Published online December 31, 2009
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PURPOSE
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between worker's health belief in health promotion programs and their demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics.
METHODS
This study used survey data from 262 small- and large-scale workplaces. The study included 1149 male and female workers who completed the questionnaires.
RESULTS
The health belief score increased significantly with age and length of service. Male, married, shift-work, and white-collar workers showed a significantly higher health belief score than female, single, non-shift-work, and blue-collar ones. Workers with disease history, hypertension, or obesity had a significantly higher health belief score. Regular exercise was significantly correlated with the health belief score. When all the variables were included in the model, the health belief score was significantly higher in workers who were married, had a longer length of service, worked in the sales department, were diagnosed with hypertension, exercised regularly, and felt fatigue.
CONCLUSION
The results showed that workplace intervention programs meet more the needs of workers who have a higher health belief score. In addition, given that healthier life style was related to a higher health belief score, further research is required to find how to change health behavior in workers.
Development of an Intervention List for Family Nursing Care
Young Im Kim, Hee Gerl Kim, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(2):123-133.   Published online June 30, 2009
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PURPOSE
This study aimed to classify nursing interventions by developing a list of interventions for family nursing care.
METHODS
A new intervention list was confirmed after the researchers' discussion and professional consult. All possible interventions were re-organized.
RESULTS
Five grand categories were identified, which include health education, providing direct nursing care, utilization and referral of community resources, reinforcing family resources, and stress management. The category of health education consists of anticipatory guidance, training and education, providing information, and consult and motivation. The category of providing direct nursing care consists of identifying problem, providing technical nursing, providing family tailored nursing care, family contract, monitoring or evaluation, and collaboration with experts. The utilization and referral of community services includes utilization of health care facilities, utilization of social welfare facilities, use of neighbors, friends, and relatives, connecting to professionals or supporting groups, and utilization of other sources. Reinforcing family resources includes reinforcing economic resources, reinforcing physical resources, and reinforcing human resources. Stress management includes reorganization of perception, resolving conflicts, division of role, preparing communication strategies, time management, creating familiarity, supporting spirituality, and developing sense of humor.
CONCLUSION
This study provides useful resources to promote nursing activities by identifying possible family nursing interventions.
Factors Related to Regular Mammography Screening for Outpatients
Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):420-430.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was to identify factors affecting regular mammography screening behavior of outpatients. The target subjects were 150 women who had visited the breast clinic at the university hospital, and the study period was around 10 months from March to December 2006. Data were analyzed by using chi2-test, t-test and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
Of the subjects, 50% experienced mammography and 31.6% took mammography regularly. In the relational analysis between various factors and regular mammography, there were significant differences among the 41~50 year old group, the employed group, the high income group, the regular exercise group, the non-drinking group, and the previously chi-rayed group. And, in the Logistic Regression analysis, those who preferred bean food were 3.20 times more likely to take mammogram regularly, and those who married were 3.49 times more likely to do than the unmarried. Also, those who had low health belief and who were under age 51 were less likely to take regular mammogram.
CONCLUSION
In order to increase the rate of conducting regular mammography, there must be different intervention strategies according to food habit, marital status and age, and a support system must be devised to increase health belief about breast cancer.
Factors Influencing Workers' Need for Health Promotion Programs
Soon Lae Kim, Young Im Kim, So Young Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Young Hee Kim, Young Suk Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(4):530-541.   Published online December 31, 2006
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No abstract available.
A Survey of Workplace Health Promotion Activities and their Health Promotion Program Need
Young Im Kim, Hea Sun Jung, So Young Lee, Soon Lae Kim, Souk Young Kim, Kang Jae Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(2):195-209.   Published online June 30, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Comparative Analysis of Influencing Factors on Implementation of Mammography for Ordinary Women and Outpatients
Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Ji Yoon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):56-64.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is to conduct a comparative analysis of influencing factors on the experience of mammography targeting ordinary women and outpatients.
METHODS
The target subjects were 116 ordinary women and 105 outpatients, and the study period was around 8 months from May to December.
RESULTS
When mammography experience was examined, it was found that mammography experience was conducted in 44.8% of ordinary women and 59.0% of outpatients, but this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference. When the relation between the characteristics of the targeted objects and the experience of mammography was examined, it was found that ordinary women have a lot of experience when they have regular exercises and a high health belief. On the other hand, in case of outpatients. mammography experience was more frequent in the older group. In addition, outpatients had experiences in breast-related diseases or high self-efficacy. It was also found that the influencing factors on the experience of mammography were a high health belief in case of ordinary women, and old ages and high self-efficacy in case of outpatients.
CONCLUSIONS
In order to increase the rate of conducting early detection behavior for mammography, it is needed to conduct an intervention that increases health belief for ordinary women, while it is effective to conduct an intervention that increases self-efficacy for outpatients.
Analysis of Factors Affecting Occupational Health Nurses' Early Breast Cancer Screening
Chang Hyun Lee, Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Ji Yoon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(1):68-76.   Published online March 31, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Factors Affecting Early Detection Behaviors of Breast Cancer
Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee, Su Hyung Yang, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2004;15(1):155-164.   Published online March 31, 2004
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting early detection behaviors of breast cancer such as breast self examination(BSE), breast physical examination, mammography.
METHOD
The subjects were 141 women on an island and materials were collected through an organized questionnaire from March, to August 2002. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, x2-test, and logistic analysis by SAS program.
RESULTS
52.7% of the subjects performed breast self examination, 67.2% did breast physical examination and 67.7% did mammography. That is, about 60% of the subjects performed early detection behavior to find the breast cancer. Practice of breast self examination was significantly correlated with experience of physician examination and mammography. The most significant factor on BSE was a normal salted diet, and the most significant factor on physical examination and mammography was the high education level of subjects.
CONCLUSIONS
According to the results of this study, it suggests that intensive education and information strategies for breast cancer early detection need to be developed. In particular, early detection programs for lower educated women should be activated.
The Affecting Factors on Breast Self-Examination(BSE) of Korean
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):496-506.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to analyze the affecting factors on breast self-examination of middle-aged women in Korea. The subjects were 141 women on Jeju Island, and materials were collected through an organized questionnaire from March to August 2002. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi2 -test, A-nova and Discriminant analysis by the SAS program. The major results are as follows; 1. 53% of the subjects performed the breast self-examination. The practice of breast self-examination was correlated with the education level, income, low salt diet, more than 30 minutes of regular exercise. 2. Attitudes towards breast self-examination were not a significant practice regarding breast self-examination. However, the cognition about difficulty of breast self-examination partly showed an important barrier factor to the positive attitude. 3. The average self-efficacy concerning breast self-examination was 3.03. The stages of change related to the subjects showed that a contemplation stage was high. 4. With a stepwise multiple regression, the most significant factor on self-efficacy related with breast self-examination was the contemplation stage, 30-40 aged women, high income, regular exercise, low salt diet, family cancer history, etc. 5. With the discriminant analysis, the most important factors related with the practice of the breast self-examination were income and self-efficacy. The power of discriminant was 59%. The results of this study suggests that programs should be developed to promote practice and the self-efficacy related with breast self-examination.
Family Phenomena and Characteristics by Social-economic Charateristics of the Family
Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Jin Kyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):263-273.   Published online June 30, 2003
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify the family phenomenon and characteristics by ICNP such as family shape, life standard, area, and development stage.
METHOD
1. Sample size was 115. 2. Data analysis method included frequency analysis including ratio.
RESULTS
1. On the distribution of the family phenomena by family shape, the nuclear family showed a higher ratio on the distribution in family communication and the unhealthy life style. The nuclear family was related to children andhad a higher ratio on the inadequate care management of the sick member. The extended family showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 2. On the distribution of the family phenomena by family life standard, the family with medium life standard showed a higher ratio on the inappropriate family coping, whereas the family with lower life standard appeared to have a higher ratio on the inadequate care management of the sick member. 3. On the distribution of the family phenomena by area, the large city area showed the highest ratio on the inappropriate family coping, the medium and small city area appeared to have the highest ratio on the unhealthy life style. The county area showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 4. On the distribution of the family phenomena by development stage, the family in rearing period showed a higher ratio on the inappropriate family coping and the lack of family intimacy. Families with preschool children showed a higher ratio on the unhealthy life style, and families with school age children showed the highest ratio on the inappropriate family coping. Families with adolescents appeared to have the highest ratio on the disturbance in family communication, and families with launching young adults showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 5. On the distribution of the family characteristics by family shape, the nuclear family showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances among family members and neglect of general child rearing, whereas the third generation family appeared to have a higher ratio on the characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role and short of caring among family members. 6. On the distribution of the family characteristics by family life standard, the family of medium life standard showed higher ratio on the family characteristics such as a few communication chance among family and overburden of housewife's role, and the family of lower life standard appeared to higher ratio on the family characteristics such as short of caring among family members. 7. On the distribution of the family characteristics by area, the large city area showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role and neglect of general child rearing. The medium and small city area appeared to have a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chancec among family members. The county area showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as short-term care among family members. 8. On the distribution of the family characteristics by development stage, the family with rearing period showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as neglect of general child rearing. Families with preschool children showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chancec among family members. Families with school age children showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role. Families with adolescents appeared to have a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances among family members. Families with launching young adults showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances and short-term care among family members.
Analysis of Phenomena and Characteristics of Family Nursing in Korea by INCP
Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung, Jin Kyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):608-617.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The purpose of this study was to analyze phenomena and characteristics of family nursing in Korea based on the study by Yun et al. (1999) by ICNP. The subjects of this study were 115 reports on family nursing care in Korea National Open University. The results of this study were as follows: 1. In the phenomenon of family nursing 'Inappropriate family coping' comprised of 17.0% and 'Inadequate care for a sick mumber' comprised of 16.8% 2. It was found that ' A few close neighbors was 62.5% 'Lack of communication between married couple' was 60.0% 'Neglet of general child rearing' was 40.9% 'Closed communication pattern of the head of a family' was 36.0% and 'Inadequate distribution of each family member's role' was 27.2% 3' Lack of family interaction in community' and 'Social isolation' were combined with 'Lack of family interaction in community' an 'Disturbance in family communication' and 'Lack of family intimacy' were combined with 'Disturbance in family communication' 4. 'Dual-loading with office work and housework' 'Overload of caring one's elders because of the status as a dual-income family ' and 'Lack of family support system' were added into 'Inappropriate family coping'.
Development of School Health Nursing Phenomena in Korea by Retrospective Method of ICNP
Young Im Kim, Soon Ok Yang, Myoung Ja Wang, Chung Nam Kim, Hyeon Suk Kim, Tae Nam Park, Mi Ja Chung, Hye Jin Hyun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):595-607.   Published online December 31, 2002
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The objectives of this study were to identify the phenomena of school health nursing at schools in Korea and to contribute to building a school health domain of international Classification for Nursing Practice. A retrospective method was used in this study to develop ICNP during the period from July to October 2001. The procedure of the study involved choosing nursing phenomena using preliminary terms from the reports on the field of school health nursing practice documented by nursing students in 10 different nursing colleages. The detail procedures of the study were as follows. 1) Choosing nursing phenomena by using preliminary terms 2) Choosing the characteristics of school health nursing practice from the selected nursing phenomena 3) In order to make a consensus regarding the appropriate characteristics of phenomena 15 study group members re-categorized the nursing phenomena through 5 times of cyber meetings and 3 times of formal meetings. 4) To verify each characteristic 5 community nursing faculties and 25 school health nurses participated in procedure to give scores on nursing characteristics. 5) classification of the definite nursing phenomena and characteristics. Following the 5 step procedures school health nursing phenomena were categorized into human and environmental domains Human domains were classified into human behavioral and functional domains Environmental domains were classified into physical and psychosocial domains. The essential characteristics of each phenomena were selected when it obtains the mean score of 3.0 or over at the related characteristics The human behavioral domain consisted of 7 phenomena including risk for spinal disorder inadequate dietary habit inadequate weight control smoking and substance abuse inadequate stress management inadequate sex related coping strategies and inadequate accident management. The human functional domain consisted of 6 phenomena including inadequate eye care and visual management risk for respiratory disorder inadequate dental health care inappropriate infectious disease control risk for gastrointestinal disorder and lack of sexual identify. The physical environmental domain consisted of 6 phenomena including risk for incident at inside classroom risk for incident at outside classroom risk for incident around school risk for exposure to hazardous facilities around school inadequate garbage and disposal management and inadequate physical environment for learning. The psychosocial domain included impaired social interaction at school. Each phenomenon was composed of 2 to 8 characteristics and all phenomena will include a total number of 85 characteristics. The phenomena of school health nursing in Korea partially confirmed school health architecture of ICNP further study on verification of school health nursing phenomena in Korea needs to be done to support the finding of this study through review of literature on nursing classifications or field studies.
Validity Field Testing of Family Nursing Phenomen in Korea by the Retrospective Method of ICNP
Soon Nyung Yun, Hyun Sook Kim, Yong Suk Kwon, Kyung Min Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Ae Ko, Ae Young So, Soon Ok Yang, Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Jin Joo Oh, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Sook Kang, Ji Yun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(3):423-432.   Published online September 30, 2002
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This study was conducted to test the validity of characteristics of family nursing phenomena in Korea identified in a previous study by Yoon, S. Y, et al.(1999). Data for this study were collected from 355 (first measurement 186, second measurement 169) nurses whose family nursing careers were more than one year using a cross sectional survey method. The distribution per one characteristic ranged between 0 to 5. The phenomena that had two or more characteristics and had a score of 3.0 points or more included 'disturbance in marital role', 'disturbance in family communication', 'inappropriate family coping', 'lack of family intimacy', 'unhealthy life style', 'deficit of financial management skill and support', 'inadequate care management sick member', and 'inadequate home-making'. The essential characteristics of the 8 phenomena presented above included 27 items. Further studies on family nursing phenomena in Korea are needed to support the evidence through surveys of families in the field. A reconfirmation study, as well as qualitative research on the low validity of the characteristics, needs to be more performed in the future.
A Study of the Perception of Sexual Role and Sexual Harassment in Workplace
Young Im Kim, Moung Soon Kim, Sook Ja Choi, Jong Ae Bai
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):247-260.   Published online March 31, 2001
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The objectives of this study are first, to investigate the significant differences in the perception and attitude for sexual role of workers, second, to identify the degree of the perception of women manpower in workplace, third, to identify the perception for sexual harassment in workplace and fourth to analyze the relative important factors that effect on conception for sexual harassment. The survey data were collected by questionnaires on May 2000, and the number of subjects was 300 workers. The SAS-PC program was used for the statistical analysis such as t-test, ANOVA and regression analysis. Major results were follow as: 1. The performance rates of health education for sexual harassment was 66%, and 58.9% of the lecturer of sexual harassment eduaction was occupational health nurse. The 45.2% of workers acquired the information for sexual harassment through massive education in workplace. 2. The perception and attitude of sexual role was relatively positive as 2.3(SD=0.69) of mean values, and the difference by sex, age, marital status, and working period was significant. 3. The perception of the women manpower in workplace was generally positive as 7.9(SD=3.25) of mean values, and the working experience group of less 10 years and more 10 years old age group showed the significant difference in comparative to other group. 4. The perception of sexual harassment of workplace composed of legal basis, range of victim, place of sexual harassment, type of sexual harassment, misconception of sexual harassment, and coping methods of sexual harassment. Among of these perception, type and coping methods of sexual harassment were shown high perception level. The difference by sex between group for perception of sexual harassment was highly significant. 5. Factors that effect on the perception of sexual harassment was not high for the explanation power of regression, but the age, the type of task, the perception for women manpower were important variables. Based on this results of study, we recommend that the education of sexual harassment in workplace should be strengthened and specified according to age, working period, type of working task. It also should provide various education and information to workplace, Finally and there should be continuous education opportunity systematically to occupational health nurses who are major lecturers for sexual harassment, therefore they can educate workers more effectively.
The Study on Medication Management in Small-to-Medium Sized Workplaces and the Level of Awareness about "Separation of Prescribing and Dispending"
Young Im Kim, Ju Ok Jee, Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung, Sook Ja Choi, Jung Ok Lee, Hyun Jung Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):513-525.   Published online December 31, 2000
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This study was to investigate medication management and the level of awareness about separation of prescribing and dispending at small-to-medium sized workplaces which have less than 300 employees in Korea. The data were collected by questionnaires from May to June in 2000. The number of subjects were 127 workplaces and 130 employees. The SAS PC Program was used for the descriptive statistics. The results are as follows; 1. The over the counter(OTC) drug was provided sufficiently(91.1%). but medication management was not performed systematically. 2. On drug-providing rate and drug-using rate, the latter was high in the workplace and Health care management's nurses consume all of the over the counter drug provided. 3. When the separation of prescribing and dispending starts, employees shall be medically examined, treated and prescribed by physicians and drugs shall be dispended by pharmacists. It is necessary to make it possible to visit health care institutions whenever they want to. (eg. lunch time or after work) They should change their drug-dependent behaviour. We should focus on strengthening Health Promotion Program to prevent disease by making habitual of health promotion behaviour.
Emergency Care Conditions where the Nurse is posted in the 119 Relief Squad
Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Chang Hyun Lee, Gum Sook Kim, Jung Young Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):411-422.   Published online December 31, 2000
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The purpose of this study is to identify the difference of emergency care conditions where the nurse is posted in the 119 relief squard or not. The data composed a total of 777 cases of emergency activity of one police stand in Seoul during March, June. September and December in 1998. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The age of the subjects was 20-60 age 54.3%, over 60 age 35.4% with an average age of 50.2. Among them men were 55.0%, the unemployed were 60.8%. The place of the occurrence of an accident was the house, 49.7% and the cause as illness was 59.6%. 2. The main symtom was pain the 36.2% the main consciousness state was alert 76.9%: The state of the patients as chronic was 59.6%. 3. The consulting hospital of the 119 relief squad as a third medical center was 79.9%. The distance to the medical center as less than 5 km was 77.2%, and an average transfer distance was 5.38 km. The cases of doctor guided emergency care was 0.9%, the cases that had posted nurses in 119 relief squads was 48.6%. 4. The case of the best emergency care operation was difficulty in breathing, 62.1% and the second was unconsciousness, 46.1 %. The more serious the consciousness state, the higher the rate of emergency care operation. There wasn't any difference in emergency care operation concerning transfer distance. 5. The cases that had the posted nurses was 19.1%, the cases of no nurse was 11.7% among the cases of emergency care operation during transfering; the cases that had posted nurses had the higher emergency care operation. (p<0.05). Airway maintenance was 14.8% in cases that had the posted nurses, while in the cases of no nurse, 10.9%; and oxygen inspiration was 16.0% in cases that had the posted nurses while in the cases of no nurse 7.6% (p<0.01); spinal fixation was 6.6% in cases that had the posted nurses while in the cases of no nurse 4.6%(p<0.05). With these results, we can conclude that the cases that had the posted nurse showed higher emergency care operation.
Health Problems of Female workers in Small Workplace
Young Im Kim, Soon Nyung Yun, Jeong Myung Choi, Chun Mi Kim, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):117-126.   Published online June 30, 2000
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For basic data to develop health management program of female workers. this study was intended to characterize factors affecting health problems of women at workplace which has less than 50 workers by Cornell Medical Index(CMI). 195 items of CMI questionnaire were simplified to 57 items which were composed of 35 items concerning physical health problems and 22 items concerning mental health problems. The data was collected during 6 months from July 10 to December 30 and analyzed with frequency, percentage, t-test and ANOVA. The 107 female workers included in this study was characterized to be mainly twenties(64.5%), single(69.2%) and working at production position(89.7%). The most frequent physical problem was fatigability and the next, neurological system and cardiovascular system. Main mental complaints were inadquacy. anger and tension. When the health problems were reviewed according to its general characteristics, anger in young age, adaptiveness in single and respiratory complaints in self-recognized unhealthy group were prevalent. According to life styles. the prevalent complaints were musculoskeletal one in alcoholic group and cardiovascular one in group who are sleeping just for four to five hours. The appropriateness of each items of CMI should be evaluated to reveal the reasons why meaningful results could not come from many items of this questionnaire. The repeated study should be carried out to figure out the health problems and its related factors of female workers at small scale workplace. Also, exercise program and abstinence from drinking and smoking should be carried out for female worker's health.
Current State of Occupational Health in Small-Scale-Enterprises of Korea
Soon Nyung Yun, Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Hae Yoo, Young Sook Song, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):90-104.   Published online June 30, 2000
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This study was carried out to investigate the current state of occupational health management and characteristics of employees working in small-scale-enterprises (SSE) employing less than 50 workers. Samples were chosen among the two thousands employees working in 838 factories where located in Youngdungpo-Ku, Seoul, Korea. The study results were as followed: 1. Most factories investigated in the study were manufactures (68.6%) which were established in 5 to 10 years ago (29.2%), employing less than 5 workers (72.9%) and registered in accident compensation insurance (23.0%). 2. Health screening was undertaken in 24.9% workplaces for periodic health examination and in 1.5% for special health examination. Environmental monitoring was done in 3.3% factories. Very few factories displayed Material Substance Data Sheet (MSDS) in 3.1% among the total factories. 3. Workplaces usually had their own toilets in 75.9% and washing basin in 58.6% as types of sociowelfare facilities. 4. Employees responded in the study were mostly in the range of age from 30 to 39 in 34.7%. male in 84.8%. the married in 70.3%. manual workers in 42.0%. mostly working regularly 51 hours per a week in 48.2% and earned 710.000 Won to 1.000.000 Won per month in 35.0%. Medical utilization for employees were covered by factories sponsored medical insurance in 12.7% and by provincial sponsored medical insurance in 83.4%. 5. Two point six percents of employees were suffered by diseases. The health complaints indicated were mainly digestive problems in 46.7% and hypertension in 24.4%. 6. Employees wore personal protective equipments for work such as gloves in 48.1%. safety shoes in 30.5%. ear plug in 5.5% and mask in 6.9%. Based on the results of study, we recommend that various types of occupational health management should be developed according to workplace working condition of each factory. In addition to the development of occupational health strategies. we think that it is more important to monitor and to allocate how effectively they operate each other on the basis of longitudinal continuity. Besides, we would like to insist that these all management effort should be focused on prevention of disease and occupational health education of employees.
A Study of the Index Measurement for School Health Promoting Behaviors
Young Im Kim, Young Im Park, Jee Young Ahn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(1):173-182.   Published online June 30, 1999
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The objectives of this study were to measure the index of school health promoting behaviors and to identify the influencing factors in performing these behaviors. School health promotion indexes were composed of 6 areas developed by the WHO. The data were collected by questionnaires from June to September, 1998. The subjects were 199 elementary school nurses and data were analyzed by a SAS - PC program. The results of this study were as follows: 1) The total mean of the elementary school health promotion indexes was 3.45 with school health service being the highest score at 3.68. Other scores were 3.58-personal health skills and 3.03-community relationship. 2) There were significant relationships between school health promoting behaviors and independent variables. The important variables influencing to the school physical environment were school health budgets and the career of school nurses. Also the educational background and the career of school nurses were significant variables in school health service. From these results, it is recommended that a comprehensive school health promoting program including the 6 areas of health promotion be developed. A training program for school nurses in health promotion is necessary.
Developing the Joint Employment System of Occupational Health Nurse Practitioners for the Minor Enterprises in Korea (Part 2): Comparison of Opinions between Employers and Occupational Health Nurses
Young Im Kim, Kyung Ja June, Sung Eun Lee, Soon Nyoung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(2):313-323.   Published online December 31, 1998
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This study is to develop the model on the joint employment system of occupational health nurse practitioners for medium or small sized enterprises in Korea based on the comparison opinions between employers and occupational health nurses (OHN). The data were collected by questionnaires from Oct. to Nov. in 1997. The number of subjects was 210 OHNs and 176 employers, response rate was 47.1% for OHNs and 23.2% for employers. The SAS PC program was used for the descriptive statistics. The results were as follow: 1. More than three years career was preferred for qualification of OHN by employers and OHNs. OHNs preferred that all instruments and materials should be equipped in each industry, but employers preferred that they should be equipped by OHN. 2. For the limit number of industries and employees per one OHN, employers preferred average 2.25 industries and 307 employees, OHNs preferred average 3.0 industries and 448 employees. Both of them preferred two times visit per week for all day long. 3. OHNs wanted that the local office of Ministry of Labor could act as mediator, but employers preferred direct contact individually. For the average wage, employers preferred 887,000 won per month, but OHNs preferred 1,960,000 won per month. 4. OHNs preferred the Korean Association of Occupational Health Nurse as the recruit agency. Finally, employers and OHNs have the opinions that they can choose this system depending on the condition. There is in need of development of effective strategy for this new system such as manpower development, cost-benefit analysis, establishment of occupational health service standard, advertisement for employers, and government supported project.
A Study of Activities and Demand on Welfare Nursing in Korea
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):203-215.   Published online December 31, 1996
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Social security is concerned with ensuring all citizens maintain basic needs, community health nursing maintains and promotes health for all community members. Lately, This new area of community health nursing, concern social welfare has increased. The objectives of this study are, first, to analysis the activities of nurses at community social welfare institutes, second, to estimate nursing demand for social welfare areas. The study methods used were as literature review, an analysis of statistical data and case study etc. The analytical framework also included a demand analysis of nursing manpower in community social welfare areas. The major results are as follows; 1. Employees which work at social welfare institutes number 55,464, nursing manpower (including nurse aids) number 1,458 and this is 3% of the total employees. Within nursing manpower, nurses number 780, nurse aids number 670. 2. The rates of nurses among total employees were high in institutes for mental disorders and institutes for the age. 3. The salary level of nurses was lower than average and the rates of retirement showed a roughly middle level in welfare institutes. 4. The satisfaction level of nursing services was high, and it is the trend that nurses substitute for nurse aids which retire at social welfare institutes. 5. Nurse demand that follows legal criteria is 2,221, but only 35% are working. It is therefore insufficient from the minimum of 733 to a maximum 1433. 6. The sufficiency rates by institution were high at institutes for vagrants, aged and the handicapped. In conclusion, the conditions are of nurses which are working in with the social welfare institutes are poor. Also the number of nurses compared rates of demand were in surplus. But, the basic direction of welfare policy is universal-preventive and provision of the family and of community centered service, and nursing service demand in the social welfare institute will increase continuously, we predict. Therefore, we will need a positive plan such as the development of an inservice education program and the construction of an information collection system etc.
Community Health Practitioner's Commitment into Community : on the Aspect of Primary Health Care
Soon Nyoung Yun, Young Im Kim, Jeong Myung Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1995;6(2):173-182.   Published online December 31, 1995
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Primary health care(PHC) has been established since A Health Law for rural residents has been legislated in 1980 following the WHO declaration, "Health for All 2000". in 1978. PHC services are presently assumed to be provided by 2038 Community Health Practitioners(CHP) to about 28% out of rural population in Korea. Most CHPs have confronted the adaptation process to the community being practiced although a CHP's role is to evoke community participation for the improvement of their health by themselves. So the purpose of this study is to describe and explain of the commitment of CHPs into the community. Data were collected by direct interview and tape-recording under subjects' permission till theoretical saturation were occured from 6 CHPs. The subjects were 41 years old and have served in the community for 9 years in average. Main questions and concepts were explored from data according to the procedure of the grounded theory methodology. The results are as follows. 1) The number of the main concepts were twenty four that identified Motive, Desire, Personal characteristics, Unfamiliarity, Denial, Feeling of isolation, Self-sacrifice, Kindness, Patience, Assimilation, Respect for the residents, Support by the family, Support by the residents, Achievement, Acceptance of realities, Use of resources, Inducement of cooperation from the residents, Changes of the difference from time orientation between CHP and residents, Attitude as a official, Technical support, Cost management, Satisfaction level, Acknowledgement by the residents and discrepancy. 2) The twenty four concepts were categorized to seven groups such as Motivation, Feeling of Heterogeneity, Self-discipline, Social support, Induced changes in the attitudes of residents, Familarity and Persistent discrepancy. 3) The categorized groups were analyzed on the base of the Causal Conditions, Central Phenomena, Contexts, Intervening Conditions, Action / Interaction Strategies, and Consequences. Central phenomenon in this study was identified to be the feeling of heterogeneity. Community health practitioners experienced unfamiliarity and denial from the community and felt themselves isolated in the first. In time, they won the trust of residents by their efforts including self-sacrifice, kindness, patience, and assimilation. Afterward, practitioners got self-confidence and familiarity with lesser feeling of heterogeneity. Community health practitioners experienced unfamiliarity and denial from the community and felt themselves isolated in the first. In time, they won the trust of residents by their efforts including self-sacrifice, kindness, patience, and assimilation. Afterward, practitioners got self-confidence and familiarity with lesser feeling of heterogeneity. Nevertheless, practitioners could not commit themselves completely because of the persistent discrepancy between CHP and residents. 4) On the commitment process, the CHPs' feeling of heterogeneity were decresed and social support increesed and newly evolved induced change of residents through the continuous interaction between CHP and them. The contribution of this study would be concluded as follows. The contribution of this study would be concluded as follows. 1) It is expected that effective strategies for more rapid committment into the community can be developed based on this study. 2) More easy committment would be possible for the newly appointed CHP through understanding of the committment process identified on this study.
A study on the role of the school health teacher in school vaccination
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1995;6(1):74-83.   Published online June 30, 1995
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Promotion of immunization including early recognition of disease symptoms and effective control of communicable disease have been the important role of the school heath teacher in Korea. The school heath teacher as a nurse have been practiced vaccination for students as one of the major method for promotion of immunization in school. Recently it was occured difficulty for school vaccination that is practicing by school health teacher. So it is predicted for reducing of vaccination coverage rates of students. The objectives of this study are, first; to examine current guidlines of government, second, to analysis problem according to current guidline, third, to discuss further direction for school vaccination. There are used study methods as litrature review, analysis of statistical data and case study etc. Analytical framework for increased effects of vaccination in this study was safty, cost -effectiveness and coverage rates of vaccination. Major suggestions are as follows : First, It is different from the role of the public and private sectors in preventive health services. The preventive health services are characterized that the effect of health promotion is large, but the period of input effect is slow. Therefore the leading role of school vaccination should be have school and school health teacher including public sectors. Second, Health management of contemporary people can be effective with cooperative relationship between various health manpower. School health teacher as a medical manpower should be provide vaccination service continiously for health promotion of students. Third, It is necessary to maintain collective vaccination in school because have lots of advantage at safty, cost-effectiveness and coverage rates. In conclusion, school heath teacher should have central and independent role in school vaccination in according to current law. Also it will be assured lawful compensation in prepare to accident in vaccination.
A Study on the Establishment of Clinical Nurse Specialist
Young Soon Byun, Young Im Kim, Mi Sook Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(2):130-146.   Published online December 31, 1994
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Our medical care system is trying to diversify in order to meet the client's needs, and to adjust to a medical environment which is changing very rapidly. Because current nursing theory and practice focus on holistic care, health care management, education, and research, contrary to the traditional emphasis on only assisting a physician, more autonomy and specialization for the implementation of nursing are required. Considering these trends and actual needs, the category of clinical nurse specialist should be established as soon as possible. In order to develop strategies for implementing this new professional specialty, the authors conducted a field survey and literature review of the current system in Korea. As a result, various obstacles and constraints were discovered as follows : 1) There are few accredited educational programs for the training of CNS's. 2) Several hospitals already have staff designated as clinical nurse specialist (CNS) even though the term CNS is not yet standardized or adopted in nationwide. 3) The role of the CNS is not clearly understood by the medical societies, or even nursing societies. A nurse who works in specific nursing areas such as central supply, kidney dialysis, intensive care, coronary care, etc. for a long time, considers herself/himself a CNS. Based upon the above findings, the following alternatives are recommended. 1) The role of the CNS should be defined according to specified functions and authority : professional autonomy ; counselling and educating patients and their familes, nurses, and even other medical personnel ; research on improvement of nursing ; and management of the nursing environment including medical resources, information, and cases. 2) the qualification of CNS should be attained only by a nurse who has an RN license and clinical experience of more than 3 years in a specific nursing field: passes a qualifying examination; and contributes to the professional development of peers, colleagues, and others. A master's degree should only be optional, because of the insufficient of graduate programs which are well designed for the CNS. 3) The CNS should initially be a head nurse rather than line staff in order to deal with as wide an experience base as possible. 4) The nursing specialty could be divided into two areas such as a clinical field and a community field. The clinical field could then be categorized by the Styles' classification such as diseases and pathogenics, systems, ages, acuity, skills/techniques, and function/role ; the community field could be classified according to work site.
Correlations among Lifestyle and Health Status: A comparative study between nurses and clients
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1994;5(1):53-63.   Published online June 30, 1994
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Health could be maintained and promoted by pursuing an active healthy lifestyle. Life-style include health habits and behavior pattern such as exercise, diatry change, weight control, stress management et al. The objectives of this studies are (1) to analyze recognition and practice of lifestyle between nurses and non-nurses, (2) to analyze health status of clients which presented healthy lifestyle, (3) to analyze factors that affected healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle assessment questionnaire is divided into ten sections: competence in selfcare, nutritional practices, physical activity, sleep patterns, stress management, self-actualization, sense of purpose, relation with others, environmental control, and use of health care system. The major results are as follows : (1) The level of recognition and practice of lifestyle was not high. Nurses showed more higher score than non nurses in lifestyle area such as competence in selfcare, stress management, environmental control, and use of health care system. (2) Good health status and lifestyle presented positive relation. (3) In mutiple classifiction analysis, competence in selfcare, nutritional practices, physical activity, sleep patterns, stress management, environmental control, and use of health care system had significant relation to independent variables. (4) Change of concept for healthy lifestyle after this survey was higher in nurses group and the most concern area was stress management. To sum up, lifestyle pattern of nurses as health professional was not desirably high. Therefore nurses ownself should effort to practice healthy lifestyle prior to others, and then educate importance of lifestyle for health promotion and disease prevention. In conclusion, it will be useful to consider significant lifestyle factors that was be identified in this study to develop health promotion program.
A Study of Health Promotion Activity in Community Health Nursine Areas
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(2):158-169.   Published online December 31, 1993
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Health promotions have been identified as foundamental concepts for nursing practice, especially in community health nursing. Nurses have been regarded as having important role's in health promotion activities. According to a review of literature, the concepts of health promotion consist of prevention services, health protection. Health prevention services have three levels : Primary secondary and tertiary. The objectives of this study are (1) to analyze the health promotion activities in school nursing. (2) to analyze health promotion activities in community health nursing posts. (3) to analyze the health promotion activities in industrial nursing while suggesting future direction for health promotion in community health nursing areas. The major results are first, Prevention services are most actively performed rather than health protection, and health education in three areas: School, industries, and community. Health nursing, secondary prevention services follow emergency care, and ordinary diseases control are especially active. Health promotion can ultimately from changing life be accomplished styles, and health behavior. As a consequence, future directions promoting health in community health nursing are desirable areas. Focusing on health protection, and health education that is not activated presently.
A Study of Workers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of the Occupational Health Services in Industries Located in Seoul
Yeun Gang Jung, Shin Ae Park, Na Mi Lee, Soon Young Yoon, Young Im Kim, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Nam Lee, En Hee Kim, Young Ae Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(2):91-99.   Published online December 31, 1993
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This research is undertaken for the purpose of providing basic data to improve the occupational health service for future. 415 workers of 46 firms in Seoul are included in this data points.
Results
from this analyzing are the following. 1) The level of knowledge, attitude and practice of workers on the occupational health is moderate. 2) The cognition of necessity about special health examination gains the highest point(3.94), but the understanding of the occupational health educational program gains the lowest point (.85) in the knowledge region. 3) In the attitude region, the highest point is marked by the workers' prudence of expending time on medical examination(3.45). The lowest one by the workers' feeling of satisfaction of the follow-up service after medical examination(1.79). 4) The workers' participation in medical examination is the most active(3.15), and that in occupational health education in the least active(.86) in the practical region.
A Study on the Health Care Management of Industries in Seoul
Yeun Gang Jung, Shin Ae Park, Na Mi Lee, Soon Young Yoon, Young Im Kim, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Nam Lee, En Hee Kim, Young Ae Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):5-13.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The objective of this study was to analyze the status of health examination, and the health care management of industries in Seoul. This will provide effective industrial health care services. 46 industries were selected as a sample, and were given self administered questionnaire developed by the academic affairs of community health nursing. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The general characteristics of industries: The greater part of the industries were manu facturing companies, 300-900 workers, in a one shift system. (2) The general characteristics of health man ager: 96% of the companies had industrial nurses and the larger industries had comprehensive health managers. 90% of the industrial nurses were full-time employees and 77% of the industrial physician were part time employees. 80% of the industrial physician were age 50 or older, while 59% of the industrial nurses were 25-29 years of age. (3) Health examination and follow up care: The proportions of the workers who took general health examination was 94%. Of those, 12% took secondary examinations. In secondary examinations, 36% were evaluated at the C-grade, 20% were evaluated at the D-grade. The proportion of the workers who were required to take special examination were 29% and of that, the proportion of the workers who actually took the examination was 88%. 85% of the workers who were recommended for follow up cares were given follow up care while working. The physical agents among the special examination were done the most frequently to detect the examination effects. (4) Health care services: Industrial nurses performed health examination most frequently and health education was done the least. There were significant differences in health care services according to the size of the industries. Companies with 300 workers or less had higher health care services than other groups. The three primary reasons of health care management and examinations of workers are: First, industrial nurses are requires to accumulate professional knowledge and experience through continuos' activities. Second, systematic and concert examination for industrial workers should be performed periodically. Third, it needs developing health education strategies that are important workers for health promotion in industries.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing