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Volume 10 (2); December 1999
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Original Articles
Development of Family Nursing Phenomena in Korea by Retrospective Method of ICNP
No authors listed, No authors listed,
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):275-290.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The Objectives of this study were to identify family nursing phenomena at the community in Korea and to contribute to build up family domain of International Classification for Nursing Practice. The method of this study was used retrospective one among three methods to develop ICNP during the period from April 1997 to June 1999. The procedure was to choose nursing phenomena using preliminary terms(stepl) from the reports on family nursing care of the nursing students of 5 junior colleges of nursing and 5 colleges of nursing. The study group members identified 3 common family nursing phenomena with 5 characteristics related to each phenomenon. In order to consensus the appropriate characteristics of a phenomenon(step2), 17 study group members had regrouped nursing phenomena and scored its characteristics 5 times. The essential characteristics of each family phenomenon were selected above 3.5 mean score from related characteristics(step 3). Finally, 17 phenomena were named preferred terms such as following, that was selected after investigated preliminary terms(step4). Family nursing phenomena in Korea are named as Lack of family interaction in community. Social isolation. Lack of social support system in community. Disturbance in parent role, Disturbance in marital role, Dissatisfaction of sexual life, Disturbance in family communication, Inappropriate family coping, Lack of family intimacy, Inappropriate family power structure, Family violence. Unhealthy life style. Deficit of financial management skill and support. Inadequate care a sick member. Insecure safety and hygiene in neighborhood, Inadequate home-sanitation. Inadequate home-making. Family nursing phenomena in Korea were partially confirmed family architecture of ICNP, Beta version. by this study. Further study on Family nursing phenomena in Korea will be required to support evidence through literature review of nursing classifications or field studies.
The Program Development of Nursing Activities for Community Health Promotion
Jeong Hee Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):291-306.   Published online December 31, 1999
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Health promotion has come to the fore through new concept approach in consequence of the increase of chronic diseases. increase of medical cost and social trend of putting more emphasis on the individual responsibility for health. Studies of health promotion can be classified into two types: one is micro intervention method which is mainly focused on modifying individual life style and the other. macro intervention method in which they put another emphasis on the environment the individual is surrounded. in addition to modifying individual life style. This study belongs to the later. This study aims to develop nursing activities and program it for the purpose of community health promotion. The process of the study can be briefed as follows: to draw out nursing contents to intervene for community health promotion: to promote community health to develop nursing action indicators; to develop nursing action indicators for the development of main nursing activities. And those developed nursing activities are programmed systematically. The community health promotion program is composed of a hierarchical structure with nursing process that the nurses are supposed to apply to perform professional nursing. the level of nursing perform. the main items of nursing process. health promotion nursing indicators. health promotion nursing activities. The conclusion of this study according to objectives are as follows. First. community health promotion contents at individual and community level are remained revised and complemented and those at organizational level are developed. The developed main contents of community health promotion nursing are as follows. 1) Revised individual level nursing contents: 35 items. 2) Developed organizational level nursing contents: 24 items. 3) Revised community level nursing contents: 36 items. Second. for the development of the health promotion nursing action indicators. principles were set up and applied as follows. 1. Developed indicators should be provided with such qualities as comprehensiveness. diversity. developability, availability. practicability. 2. Developed indicators should be provided with functional abilities to measure the conditions and changes in any phenomena or state. inspect the development of the states. control the implementing program. evaluate the result of program and grasp what nurses should do. 3. Developed indicators should be provided with relevance and sequence. 4. Developed indicators should be undergo inspections from the expert. The developed community health promotion action indicators developed in this study. observing above mentioned principles. are total 330 indicators of 95 items. Third. when the main nursing activities were developed for each nursing action indicator. five priciples were set up in accordance with each nursing action indicators to decide main nursing activities. Main nursing activities developed observing those principles. are total 1273. Forth. for the programming of the developed nursing activities. three principles were set up. 1. The nursing activities are systematized in line with . 2. The program is constructed in downward and hierarchical order. 3. The program is constructed not in relation to same level activities but in relation to high and low level activities. The process step of programming of developed main health promotion nursing activities are; Step 1. The Developed nursing action indicators are classified into nursing process. Step 2. The main nursing activities are allocated per each nursing action indicators. Step 3. The statement of main nursing activities are inspected. Step 4. The items of main nursing activities allocated by a certain nursing action indicators are sequenced. taking into consideration the elaborateness of activity. the sequency of activity. familiarity of activity. the difficulty of activity. the interest of activity. the frequency of activity. Step 5. The whole developed program should undergo comprehensive and critical inspections.
A Study of the Health promoting lifestyle of Industrial workers
Yun Jung Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):307-319.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of this study was to identify the major factors affecting performance in health promoting lifestyle of industrial workers. The subjects for this study 241 workers employed in S company in T city and were obtained by a convenience sample. Data were collected from March 2 to April 28. 1998. The collected data were analyzed using frequency. percent. mean. cronbach alpha. t-test. ANOVA. Person coefficients of correlation. Duncan test. stepwise multiple regression with an SPSS program. The results of this are summarized as follows. 1) The average score of performance in the health promoting lifestyle was 2.62. The variable with the highest degree of performance was harmonious relationship. whereas the one with the lowest degree was professional health maintenance. 2) Performance in the health promoting lifestyle was significantly correlated with self esteem, internal health locus of control and powerful others health locus of control. 3) Performance in the health promoting lifestyle was significantly correlated with such demographic variables as age. religion, education level. marital state. family number. types of dwelling. 4) The most important factor that affect performance in the health promoting lifestyle was powerful others health locus of control and self esteem. On the basis of this study. other factors affecting others health promoting lifestyle should be identified.
The Effect of Health Promotion Education on the Health Perception and Health Behavior Performance of Elementary School Students
Jin Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):320-329.   Published online December 31, 1999
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This study has been done for the purpose of testing the effect of Health promotion Education on the Health perception and Health behavior performance of Elementary school student's. The collection data has conducted from June 19, 1999 to August 24, 1999. The subjects for this study were sixth grade of "" elementary school. which is located in "" city a chosen one class experimental group(38) and as a control group(38). The study were designed as nonequivalent control group pretest. posttest. follow test design. In pretest, the general characteristics of two groups, health perception and Health performance were measured, the Experimental group was given health promotion Education for a one week after the posttest, and follow test was done Health performance. for eight week's summer vocation. The instrument used for this study were Health perception scale developed by Ware(l979) were modified by Lee(l984) and Health promoting behavior scale developed by Kim(l997) were modified by No Tae Su(l999). The data analysis was done using t-test, chi2-test, ANOVA. and pearson correlation-coefficient using SAS/PC program. The result of this study are summarized as follows: l) There is on difference between experimental group and control group 2) The hypothesis is factor's are supported "The experimental group which was given health promotion education will shows higher health perception and health behavior performance than control group which given that" (meal habit F=6.40 P<.05. mental health F=8.02 P<.01) 3) In health behavior performance, scale the highest domain was mental health, personal hygiene, meal habit Exercise. The following suggestions are made based on the above results: 1) Replication of the research is needed to confirm effects of health perception and Health promotion education including the elementary school students. 2) Elementary school teachers should make an effort to develop of Health perception progress and carry about continue Health promotion education program for profit stage of growth and development for elementary school students.
The Determinants of a Health Promoting Lifestyle in High school students
Woi Hyun Hong, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):330-346.   Published online December 31, 1999
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This descriptive correlational study was conducted to identify the variables related to a health promoting lifestyle in high school students. 304 high school students and 189 vocational high school students living in Taegu city were selected by a convenience sampling method. The data were collected by self-reported questionnaires from August 24 to September 4, 1998. Pender and others' Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile, Shere et al's. Self-Efficacy scale, Wallston et al.'s Internal Health Locus of Control scale, Wares' Health self rating scale and Cohen & Hoberman's Social support scale were used. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, MANOVA, ANOVA. Tukey verification and Stepwise multiple regression with an SAS program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The average score of a health promoting lifestyle performance was 2.38(SD=.36) of a 4 point scale .Self-actualization (mean=2.80. SD=.60). interpersonal support(mean=2.73, SD=.47), health responsibility (mean=1.53, SD=.47), nutrition(mean=2.64, SD=.63), exercise(mean=2.71. SD=.72) and stress management(mean=2.37, SD=.58) were also analyzed. 2. The combination of self-efficacy, social-support, internal health locus of control. father's educational level and perceived health status explained 37.97% of the variance in health promoting lifestyles. 3. A Health promoting lifestyle showed significant positive correlations with self efficacy(r=.5173. p=.0011), perceived health status(r=.254, p=.001) and internal health locus of control(r=.321. p=.001). 4. According to sex(t=7.38. p=.006). economic state(F=6.62, p=.00l), Father's educational level(F=4.25, p=.005), mother's educational level(F=6.94. p=.000l), the grade of educational performance(F=3.74, p=.024), sleeping hours(F=3.47. p=.032) and social support(F=40.76, p=.0001). there were significant differences and modifying factors in health promoting lifestyles. On the basis of the above findings. self-efficacy in cognitive factors, and social support in modifying factors were identified as the variables which explained most of Pender's health-promotion model. Nursing strategies enhancing self-efficacy and social support which have a more significant effect on health promoting lifestyles should be developed. Further research is required to find out the factors influencing health pormoting lifestyle of high school students.
Health Promoting Behavior of College Students
Hyun Sook Park, Ga Eon Yi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):347-361.   Published online December 31, 1999
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This study was undertaken in order to determine the relationship among a health locus of control. self-esteem. perceived health status. and health promoting behavior in order to determine factors affecting health promoting lifestyle in college students. The subject were 137 students of one university in Kyungsan. The analysis of data was done with a mean. percentage. Pearson correlation coefficient. and Stepwise multiple regression with an SAS program. The result of this study ware as follows: 1. Performance in health-promoting behavior was significantly correlated with self-efficacy and self-esteem 2. Performance in self-achievement was significantly correlated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, and perceived health status. Performance in health responsibility was significantly correlated with self-efficacy and self-esteem Performance in exercise was significantly correlated with self-efficacy and perceived health status. Performance in nutrition was significantly correlated with self-efficacy. self-esteem. and perceived health status. Performance in interpersonal support was significantly correlated with self-efficacy. internal locus of control. and self-esteem Performance in stress management was significantly correlated with self-efficacy, self-esteem. and perceived health status. 3. Self-efficacy was the highest factor predicting health promoting lifestyles. 4. Self-efficacy was the highest factor predicting self-achievement. health responsibility. exercise. nutrition. and stress management. Self-esteem was the highest factor predicting interpersonal support. From this research findings, we need to develop health promoting program and health education focusing on exercise, health responsibility for college students.
A study on the life style, locus of control and health belief of gastric cancer patients
Hee Young So, Hyun Li Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):362-371.   Published online December 31, 1999
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This study was conducted to explore the relationship between locus of control and health belief. the life style of gastric cancer patients. The subjects of this study were 40 of the early gastric cancer and 90 of the advanced gastric cancer who first visiting patient to general surgery out patient department of Chungnam University Hospital for operation. The data was collected with structured questionnaire from July. 1998 to Feb. 1999 The tool were Moon's Health Belief Scale and Multiple Locus of Control of Wallston. Wallston, DeVellis. The data was analysed by SAS program using frequency, chi2-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA. Scheffe-test, t-test. The results were as follows 1. 30.8% of subjects were early gastric cancer anf 69.2% were advanced gastric cancer. The subject knowing about diagnosis was 83.1%. 16.9% did'nt know about diagnosis. 2. The correlationship between Health belief and Locus of control of subjects was not supported. 3. There was statistically no difference of life style between early and advanced gastric cancer patients. 4. There were statistically significant differences in perceived sensitivity according to weight. educational level. and birth order, in perceived barrier according to educational level. and in perceived severity according to occupation among demographic characteristics of study subjects. From above results. health professional has to educate general population to detect gastric cancer early to improve survival rate because early gastric cancer is high in survival rate, and to prevent recurrence and to maintain continuing healthy status. In the future, gastroscopy also has to expand to detect early. For there was no difference in life style between early and advanced gastric cancer. carcinogen related to diet should be emphasized through education. The perceived benefit among health belief model was not supported in this study therefore further study and comparison between gastric cancer and normal population are needed.
A Study on the Stress of Family-Caregivers and Level of Daily Living Performance with Patients of Cerebra Vascular Accident(CVA)
Young Hee Cho
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):372-386.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of this study was to explore the degree of stress in caregivers' caring for CVA patients and the level of daily living performance of CVA patients. The subjects for the study were caregivers of 112 CVA patients who enter a hospital or out-patient-department (OPD) at two Oriental medical hospital in Jeonbuk province. The survey instruments used in this study were Kang's ADL check list for daily living performance of patients and Choi's 4 sore scale for stress of caregivers. The survey was conducted from July 4th to August 30th in 1999. The survey results were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) program and can be summarized as follows: 1. The level of daily living performance for the CVA patients was: 1) complete dependence (M=14.9, 13.1%), 2) complete independence (M=23.6, 20.9%), 3) incomplete independence (M=23.9, 21.0%), 4) incomplete dependence (M=26.6, 25%), 5) dependence and independence (M=23.0, 20.0%). The items for with there was a high level daily living performance were: 1) drinking (M=3.62), 2) eating(M=3.25). 3) position returning (M=3.18) : and the items for which there was a low level of daily living performance were: 1) ascending and descending stairs (M=2.08), 2) walking (M=2.47), 3) dressing and undressing trousers (M=2.55). 2. Degree of caregiver stress was: Mean=2.39 at 40 score. The items for which was a high level caregiver stress were: 1) medical fee (M=3.25), 2) being handicapped or recurrence (M=3.02) : and the items for which there was a low level of caregiver stress were: 1) discontinuity of patient's treatment (M = 1.98). 2) change of home atmosphere caused by patient's disease (M = 1.98), 3) desire of patient's knowing about disease (M= 1.99). 3. There was statistically significant difference in the degree of caregiver stress according to the following caregiver's demographic characteristics: education level (F=3.52, P=0.03). change of caregiver (F=5.41. P=0.02). 4. There was a statistically signifiant difference in the level of daily living performance according to the CVA patients demographic characteristics: patient's paralytic status (F=4.48, P=0.01), duration of disease (t=2.76, P=0.03). 5. There was significant difference in degree of caregiver stress according to the CVA patient's demographic characteristics: CVA status (F=4.75, P=0.01). 6. There was statistically significant difference in the degree of caregiver stress according to the level of daily living performance in CVA patients(r=-0.482, P<0.00).
The Relationships between Job Stressor, Coping Strategies, and Stress Responses of Manufacturing Workers
Jeong Hee Kim, Soon Nyoung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):387-399.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships of job stressor. coping strategies. and stress responses of manufactoring workers. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires from 262 of the manufacturing workers in a local electronic company from July to August. 1999. For data analysis. Cronbach's alpha. Factor Analysis. Descriptive statistics. ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient with SPSS/PC+ 7.5 version program were used. The results were as follows: 1. Regard to the stress responses and coping strategies by sociodemographic variables. 'the overall stress responses' showed significant differences by sex. age. marrital state. The use of 'control coping strategy' showed significant differences by sex and the type of work. The use of 'avoid coping strategy' showed significant differences by sex. age. married state. year of career. and income. 2. The average scores of 'the job characteristics and participation in decision making factor'. 'the physical environmental factor'. and 'the role and leadership factor' were 2.66. 2.59. 2.59 in order. The average scores for 'the avoid coping strategy' and 'the control coping strategy' were 3.03. 2.97. The average scores for 'the overall. psychosoical. and physical stress responses' were 2.18. 2.18. 2.23. 3. The 'control coping strategy' was negatively related to 'the job characteristics and participation in decision making factor'. 'the role and leadership factor'. 'the psychosocial stress responses'. and 'the overall responses'. 'The control coping strategy' was positively related to all of 'the job stressors'. 'the physical stress responses', and' the overall stress responses'. 'The physical environment factor' was positively related to all of 'the stress reponses'. 'the role and leadership factor'. and 'the job characteristics and participation in decision making factor'. According to the results of this study, the suggestions were as follows: 1. The coping strategies of manufacturing workers in the specific job stress situation should be considered to future studies. 2. In order to applying the stress management program in the workplace. The organizational intervention focused on 'the job characteristics and participation in decision making' will be needed. 3. To support and use of 'control coping strategy' of the workers. the organizational efforts should be required.
A Study on the Relations between Physical Exercise and Health Status in Middle-aged Women
Chai Soon Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):400-411.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of this study was to identify the physical exercise and the effects of exercise on health. Data were collected from Oct. to Dec. 1998. The subjects were 241 middle aged women living in Seoul and near Seoul. The following instruments were used in the study: The questionniare for physical exercise and health status was combined with simple CMI and climacteric symptom. Analysis of the data was done by chi-test. t-test. and ANOVA with SAS program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The rate of physical exercise was 59.3% of subjects. The mean number of exercise per week was 3.1. Duration at one time exercise was 25.6 minutes. The period of exercise was 18.6 months. And main objective of exercise was health promotion. 2. The physical exercise had differences according to the age. job. monthly income. period of marriage. type of family. and perceived body image. 3. Musculoskeletal and mental complaints were lower in no-exercise group than exercise group(respectively P=0.04. 0.02). According to the duration of exercise. autonomous nervous symptoms was the lowest in 20 minutes group(P=0.04) and psychologic complaints was the lowest in below 60 minutes group(P=0.03). According to the period of exercise. cardiovascular and fatigue complaints was the lowest in 7-12 months maintenance group and autonomous nervous complaint was the lowest in below 3 months maintenance group(P=0.04). This study is only a preliminary effort. so I recommend that the repeated studies be carried out including detailed. comprehensive exercise practice and developing systematic exercise program.
The effects of Ki on the Elderly with Chronic Illness
Kyung Hee Yang, Hey Sook Jang, Myeong Soo Lee, Hwa Jeong Heh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):412-421.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of current study was to investigate the effects of Ki-therapy which improves mood state and relieves pain on the elderly with chronic illness. The subjects were 42 elderly and convenience sampling(incidental sampling) was used to prevent contamination to the control group. Frequency, %, chi2, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS PC + program were used to analyze the data. The mean age of subjects was 72.95(Control group), 73.10(experimental group). Number of complains was 2.45(control group), 2.65 (experimental group). All of demographic characteristics of subjects. that is, age, weight. number of complains. educational background. family type. economic state, perceived health state were homogeneous. There are many difficulties in ADL & IADL. 14.2% in shopping, mode of transportation, ability to handle finances. 11.9% in ability to use telephone. continence, 7.1% in bathing, food preparation, transfer, and housekeeping. As the result of this study. slight improvement of mood state and pain relief were found. Although 3 improved items of "clear-headed", "lively", and "nervous" were statistically significant. the pain relief was not statistically significant. It requires repeated treatment and measurement. And suggested case study or qualitative study in further studies because manufacturing of environment(i. e. rain) is very difficult in community people.
A Study on the degree of satisfaction at Day Care Center's Service among elderly clients
Soon Young Kim, Kyung Sook Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):422-434.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of satisfaction at day care center's services and the degree of relationship between each service and overall satisfaction. The data collection was performed from July 1, 1999 to July 15, 1999. And total 199 elderly clients were interviewed in Koksung-kun. The results of the study is as follows: 1. The percentage of satisfactory response at transport service was 95.2%, food supply 94.3%, bath 93.2%, hair cutting 90.8%, physical therapy 90.2%, medical treatment 89.3%. And oriental medical treatment 82.0%. 2. For question of the degree of satifaction at day care service, the distribution of answer was 75.1% in exellent. 15.5% in good, 3.6% in moderate, 3.6% in poor, 2.1% in most poor. 3. The subjective satisfaction was not significantly different by sex, age, the presence or absence of religious, educational level, the presence or absence of family and economic level. 4. A significant association between the program satisfaction and the subjective satisfaction was observed: odds ratios were 26.9 in food supply, 26.4 in luncheon supply, 17.4 in bath, and 14.5 in hair cutting. The following is suggestion based on results of this study: A service program should be developed to fit conditions of rural elderies by specifically analyzing needs of the elderly.
Study of the Positive and Negative Caregiving Experiences in the family members who care for the psychiatric mentally ill relatives
Kwang Ok Lee, Hee Jung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):435-454.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The caregiving experiences of 100 family menbers of outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders were investigated for the presence of positive(positive family-patient relationship. patient' contribution to the family) and negative caregiving experience(objective and subjective burden) and their predictors. This study attempts to make the analysis of caregiving experience more useful by expanding the focus to incoporate these positive aspects of the experience of family caregiver. Objective burden consists of two elements: "disruption of family life", "care"(amount of caregiving related to activity of daily living). Subjective burden is defined as emotional reactions to the care giving and it comprised of 6 emotional subdimensions such as "stigma", "grief". "worry", "pity", "fear", "despair" Also we investigate the severity of patients' disturbing behaviors into two categories, positive and negative disturbing behaviors and patient' contribution to the family as a predictors of positive and negative caregiving experiences. This study use Pearson's correlation coefficient, Hierardhical regressions in the SAS Program. The results are as follows: 1. Respondents reported moderate level of objective burden "disruption of family life" (mean=2.48, range=1-4), and "care" (mean=2.54, range=1-4), and slightly high level of total subjective burden(mean=2.19, range=1-4). Mean scores for the measure of the severity of behavioral disturbance indicated that the caregiver experienced negative disturbing behaviors around almost "somtimes"(mean=2.28, range=1-4), and positive disturbing behaviors "almost not frequent"(mean=2.78. range=1-4). So they reported that they perceived patient's negative disturbing behaviors more than positive disturbing behaviors. Mean scores for the measure of the patient' contributions (mean = 1.99. range = 1-4) indicated that caregivers experienced these contributions a little. It means that there should be a positive aspect of possibilities of patient' family roles that can be developed in the daily life. Mean scores for the measure of the positive family-patient relationship indicated that caregivers experienced moderate level of positive family-patient relationship(mean=2.52, range = 1-4). 2. Hierardhical regression analysis 1) Hierardhical regression of 'disruption of family life' showed that the interaction between positive disturbing behaviors and patient' contributions (B=.20. p=.022) and caregiver's educational level(B=.06. p=.000) were 'significant and Hierardhical regression of 'care' showed that 'negative disturbing behaviors'(B=.35. p=.007). 'patient' contributions'(B=.28, p=.019). 'family income'(B=-.l1. p=.096) were significant. 2) Hierardhical regression of 'total subjective burden', 'stigma', 'grief', "worry", "pity". "fear", "dispair" showed that "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.51. p=.000). "negative disturbing behaviors" (B=.17, p=.026), "caregiver's educational level"(B=.03. p=.036), "family income"(B=.08. p=.041) were significant predictors of "total subjective burden": "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.32. p=.066). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24, p=.096) "durations of illness"(B=.03. p=.079) were significant predictors of "stigma" "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.005). "patient sex"(B=-.32. p=.022). "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.020), "patient age"(B=.02. p=.010), "caregiver age"(B=-01, p=.002) were significant predictors of "grief" "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28, p=.005). "patient sex"(B=-.32. p=.039), "caregiver age"(B=-.02, p=.023). "caregiver's educational level"(B=.04, p=.044) were significant predictors of "worry" "patient sex"(B=-.46. p=.005). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.018), "caregiver age"(B=-.01, p=.037) were significant predictors of "pity" "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.83. p=.000). "patient" contributions" (B=.22, p=.017). "family income"(B=.09. p=.65) were significant predictors of "fear" "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.49, p=.001). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24. p=.057) "patient sex"(B=-.4l, p=.017), "family income"(B=.14, p=.047) were significant predictors of "dispair". 3) Hierardhical regression of "positive relationship" showed that "patient contributions"(B=.32, p=.000). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24, p=.005), "patient sex"(B=-.23, p=.036).
Missionary Public Health Nursing of Korea during Japanese Colonial Period
Ggod Me Yi, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):455-466.   Published online December 31, 1999
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Western missionary nurses practiced in Korea from 1891. and the first trial to begin missionary public health nursing service in 1909 could not put into practice for short of nursing staff and budget. The main focus of missionary medical practice was not in public health program but in the management of missionary hospitals. A few of missionary western R.N. tried district nursing in 1910s. but their activities were personal and focused on the rescue of poor and sick patients. In 1917 the North American Methodist Church dispatched R.N. Elizabeth S. Roberts to begin district nursing in Korea. Roberts began maternal and child district nursing service. Her service was focused on teaching the method of bringing up children. bathing service, and home visiting for delivery. She could not but stop district-nursing service in 1918 to serve for a hospital in Siberia. The North American Methodist Church dispatched a few of R.N. to Korea in early 1920s and the missionary public health nursing of Korea could be activated. R.N. E. T. Rosenberger began public health nursing program in Seoul with Korean graduate nurse, Shin-gwang Han, and missionary M.D. Hall. Their public health nursing program was focused on maternal and childcare. They did home visiting in the morning, and served at a well baby clinic in the afternoon. The first baby competition began in 1925. and contributed to the teaching the method of bringing up children. They expanded public health nursing activity to school health nursing and milk station. Their public health nursing program was such a success that In 1929 Severance hospital. Eastgate Hospital. Taehwa Social Evangelistic center organized Seoul Child Health Union. Maren P. Bording, another missionary R.N. and midwife dispatched by the North American Methodist Church began public health nursing program at Kongjoo in 1924. Her program was focused on the maternal and childcare and close to that of Seoul. She started the first milk station in Korea in 1926. As she was a midwife and could get M. D. license in Korea, her program was more focused on maternal care than that of Seoul. The first day nursery school in Korea and the first graduate course for public health nursing in Korea began at Kongjoo in 1930. As the city of Choongcheongnam Province moved from Kongjoo to Daejeon in 1932, missionary public health nursing service in Kongjoo extended to Daejeon. There were lots of public health nursing program in Korea in 1920s and 1930s by missionary western nurses and Korean nurses. There were 13 missionary public health-nursing center in Korea in 1932. But in the late 1930s. Japan extended colonial war and drove out western missionaries. The missionary service in Korea was daunted. and the missionary public health nursing service could not but shrink.
Epidemiologic study of injury and poisoning occurrence in a rural area
Hi Seop Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):467-479.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The mortality and morbidity caused by injury and poisoning has been major public health problem in Korea. This study was carried out to get information indispensable in developing prevention srategies peculiar to korean rural area. In this study 1.499 people of 496 households. who are living in five rural villages of Chooncheon City. Kang-Won Province. were interviewed in accordance with structured questionaire in 1996. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The age-standardized annual incidence rates of injury and poisoning per 100 persons surveyed were 4.2 in males and 1.9 in females. The difference between sex was statistically significant. 2. The places where most of injuries and poisonings occurred were road 66.7% among males. road 31.6% among females. 3. The occurrence of the injuries and poisonings were clustered in intensive farming season in both males and females. 4. The laceration and stab wound were the most frequent nature of injuries in males and the fracture was the most frequent nature of injuries in females. The fracture. sprain were more frequent among males but sprain and contusion were more frequent among females. 5. Incidence rates of injuries and poisoning by cause were higher in traffic accidents among males. though falls among females. The cause specific incidence rate by age was high in traffic accident for 30-59 year age group. and for the aged people older than 60 years. 6. In the management pattern, 78.8% of the injuries and poisoning were received medical care in hospitals and clinics, and the duration of the treatment over 4 weeks in 37.0%. The results obtained indicate that organized community effort is urgently required to prevent injuries and poisonings in rural area.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing