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Volume 16 (3); September 2005
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Original Articles
The Effect of Music Therapy on the Elderly People's Depression and Life-Satisfaction
Mi Jeong Park, Young Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):241-248.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This research was carried out to examine if music therapy is effective in decreasing elderly people's depression level and in increasing their life satisfaction level.
METHODS
This study used the quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group and the pre-test and post-test design, and was conducted from the 26th of July to the 26th of September in 2004. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed by Y.esavage et al. (1983) to measure depression level and one developed by Yoon (1982) to measure life satisfaction level. The subjects were 80 elderly people who were the members of an elderly welfare center in G city. The subjects were divided into an experimental group (n=40) and a control group (n=40).
RESULTS
The first hypothesis' The depression level will be lowered in the experimental group who received music therapy' was supported (t=3.856, p=.000). The second hypothesis' The life satisfaction level will be raised in the experimental group who received music therapy' was supported (t=2.040, p=.045). The results above suggest that music therapy can be an effective nursing intervention for reducing the depression level and increasing the life satisfaction level of elderly people.
The Coping Process of Family Caregivers for Demented Elderly
Chun Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):249-259.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to understand the coping process that family caregivers experience during the process of care, to grasp coping behaviors used to solve problems and, finally, to develop a substantive theory by analyzing the coping process.
METHOD
The methodology of collecting and analyzing data used in this study followed the ground theory of Strauss and Corbin(1998). Data were collected through in-depth interviews with open-ended and descriptive questions about the subjects' coping experiences, which were audio-taped and transcribed. The survey was conducted between February 2000 and February 2001. The subjects of this study were 17 women.
RESULT
The result of the study is as follows. The coping process of family caregivers while taking care of the demented elderly was found to have six stages: problem recognition: undertaking care: struggling: mental control: burden mediation; and acceptance. These stages proceed with reciprocal action and in cycle.
CONCLUSION
The result of this study is helpful for developing effective and individual nursing strategies suitable for each coping stage. It is necessary to develop an assessment tool that can judge caregivers' coping stage based on the result of this study. Moreover, we need continuous study to practice nursing mediation and to analyze the change about nursing effect and family members' adaptation.
A Study on the Development of Self-help Program with Care Burden for Families with Demented Elderly Persons
Jung Soon Kim, Su Ill Lee, Ki Tae Kim, Nam Hee Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):260-269.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study were to understand the caregiving situation of families with the demented elderly and to develop a self-help program for them.
METHODS
A self-help program was designed to increase caregivers' confidence and skills in problem solving. In addition, it was designed to provide information about the demented elderly. The self-help program of this study was composed of nine sessions.
RESULTS
Family caregivers of elderly patients with dementia obviously experience high level of stress. which often leads the caregivers to negative outcomes such as depression, interference with social activities and health difficulties. That is, caring is stressful for caregivers because the demands of the caregiving situation tend to overwhelm the caregivers' coping resources. Therefore, families with demented elderly persons need assistances in order to be relieved from their care burden.
CONCLUSION
The self-help program includes the understanding of dementia, the family caregiving experiences of the demented elderly persons, the time for self-care, the search for helping, the improving of interpersonal relations and communications.
Content Analysis of Difficulties in Families with Terminal Cancer Patients
Kyung Ah Kang, Shin Jeong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):270-281.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The objective of this study was to understand the caring experience of families with terminal cancer patients.
METHOD
This was designed to be an inductive and descriptive study. Forty-seven families with terminal cancer patients were interviewed in depth and collected data were examined through content analysis.
RESULT
The main categories of difficulties found in this study were "suffering of patient", "emotional suffering of family", "bereavement of patient", "difficulties in coping", "problems in treatment", "incurable situation", "family problems", "relationship with other people", "economic problems", "spiritual problems", "problems in the future", "informing patients of their condition", "preparing death", "emotional unstability", "meaninglessness", "unkindness of medical teams", "poor environment for treatment", "difficulties in hospital environment" and "economic burden".
CONCLUSION
The main point found from this result was that families taking care of terminal cancer patients are suffering emotionally from watching the patients' pains and had difficulties in coping with the patients' situation and treatment. In addition, they had negative experiences in medical teams attitude and hospital environment. This result can be used as an important guide for nurses to assess families' needs in the terminal care setting.
The Effects of a Smoking Cessation Program on Nicotine Dependency and Self-Efficacy for Adolescents
Kyung Shin Paek
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):282-288.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study was to verify the effects of a smoking cessation program for adolescents.
METHOD
This study was designed to use one group with one pre-test and two post-tests. One post-test was done immediately after the completion of the program and the other after eight weeks. The subjects were 21 male high school students who were smokers when this study was carried out. The smoking cessation program consisted of 5 sessions with smoking cessation education and e-mail service after the program. Variables in this research were nicotine dependency (using Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire) and self-efficacy. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank test.
RESULTS
Immediately after the program and eight weeks later, nicotine dependency for continuous smokers decreased significantly (after the program: Z=-2.319, p=.020, eight weeks later: Z=-1.999. p=.046) and self-efficacy increased significantly (after program: Z=-3.024. p=.002. eight weeks later: Z=-2.381. p=.017).
CONCLUSIONS
The smoking cessation program was effective in decreasing nicotine dependency in the continuous adolescent smokers and in increasing their self-efficacy, Further study needs to be made with a lager number of smoking adolescents using control group design.
Premenstrual Discomforts and Coping in University Students
Hye Young Ahn, Hye Jin Hyun, Hae Won Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):289-299.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to identify premenstrual discomforts and coping patterns and their effects.
METHOD
The participants of this study were 297 female university students in C area. The Menstrual Discomfort Questionaire (MDQ) and coping method lists were used as measurement tools.
RESULTS
There were significant differences premenstrual discomforts according to age (F=5.76, p=.003) and according to health condition (F=3.43, p=.034). The mean scores of the sub-categorical factors of premenstrual discomfort were 2.35 points for pain, 2.29 for instability and 2.25 for water retention. The worst symptoms among the subcategories of premenstrual discomfort were as follows: backache (M=2.68) in the pain subcategory, irritability (M=2.53) in the instability subcategory and swelling(M=2.40) in the water retention subcategory. Their common coping patterns were "coping according to menstrual period", "active behavioral coping" and "evasional coping". Frequently used coping methods were "taking a rest and sleep (99.3%)" and "taking a warm shower (86.2%)". Effective coping methods were "taking a rest and sleep (89.5%)" and "taking a warm shower (87.1%)".
CONCLUSION
Most participants have their own coping pattern. Some methods were very effective to PMS but some were not effective to PMS. To manage PMS, effective coping methods should be encouraged for female university students. To keep up with effective coping, education and counseling should be continued. It is considered necessary to make the same research with a larger number of samples and more specified assessment.
What is the Meaning of Moxibustion Experiences for the Korean?
Youn Ju Lee, Bun Han Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):300-307.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to identify how the participants understand the meaning of the hand-moxibustion that is mainly used for an alternative therapy, so that the participants utilize the data for the basic nursing intervention through the understand and use of the hand-moxibustion.
METHOD
This research was carried from January to May of 2003 and its participants were the elder five men and one woman who have been living in Seoul and had jobs. the researcher assorted the topics of the study by Ben Menun' methodology.
RESULT
The results showed that there was a significant effects of the hand moxibustion and treatment with protect.
CONCLUSION
The moxibustion therapy is a nursing intervention that can provide a better quality of life for the prevention of disease, health promotion may be develope in the future.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Home Visitors in Public Health Centers toward Wife Abuse
Young Ran Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):308-319.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study investigated knowledge and attitude of home visitors in public health centers toward wife abuse and the actual status of how they were detecting wife abuse and providing interventions.
METHOD
Data were collected using questionnaires from October 2003 to December 2004. The subjects were 403 home visitors at Public Health Centers around Korea. The data were analyzed using SPSS program.
RESULTS
The correction rate of knowledge related to wife abuse was 51.9%. The mean score of attitude toward wife abuse was 3.09 (SD=.40) out of 4, showing that their attitude is right. There was a significant difference in attitude according to age (F=3.27, p=.008). One hundred twenty six visitors (31.3%) detected wife abuses and each visitor confirmed 2.3 cases on the average. Forty eight respondents (38.1%) answered that they had provided interventions.
CONCLUSION
This result implies that health visitors have difficulties in detecting wife abuse, and even for identified cases, the rate of providing interventions was low. It was because health visitors' educational experience in wife abuse is insufficient and they do not regard this work as their duty. These findings suggest the necessity for developing nursing in-service programs teaching health visitors their duties and knowledge related to wife abuse.
A Study on the Type of Role Awareness for Medical Institutions Home Health Care Specialists: A Q-Methodological Approach
Yoon Jin Seo, Mi Ra Nam, Ok Hee Anh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):320-328.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study is to identify the types of role awareness of home health care specialists working at medical institutions, to understand their role awareness correctly by grasping the quality of each type, and to provide useful help in the education of home health care specialists.
METHOD
Q-methodology is used to objectify role awareness of medical institution specialists who may recognize situations differently according to their individual experience and comprehension based on the view of behavior. Q-classification was carried out on 30 home health care specialists working at medical institutions using 30 selected questions. Collected data were examined through factor analysis using QUANL PC program.
RESULTS
Three different types of role awareness of home health care specialists working at medical institutions were identified. Type I is "educational-function-centered", Type II "patient-centered" and Type III "professional-service-centered".
CONCLUSION
Regardless of these types, home health care specialists commonly had a high pride as a specialist and a sense of mission regarding themselves as important persons responsible for patients' health.
Content Analysis and Job Satisfaction of the Nurse in the Free Elderly Home and Nursing Home
Ki Wol Sung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):329-340.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The study was performed to compare the contents of jobs and job satisfaction of resident nurses at free elderly homes with nursing homes in Korea.
METHOD
The subjects consisted of 138 resident nurses at free elderly homes and nursing homes. Data were collected from the 1st of January to the 22nd of February in 2005 using a structured questionnaire containing questions on general characteristics. contents of the nurses' daily tasks, health program. job satisfaction and pay satisfaction. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 11.5) through descriptive statistics, chi2-test, t-test and ANOVA.
RESULT
For nurses at free elderly homes and nursing homes. their daily tasks consisted of health assessment. medication care and eating care. The general job satisfaction of the nurses was similar between those at free elderly homes and those at nursing homes, but working conditions and pay were significantly different according to the sub content of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was significantly different according to marital status in resident nurses at the free elderly home, and according to the experience of living with the elderly and the experience of receiving special training or lectures in elderly nursing in resident nurses at free nursing homes.
CONCLUSION
Resident nurses at free elderly homes and nursing homes had various types of tasks, and it is necessary to differentiate tasks and payment systems for them according to their job.
The Factors Affecting Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Nurses at Welfare Centers in Seoul
Hee Ja Lim, Hye Sun Jung, Jung Wan Koo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):341-350.   Published online September 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this research was to find out factors affecting job stress and job satisfaction of nurses working at the welfare centers.
METHODS
This study was performed with 140 nurses who were working at or had retired within 1 year from general welfare centers in Seoul during the period from March 29 to February 29 2004. We used a questionnaire asking about general characteristics. work characteristics. stress factors and job satisfaction. We analysed 103 subjects who replied to the questionnaires.
RESULTS
The mean job stress level was 2.84 out of 5 and. as for the sub-factors of job stress. income was 4.19, career development 3.69, service environment 3.26 and support system 1.90. The mean job satisfaction level was 3.32 out of 5 and. as for the sub-factors of job satisfaction, job control was 3.58, efficiency of organization 3.27, job burden and responsibility 2.92 and role ambiguity 2.25. When the nurses' job stress was compared according to their general and work characteristics. stress level was significantly high in nurses who had a short experience. were working at the department of senior welfare center. or were the only staff at their workplace (p<0.05). In addition. satisfaction level was significantly high in nurses who were working at the department of senior welfare center and medical welfare team. were the only staff at their workplace or had a heavy work load (p<0.05). According to the results of multiple regression analysis. job stress level was influenced by age (R2=0.212, p<0.01). and job satisfaction level by the number of staffs and work load (R2=0.272, p<0.1).
CONCLUSIONS
The results of the study suggest that good atmosphere should be made up to communicate between the departments at the workplace in order to lessen job stress and enhance job satisfaction of nurses working at welfare centers. In addition. role division and job duties among special staffs should be reviewed in order to achieve high efficiency in performing job duties.
A Study on the Subjective Musculoskeletal Symptoms Associated with Tasks of Operating Room Nurses
Hyeon Hee Park, Ggod Me Yi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(3):351-359.   Published online September 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
To find the factors of subjective musculoskeletal symptoms associated with the general characteristics and tasks of operating room nurses (OR nurses) and then to use the factors as basic information for preventing and managing musculoskeletal symptoms in OR nurses.
METHOD
This study was an exploratory research. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from OR nurses working at 8 polyclinics in Korea during the period from July 26 2004 to August 19 2004. The questionnaire contains 7 questions on general characteristics and 18 questions on tasks in the operating room.
RESULT
187 (75.1%) nurses said they 'had' subjective musculoskeletal symptoms. Statistically significant differences were observed according to clinical career, career as an OR nurse, skillfulness, satisfaction with tasks in the operating room, perception on suitable treatment, care of symptoms by the hospital. weight of hospital linen and weight of a basic operation set (p<.05).
CONCLUSION
Musculoskeletal symptoms complained of by OR nurses were significant. This may cause difficulties in nursing tasks in the operating room. Thus, various arrangements should be made for OR nurse with subjective musculoskeletal symptoms at the early stage.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing