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Volume 19 (1); March 2008
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Original Articles
Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors of the Elderly in Urban Areas
Seo Hee Choi, Yeon Hee Choi, Hee Sook Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):5-12.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The study was to examine major factors that affect suicidal ideation of elderly in urban areas.
METHODS
The subjects were 302 elders who voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments for this study were scale for suicidal ideation(19 items), family concord (20 items), CED-depression(20 items) and family inventor of life events and changes(FILE, 22 items). Frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, Pearson' correlation coefficient, stepwise multiple regression with SPSS program were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS
The average score of suicidal ideation was 14.88. Suicidal ideation was positively related to depression and stress, but negatively related to family concord. depression, family concord, stress and health status accounted for 86.1% of the variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that family concord, depression and stress can be potential risk factors for suicide of elderly.
CONCLUSIONS
These findings may give useful information for developing suicidal prevention program on old age.
Analysis of Community Health Status and Related Factors Using Community Health and Social Indicators
Eun Ok Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):13-26.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this paper was to investigate community health status and related factors using community health and social indicators.
METHOD
Data sources were reviewed and data for 10 categories, 75 indicators were collected. Community health status and health-related factors were categorized, and the means and standard deviation of individual indicators were obtained and standardized scores were calculated. In addition, through factor analysis of individual indicators by category using the scores and using the resultant factor coefficients as weights, indexes were calculated by area. Correlation and regression were analyzed.
RESULT
Each indicator was highly correlated with each index, and the indexes were highly correlated with one another. Correlation coefficients were above 0.8 between community health index and population, education, housing, and economy, between population and education, housing and economy, between education and housing and economy, and between housing and economy, environment and industry. But multicollinearity was not found in the result. Significant factors on community health index were population, health personnel and facilities, education, housing and economy, and R-square were 92.4%.
CONCLUSION
Health determinants such as population, health personnel and facilities, education, housing and economy could be influencing factors on community health in community level. These results showed the importance of intersectoral collaboration within a local government. Overall community health can be enhanced by intersectoral collaboration.
The Effects of Aromatherapy on Depression, Sleep, Mood, and Smell in Stroke Patients and Their Caregivers
Soon Rim Suh, Ji Yeong Seo, Eun Hee Choi, Wan Ju Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):27-35.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma-inhalation on depression, sleep, mood, and smell in stroke patients and their caregivers.
METHOD
This study employed one group pretest-posttest repeated design. Data were collected at three time points: baseline(pre-test), 10 days and 20 days after the intervention(post-test1 and post-test2, respectively). The sample included a total of 23 subjects. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 program using repeated measure ANOVA.
RESULTS
Depression was not statistically significant difference among pre-test, post-test1 and post-test2. Sleep was improved after intervention: 37.61+/-7.41(pre-test), 41.22+/-8.26 (post-test1), 44.33+/-7.67(post-test2)(F=8.182, p=.001). Mood was significantly improved after intervention: 16.95+/-4.89(pre-test), 14.89+/-6.31 (post-test1), 12.11+/-5.04(post-test2). Smell including smell perception, discomfort due to smell and relation between age and smell was significantly improved after intervention: 2.63+/-1.20(pre-test). 2.00+/-1.16(post-test1), 1.63+/-.96(post-test2)(F=6.176, p=.006) in smell perception, 2.50+/-1.10 (pre-test). 1.81+/-.91(post-test1), 1.19+/-.40(post-test2) (F=12.26, p=.000) in discomfort due to smell and 3.53+/-1.18(pre-test). 2.59+/-1.46(post-test1), 2.53+/-1.33(post-test2)(F=4.148, p=.025) in relation between age and smell.
CONCLUSION
The results suggest that aroma-inhalation may have an effect on sleep, mood and smell and can be effective nursing intervention to increase the relaxation in stroke patients and their caregivers.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dementia in the Community Elderly
Nam Hee Park, Youn Mee Lee, Lu Rie E
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):36-45.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to estimate the prevalence of dementia in order to estimate the associations of dementia with its risk factors in the community elderly.
METHODS
The multistage random cluster sampling method was used to select the subjects. The response rate was 94.3%. For the 1st stage screening survey, the Korean-version Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the Bathel Index of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were used as primary screening tools. At the 2nd stage, diagnoses were confirmed according to the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and Computer Tomogram (CT).
RESULTS
Age-sex adjusted prevalence (%) [95% CI] of dementia was 6.25% [4.47-7.83] (male 4.21% [2.40-6.02]; female 8.28% [5.71-10.85]). Four statistically significant risk factors of the dementia were identified: age 70-74 (OR=1.367), age 75-79 (OR=1.712), age 80-84 (OR=2.465), age 85 over (OR=7.363); illiteracy (OR=3.827); unconsciousness after head injury (OR=3.383), and no exercise (OR=2.188). Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit index of dementia risk model was E (logit of dementia)= -4.337+0.312*Age(70~74)+0.538*Age(75~79)+0.902*Age(80~84)+1.996*Age(85over)+1.342*Illiteracy+1.219*Unconsciousness after head trauma+0.783*No exercise. We confirmed that the overall prevalence of dementia in adults aged 65 and older was 94.3%. The risk factors of dementia were explained by age, illiteracy, unconsciousness after head trauma and no exercise.
CONCLUSION
These data have been used to estimate the incidence of dementia in elderly community population and to manage the possible role of risk factors as predictors of dementia.
The Effects of Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise on Urinary Symptoms and Quality of Life in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence
In Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):46-56.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise on reducing the symptoms of stress urinary incontinence and improving attitude toward exercise and quality of life.
METHOD
The research adopted was a nonequivalent control group pretest posttest design. The subjects were 55 persons who were surveyed using a structured questionnaire, and 23 persons in the experimental group among the total sample were measured for the peak pressure and the duration of PMC and trained correct pelvic floor muscle contraction using peritron in the first week. Then, pelvic floor muscle exercise was implemented for 6 weeks. The data was analyzed by chi2-test and t-test with the SPSS 10.0 program.
RESULTS
1) The degree of stress urinary incontinence, frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, noctural incontinence, the frequency and quantity of incontinence, outer clothing change and incomplete emptying decreased significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group. 2) Attitude toward pelvic floor muscle exercise and the quality of life were improved significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group. 3) The peak pressure and duration of PMC increased significantly more in the posttest.
CONCLUSION
Based on the results above, it is judged that pelvic floor muscle exercise is an effective nursing intervention in order to care for stress urinary incontinence.
Heath Promotion Priorities of Older Adults in a Rural Community
Bo Young Lee, Heui Sug Jo, Hye Jean Lee, Seung Hyun Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):57-65.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to assess the priorities of health promotion for older adults in the rural community. The study attempts to display demographic characteristics subjective health status and chronic diseases status of the older adults.
METHODS
We surveyed 384 senior residents in a community via face-to-face interviews in their homes, who were selected by proportional random sampling. We analysed the frequency, multiple responses and chi2 by SPSS 12.0K.
RESULTS
The mean of subjective health status was 54.04+/-21.69 with a maximum of 100. Our study found that the high priorities in health promotion for older adults were prevention and management of hypertension and diabetes, strengthening of joint and muscles, cancer screening and physical exercise. Prevention of depression and social activities were low priorities. Strengthening of joints and muscles was a high priority among women while smoking cessation and social activities were high priorities of men.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, health promotion priorities of older adults differed by gender and subjective health status. Disease-related priorities received more attention than psycho-social health priorities. This study suggests comparing the priorities regionally and nationally.
Influencing Factors on Self-care in the Elderly with Essential Hypertension
Hae Ok Jeon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):66-75.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate influencing factors on self-care in the elderly with essential hypertension.
METHOD
The research instruments included the Self-Care Scale, the Knowledge Scale Related to Hypertension, the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Family-Support Scale.
RESULTS
The self-care was significantly associated with knowledge (r=.510, p=.000), self-efficacy (r=.708, p=.000), and family support (r=.403, p=.000). The major factors that affected subjects' self-care were knowledge and self-efficacy, which explained 58.7% of self-care.
CONCLUSION
Hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy are important factors for nursing interventions in caring for elderly patients with hypertension. It is needed to develop nursing programs for elderly patients with hypertension and to provide nursing interventions to improve knowledge and self-efficacy and, thereby, improving the self-care of elderly patients with hypertension.
The Effects of a Calligraphy and Exercise Program on Korean Elders' Self-esteem, Stress, Quality of Life and Physical Health
Young Eun, Sun Hyae Woo, Eun Shim Kim, Hyang Sook Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):76-87.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conduct to develop a calligraphy and exercise program and examine its effects on the self-esteem, stress, quality of life and physical health of the elderly in a community health post in Korea.
METHOD
The subjects consisted of 43 elders (experimental group: 20, control group: 23) who were attending the program of a community health post. The experimental group participated in the calligraphy and exercise program for 12 weeks (3 times a week, 120 minutes a session). Data were collected before and after the program.
RESULTS
1) The experimental group showed significant improvement in self-esteem and quality of life and significant reduction in stress compared to the control group. 2) The experimental group and the control group were not significantly different in muscle strength and flexibility.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that the calligraphy and exercise program for old adults can improve their psychological health and quality of life.
The Effects of Customized Home Visiting Health Service in Gangwon-do: Focused on Hypertension and DM Clients
Soon Ok Yang, Soo Yeon Ahn, Eun Shil Yim, Myung Soon Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):88-100.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to present the effects of home visiting health service on hypertension and DM clients.
METHOD
The one-group pretest-posttest design was applied to 127 hypertension and 116 DM clients. To evaluate the effects of visiting nursing service, biological indexes and self-care abilities were measured from April to July, 2007.
RESULT
Biological indexes and self-care abilities were improved in the hypertension and DM clients who received visiting nursing service. Especially, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar showed a dramatic decrease.
CONCLUSION
Home visiting health service by public health centers is considered to be an effective nursing service in Gangwon-do. Therefore, case management is demanded not only for hypertension and DM but also for other chronic diseases.
Analysis of Research Trends on School Health
Soo Ja Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):101-111.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to analyze the trends of research on school health by examining papers related to school health.
METHOD
This studt was analyzed all related papers published in journals concerning school health from 2000 to 2006. The data were processed statistically by frequency, percentage and content analysis.
RESULTS
Among 463 papers in 6 journals related to school health, 'The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health' had the largest number of articles. Descriptive research design was the most frequently used research design, and students were the most frequent research target. Among research writers, the professor group was largest, and schools were the most frequently used place for research. The most common sampling method was convenient sampling. The most common research instrument was questionnaire survey. Parametric statistics were the main methods of data analysis. Among the themes of school health, the adoption of nursing process frames and assessment domains occupied the largest portion. Health was the most common key concept, and the mainly used theory in the journals was factor-isolating.
CONCLUSION
Through the analysis of research trends, we expect a higher level of school health research.
The Effects of Aroma Inhalation on Nursing Students' Stress Response and Anxiety before Their First Clinical Practice
Hea Sook Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(1):112-119.   Published online March 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of aroma inhalation on nursing students' stress responses and anxiety before their first clinical practice.
METHOD
Data were collected during the period from March 5 to March 10, 2007 at K College in a province. There were seventy eight subjects, 35 for the experimental group and 38 for the control group. Aroma oils used were lavender, peppermint and rosemary. Before and after the treatment, the severity of stress and anxiety were evaluated by VAS and a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test and chi2-test with the SPSS program.
RESULT
The score of subjective stress (VAS) decreased significantly after aroma inhalation (p=.000), but status anxiety was not significantly different between the two groups (p=.649).
CONCLUSION
Aroma inhalation can be a useful intervention to reduce nursing student's stress before their first clinical practice.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing