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Volume 14 (1); March 2003
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Original Articles
An Analysis of the Effect of Self-foot Reflexology on Level of Hypertension
Myung Ja Wang, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):5-15.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was to analysis the effect of self-foot reflexology(SRM) program on level of hypertension.
METHOD
A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. For the experimental group, SRM was applied three times a week for 8wks. Test was done by measured x2-test, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA test.
RESULT
There were significant decreases in systolic, diastolic blood pressure and difference of pretest and post test and between the experimental group and control group.
CONCLUSION
Findings indicate that this study will contribute to develop nursing strategies for the regulation of the blood pressure.
Effects of a Music Therapy Program on Depression, Balance, Flexibility in the Elderly
Won Yeu Lee, Seon Suk Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):16-23.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy on depression, balance, and flexibility in the elderly. An experimental group consisting of 23 people, was given music therapy for 90 minutes per a week for 6 weeks, while a control group consisting of 21 people, was not given music therapy with quasi-experimental design.
RESULT
The result of the study show that music therapy is effective for decreasing depression and improving flexibility in the elderly. However, this study found no significant differences in balance between the experimental and the control groups.
CONCLUSION
Despite one part, nursing intervention of music therapy to adapt Rhythm for Life elevated the strength of the elderly's body and showed decrease in depression. Therefore the Music therapy Program improves the quality of life in the elderly.
Effects of Oral Health Education Program on the Oral Health Knowledge, Oral Health Behavior and Oral Hygiene Status of Elementary School Students
Mi Hyang Son
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):24-35.   Published online March 31, 2003
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral health education program on the oral health knowledge, oral health behavior and oral hygiene status of elementary school students. The design of this study is nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest gesign. Data was collected between the 17th of June and 13th of July in 2002, and the Experimental group were 131 students of Y Elementary School, which was one of the two elementary schools in K City, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and the control group was 140 students of C Elementary School, which was similar to Y Elementary School in geographical and economical properties and size. As for research tools, the researcher developed tools of measuring oral health knowledge and oral health behavior by modifying the tools developed by Hye-Kyong Kim (2001), In-hyang Seo (1988), Ho-Youn Lee (2001), Hyeon-ja Jeon (1998). To measure oral hygiene status, the researcher applied a coloring agent to the surface of the teeth after brushing, rinsed the mouth, and calculated colored plaque on the surface of the teeth, which was recorded on a sheet and analyzed using the plaque index. The data analysis was done using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, t-test, ANCOVA, Two-way ANOVA, Simple main effects, One-way ANOVA, and Duncan. Using with SPSS WIN 10.0. The result of this study are summarized as follows : 1. The hypothesis was supported "The elementary school students which was given oral health education program will shows higher oral health knowledge, oral health behavior, oral hygiene status then control group" 2. According to the result of verifying the hypothesis, "The effect of oral health education program will be different between junior and senior" the hypothesis was partly supported To summarize result of this research, the experimental group, to which oral health education was given, was improved in oral health knowledge, oral health behavior and oral hygiene status compared to the control group. so the oral health education program was effective for the oral health of elementary school students.
The Effects of Follow-up Support in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation Program
Ju Yul Lee, Ho Sihn Ryu
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):36-44.   Published online March 31, 2003
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of follow-up support in the adolescent smoking cessation program. In this study, a model for an effective adolescent anti-smoking program, which includes follow-up support, is based on the method of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The study lasted for 7 weeks, while information on smoking including materials to be analyzed, were provided to the subjects. Meanwhile, the state of the smokers was studied while consultations on anti-smoking was also carried out in the 7th week. At first, the quantity of cigarettes smoked between groups made no difference, but there was an obvious difference in the rate of people who stopped smoking and in the quantity of cigarettes smoked between group I(managed for 7 weeks), group (managed II for only 4 weeks) and group III(not managed at all after anti-smoking class). According to the results of the study, we can conclude that the follow-up support plays a big role not only in raising the rate of success in the level of reformed smokers, but also in lowering the quantity of cigarettes smoked.
Elementary School High Grade Students' Perceptions of Sexual Violence
Hee Jung Jang, Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):45-54.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to identify sexual violence, sexual knowledge of elementary school high grade students and develop the sexual violence protect promotion program.
METHOD
The subjects of the study were 365 elementary school high-grade students in Daegu, Gyeongbook. The instruments used in this study were sexual violence(8items) by Yom et al.(2001) and sexual knowledge(20items) by Ha(2000). The data were collected between November 26 and December 1, 2001 by using a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis of data was done by using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, A-NOVA and Duncan test with SPSS program.
RESULT
1) 78.4% of the subjects were educated for sexual knowledge. Source of knowledge for sex-related knowledge is the most teachers. 2) 50.9% of the subjects were educated for sexual violence. Source of knowledge for sexual violence is the most teachers. 3) 18.4% subjects experience sexual harassment. 8.8% of the subjects experienced serious sexual contact and 2.1% of the subjects were raped. 4) The average score of sex related knowledge was 8.93. The average score of misconception related sexual violence was 2.30. 5) Misconception of sexual violence was correlated with such demographic variables as grade(F=4.788, p=0.009), sex(t=2.971 p=0.003), region(t=3.614, p=0.000), father's education level(F=3.170, p=0.014), mother's education level(F=2.528, p=0.041), family income(F=5.577 p=0.004). 6) In the correlation between the scores of sex-related knowledge, misconception related sexual violence was a negative correlation.
CONCLUSION
According to this study, it is needed to develop the program about sexual violence education for elementary school high-grade students.
Factors Influencing the Alcohol Consumption Behavior of Adolescents
Jung Sun Ann, Hee Kyung Kim, Eun Sook Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):55-65.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose was to investigate the factors influencing the alcohol consumption behavior of adolescents to provide basic data for a nursing intervention program to improve health management and prohibit alcohol consumption.
METHOD
The subjects were 306 university students, living in K city in Chungnam province from April 1 to 20th, 2002. The instruments used were the alcohol consumption behavior scale, that is the drinking intensity score, and developed by Shin(1998)'s scale of drinking problem, refusal self-efficacy scale by Aas et. al.(1995), alcohol expectancy by Goldman et. al.(1989), TPQ scale by Cloninger(1991), depression scale by Zung(1974), family cohesion scale by Olson et. al.(1983). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA, and stepwise multiple regression by using SPSS & SAS program.
RESULTS
The multiple regression analysis revealed that the most powerful predictor of alcohol consumption behavior was the influence of friends(drinking everyday) (17.0%). A combination of alcohol expectancy (8.0%), influence of friends(4.0%), father's influence (2.0%), depression(2.0%), refusal self-efficacy (1.0%), personality of harm avoidance(1.0%), and monthly pocket money (2.0%) accounted for 38.6% of the variance in alcohol consumption behavior.
CONCLUSION
From the results, we recommend to use the database that develops nursing intervention program for decreasing the alcohol consumption behavior including the influencing factors in university students.
A Comparative Study on the Health Promoting Behavior between Average Internet Users and Excessive Internet Users in Middle School Students
Sun Hee Han, Bok Chang Oh, In Sun Jang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):66-74.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Development of a Database System for Home Care Service Based on RAI(Resident Assessment Instrument)
Kyung Ja June, Eun Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):75-82.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to develop an information system for home care service based on RAI(Resident Assessment Instrument). The standardization of service providing process was conducted using the steps of need assessment, triggers, application of CAPs, and care plan. The structure of MDsoft-HC was composed by MDS-CAPS system and system management system. A database on home care clients was accumulated by putting data, respectively, in general information, MDS-item, and MDS-result. Based on this data, the list of CAPs for the client was selected and monthly and annual statistics were calculated by problem result counts. It was suggested that standardization of a care plan would be integrated and short form of need assessment would be developed in the next stage.
Awareness and Opinion of Occupational Health Manager on the Deregulation of Occupational Safety and Health
Soo Man Park, Hye Sun Jung, Bok Im Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):83-94.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Analysis of Physical Activity in Male Office Workers
Ku Min Seo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):95-105.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to analyze occupational and leisure-time physical activity(LTPA) in male office workers and to examine factors related to LTPA.
METHOD
The subjects for this study were 226 male office workers, from eight work places located in Seoul, who had no physical restrictions. Minnesota LPTA Questionnaire (Taylor et al., 1978) revised by Kim(1997) was used to measure LTPA and revised Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire (Motoye, 1971) was used to measure occupational physical activity. The data were collected from May 4 to May 19, 2001 using a semi-structured questionnaire with interviews and self reports. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Windows 10.0 Program.
RESULTS
The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. The mean level of physical activity was 8,716.9kcal/wk. The occupational physical activity was at 6,605kcal/wk(75.8%) and the level of LTPA was 2,111.4kcal/wk (24.2%). 2. Using 2,000kcal/wk as a base for categorizing LTPA as active or inactive, it was found that there were 94 subjects(41.6%) in the active group. 3. Subjects in their thirties had a lower level of LTPA than subjects in other age groups (F=3.484, p<.05). Physical activity, selfe-fficacy (r=.405, p=.000) and perceived health status (r=.301, p=.000) were positively related to LTPA. 4. Participants in club activities had a higher level of LTPA than those who did not (t=-2.369, p=.020). Support for physical activity(r=.164, p=0.13) was positively related to LTPA.
CONCLUSION
This study suggested that to increase physical activity in male office workers, physical activity promotion programs should be established according to age and sex especially for those who are in their thirties and for women, and should include strategies strengthening support through peer groups and family, developing club activities and increasing physical activity self-efficacy.
Application of the Development Model of Day Care Center for Dementia
Yeun Gang Chung, Kyung A Baik, Hye Young Hyun, Soon Gyo Yeoum, Kyung Hee Kim, Mi Hye Choi, Sung Hee Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):106-119.   Published online March 31, 2003
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This study was executed to develop the model of the format of the day care center which supplies the total service on the health care in the day time and social program related with the work and to evaluate the processing courses which was adjusted for 3 years from March 1999 to December 2001 in order to improve the quality of life of the family who experience dementia, dementia prevention, and the old and the burden of daily activities. The processing courses of this business model were evaluated to the confirmation on the health condition, application of the nursing processes, and the precise medical examination, and 20 sorts of social programs. The methods used in this model were the simplified MMSE-K, Ability for Daily Life(ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living(IADL), and nursing process, and so on. The execution effects of this model are as follows. 1. It can contribute to the delay in the dementia process of the old people who are related with the dementia and maintenance and improvement of the health by confirming the stopping of the process of the dementia as the objective estimation method while the dementia symptom is maintained as the current condition through the medical and social total services. 2. The reduction of the burden for the daily care of the subject people and their families for the old people who are concerned with the dementia helped to improve the quality of life of the subject people and their family by enabling them to have jobs. 3. It enabled them to positively cope with the demand for the health and nursing of the local residents related to the old people. 4. It enabled them to enhance the recognition for the socialization of the local social organization and residents for the old people. 5. It enabled them to reinforce the related system among the local social organizations, and develop and provide the various social programs which are proper for the old people.
Nursing Service Needs of Caregivers for Demented Elderly in the Community
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):120-131.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
to investigate nursing service needs of dementia caregivers in the community, and also to provide basic data that is helpful in developing nursing intervention for them.
METHOD
MMSE-K exam was administered on 15,216 men more than 65years old who live in Gu, Seoul city, and the subject of this study were caregivers of 792 demented elderly who were below 20 points in the MMSE-K exam.
RESULT
Total score of nursing service needs of family appeared lower than average. By specific area, information nursing needs was the highest(M=3.29), and therapeutic nursing needs (M= 3.31), welfare service nursing needs(M=3.32), emotional support nursing needs (M=3.34) followed in order. The factors which increased the total score of nursing service needs of dementia caregivers as general and physical characteristics were man (p=.04), lower ADL (p=.00) and IADL(p=.00), longer length of sick days(p=.01), having diseases(p=.03), decline of cognition(p=.00), existence of dementia symptom(p=.00). And, high economic status(p=.03), good caring attitude(p=.00) were family characteristics which increased the nursing service needs of caregivers. As predicting variables dementia symptom (10.4%), caring attitude(1.9%), existence of economic activity(1.5%), and length of sick days(1.2%) exhibited explanation power in order.
CONCLUSION
In future, active intervention methods that correspond to family nursing service needs have to be developed, and it is also needed to develop nursing intervention strategy on specific problem with dementia problematic behavior, exercise etc.. Also, it is needed to do research on the caring attitude of dementia family because active caring attitude of family was significant influencing factor on nursing service needs of family.
A Correlation Study on Spiritual Well-being and Death Anxiety of the Elderly
Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):132-143.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A descriptive correlation study was done to provide basic data for comprehensive nursing care by analyzing the relationship between spiritual well-being and death anxiety of the elderly.
METHOD
358 respondents who lived in facilities for elders such as nursing homes and elder's rehabilitation centers were selected, and their age was over 65 years old. Paloutzian and Ellison(1982)'s spiritual well-being scale and Park(1989)'s death Anxiety scale was used. From August 2nd to November 7th, 2002, readymade questionnaires were handed out by the researcher to those who could fill it out and for those who could not fill out the questionnaires alone, the researcher read it and completed it by interview. The data were analyzed with SPSS Win 10.0 program, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation coefficient.
RESULT
1) The mean score for spiritual well being of the elderly was 43.95 in a possible range of 20-80. The mean score of religious well being was 22.22 and that of existential well being was 21.73 in a possible range of 10 - 40. 2) The mean score for death anxiety of the elderly was 109.04 in a possible range of 34 - 136. 3) There were significant differences in spiritual well being according to religion, and present occupation. 4) There were significant differences in death anxiety according to age, religion, and family status. 5) In testing concerning the relationship between spiritual well being and death anxiety, there was a statistically negative correlation(r=-.70 p=.000).
CONCLUSION
There was a negative correlation between spiritual well being and death anxiety. When the nurse implicates the nursing intervention, which can promote the spiritual well-being, elder's death anxiety also can be released.
A Study on Self-esteem and Social Support, Health-promoting Lifestyle of the Elderly
Soon Ok Park, Hoon Jung Paik, Chun Mi Kim, Jin Ha Moon, Soon Young Choi, Jung Sug Kim, Ae Jung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):144-156.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the self-esteem, social support and health promoting lifestyle of the elderly in a community. The sample consisted of 147 elderly, and data were collected from September 1 to October 15, 2001. The instrument of this study was a structured questionnaire including Health Promoting Lifestyle (47 items), Social Support(18 items), Self-Esteem(10 items), Socio-demographic Characteristics. Analysis of the data was done by use of descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The results of this study are as follows: 1. The degrees of self-esteem of the elderly were mean score 25+/-2.98 points ,socio-demographic characteristics containing meaningful difference with self-esteem was not significant. 2. The degrees of social support by elderly were mean score 55.03+/-9.60 points and social support according to the socio-demographic characteristics showed meaning difference in family structure with lower right quadrantoff springupper left quadrant(F=8.50, p=.000), health statuslower right quadrantgoodupper left quadrant(t=2.19, p=.030), smokinglower right quadrantbelow 1 packet dailyupper left quadrant (F=4.88, p=.009). 3. The degrees of health enhancing lifestyle by elderly were mean score 113.61+/-20.12 points and health enhancing lifestyle according to the socio-demographic characteristics showed meaning difference in education level lower right quadrantmiddle school and aboveupper left quadrant(F=6.37 p=.002), occupation before retirement lower right quadrantprofession, technician, employee of company, educationupper left quadrant (F=5.00, p=.003), health statuslower right quadrantgoodupper left quadrant (t=3.14, p=0.002), exerciselower right quadrantweekly 2-3upper left quadrant (F=4.31, p=.006), drinking lower right quadrantweekly 1upper left quadrant (F=2.74, p=.046). 4. The item mean score of personal relationship support field in health enhancing lifestyle were 2.90+/-.60 points, item mean scores of exercise and nutrition were 2.26+/-.39 points, item mean scores of stress managing field were 2.25+/-.49 points, item mean scores of health responsible field were 2.14+/-.61 points. 5. The relationship between self-esteem and health enhancing lifestyle revealed a significant correlation(r=.169, p=.041), but self-esteem and social support, showed no significant correlation, and health enhancing lifestyle and social support, revealed a significant correlation(r=.654, p=.001).
A Comparative Study on a Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Health Status between High and Low Income Elderly
Jeong Sook Park, Hae Ran Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):157-166.   Published online March 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the needs for developing a health promotion program for the elderly, and to compare the health promoting behaviors and perceived health status between high and low income elderly.
METHOD
The data were collected from 80 high) income elderly and 84 low income elderly through face to face interviews. The instruments used in) this study were the Health Promoting Lifestyle ProfileII(HPLPII) and Perceived Health Status.
RESULTS
1) The total score of the HPLP for the elderly was 2.29. In the subscales, the highest degree of performance 'nutrition', following 'stress management', 'spiritual growth' and 'health responsibility' and the lowest degree of performance was 'physical activity'. 2) The high income level elderly had significantly higher total HPLP scores than the low income level elderly. The biggest difference was found in 'physical activity' between high) and low) income elderly. 3) The mean score of perceived health status was 8.21. The high) income elderly had significantly higher perceived health status than the low income elderly.
CONCLUSION
The above findings indicate that it is necessary to develop a health promotion program with reinforced physical activity, health responsibility for the elderly in Korea. In particular physical activity need to be increased for the low income elderly. The low income elderly need to have positive thinking for perceived health status.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing