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Volume 19 (4); December 2008
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Original Articles
The Effect of an Exercise Program on Middle-aged and Aged Women in Rural Areas
Hee Kyoung Hyoung, Inn Oh Moon, Yun Suk Jeong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):545-553.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to test the effect of a 12-week exercise program on body composition, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipid and bone mineral density for middle-aged and aged women in rural areas.
METHODS
The subjects were 33 women at the age of 40-75. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics and paired t-test were used with SPSSWIN 16.0.
RESULTS
The results were summarized as follows. First, body weight, BMI, % body fat, abdominal adipose, and waist circumference of the women decreased significantly after implementing the 12-week exercise program. Second, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL decreased significantly, and the HDL level increased significantly after the 12-week exercise program. Third, bone mineral density did not increase significantly after the program.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that the exercise program has an effect in decreasing body composition, and improving blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid in middle-aged and aged women.
A Survey on Elders' Experience in and Preference for a Mentoring Program
Hee Gerl Kim, Kum Jae Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):554-563.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate elders' experience in a mentoring program and preferred characteristics of the program.
METHODS
Two hundred and ten elders dwelling in Sungnam-si, Korea participated in the survey from April 1 to May 30, 2008. Using SPSS Win 10.0, descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and t-test were performed.
RESULT
About two thirds of the elders had experience as a mentee, and a large number of them reported that it was helpful. Compared to those without, the elders with the mentee experience were more likely to perceive that it is easier to build a mentor-mentee relationship. The most common reason for wanting a mentee experience was loneliness, whereas the most frequent reason for not wanting was feeling a burden when meeting a stranger. Preferred characteristics of a mentoring program differed between the elders who had the mentee experience and those who did not.
CONCLUSION
This study concluded that a mentoring program is highly likely to provide psycho-social support to the elderly. Also, a large number of the elders who had never had a mentor-mentee relationship wanted to have it in the future. This study suggests that healthcare professionals include a mentoring program in healthcare services for the elderly, considering preferred characteristics of a mentor-mentee relationship.
A Comparative Study on Physical Health Status, Family Support, and Life Satisfaction between the Aged Living Alone and Living with Family
Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):564-574.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was a descriptive survey research to compare and to examine the levels of physical health status, family support, and life satisfaction between the aged living alone and living with family, the relations among the factors.
METHODS
Subjects were the 267 aged (living alone: 133 subjects: living with family: 134 subjects) in Seoul and Gyung-gi province. Measures were Cornell Medical Index(CMI) to check physical health status, family support scale developed by Cobb(1976) to check the family support, and elderly life satisfaction scale developed by Yun(1982) to check life satisfaction. Data were collected from March to August, 2006. Collected data were analyzed through SPSS/PC 12.0 version.
RESULTS
First, degree of the physical health status, family support, and life satisfaction in the elderly living with family were better than them in the elderly living alone. Second, the relations among the factors were all positive correlation. Third, the education and monthly allowance in aged living alone did effect to the life satisfaction.
CONCLUSION
Clinical practice should be focused on family support/social support for the aged living alone. Also nursing practitioners for the aged living alone should consider the general characteristics of them.
The Factors Affecting the Constipation of the Elderly at Nursing Homes
Ki Nam Lee, Ki Wol Sung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):575-586.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting the constipation of the elderly at nursing homes.
METHODS
A total of 184 elders at 7 nursing homes in P City participated. Information about constipation status (Constipation Assessment Scale), functional status (Katz' Activities of Daily Living), nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment), and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea version) were collected through interviews. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and compare the non constipation group and the constipation group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors affecting constipation status.
RESULTS
The prevalence of constipation was 47.5% (Men 37%, women 51%). Elders suffering from a disease (P=.021) and having low sleep satisfaction (P=.000) were more likely to be constipated than those who did not. The factors affecting the constipation of the elderly at nursing homes were gender (OR=3.558), sleep satisfaction (OR=.580), and depressive symptoms (OR=1.132).
CONCLUSION
According to the result, to reduce the constipation rate of old women at nursing homes, we have to develop guidelines that can solve problems related to constipation cause by sleep-satisfaction and depressive symptoms.
Leisure-time Activities Associated with Obesity in Adolescents
Ja Hhee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):587-599.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to compare the differences between obese and non-obese students in sedentary leisure-time activities.
METHODS
The survey was performed with 725 students from 3 different middle schools in Kyeonggi-do. In order to measure the degree of obesity, used are BMI and "2007 Korea Children and Adolescents' Average Scale". With regard to the leisure activities, YRBS and "Youth Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance" were referred.
RESULTS
The rate of boys' overweight was 18.0% and that of girls was 11.8%. Students watching TV 3hours+/day were 16.6% for boys and 30.6% for girls during weekday. Respective values for weekend were 56.8% and 71.4%. Students using computer 3hours+/day were both 14.5% for boys and girls during weekday, and 53.7% for boys and 36.7% for girls during weekend. 14.9% of boys and 21.2% of girls didn't participate in vigorous physical activities and 5.9% for boys and 11.2% for girls didn't participate in moderate physical activities. The differences between obese and non-obese students in sedentary activities were not significant. However, the difference in leisure-time activity was significant.
CONCLUSION
The programs for prevention and management of adolescents' obesity have to be focused on reducing their sedentary activities and improving physical activities.
The Effects of an Exercise Program on Body Composition, Serum lipids, Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Menopausal Women
Hung Sa Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):600-610.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to find the effects of an exercise program on body composition, serum lipids, and menopausal symptoms in Korean menopausal women.
METHODS
This research used nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 30 middle-aged women who were divided into two groups, an experimental group (n=16) who participated in the exercise program and a control group (n=14). The exercise program was composed of gymnastic-ball exercises with RPE 12~13 intensity, 50 minutes' duration and three times a week for 12 weeks from April 1 to June 30, 2008. The dependent variables (body composition, serum lipids, menopause symptoms, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction) were measured before and after exercise program.
RESULTS
There were statistically significant difference in weight (F=2.92, p=.049), percent body fat (F=4.22, p=.040), total cholesterol (F=2.63, p=.017) and high density lipoprotein (F=6.74, p=.015) between the two groups. Psychological menopausal symptoms also decreased significantly (F=7.01, p=.014) after the exercise in the experimental group.
CONCLUSIONS
Regular gymnastic-ball exercises are helpful for menopausal women. They have positive effects not only on body composition and serum lipids but also on the decrease of menopausal symptoms. The results of this study suggest that gymnastic-ball exercise programs are effective in health promotion of Korean middle-aged women, and thus it is necessary to develop exercise programs for women.
The Effects of a Stress Management Program on Job Stress in a Hotel Culinary Staff
In Sook Rhie, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):611-621.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a stress management program on Job Stress in culinary staff at a Hotel.
METHOD
This was a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were 52 culinary staff members(head culinary, first culinary) working at a S hotel.(25 in the experimental group, 27 in the control group) The experimental group was provided with an individual counseling program for 12 weeks and 30 min/week. The control group was provided with booklets. Data were analyzed with SAS Program using repeated measures ANOVA.
RESULTS
The stress management program was effective to improve job stressors and especially to relax interpersonal conflict among the sub-factors of job stress based on the results mentioned above.
CONCLUSION
This program was effective in reducing job stress. However, further studies are required to measure persistent and long-term effects through the application of the program, which is specifically designed for reduce to job stress, for over 12 weeks.
Job Stress and Health Status of Circulation Enterprise Workers
Young Ran Han, Hyun Ju Park, Hee Sang Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):622-635.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to measure the level of job stress and health status and find out factors affecting the health status among circulation enterprise workers.
METHOD
This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The subjects were 128 workers whose mean age was 33.2 years. Korean occupational stress questionnaire Short Form was used to measure job stress. Todai Heath Index that was made by Aoki in 1977 and translated by Kim(1997) was used to measure the health status.
RESULTS
The total job stress scores of men and woman fell in the lower 50% of Korean workers. Job autonomy and interpersonal conflicts as a subcategories fell in upper level 50% in both men and women and job insecurity fell in the upper level 50% in women. The mean score of health status was 51.47, indicating slightly higher frequency of complains of health symptoms. There was no significant correlation between total job stress and total health status. Finally, factors influencing the health status were organizational system and age.
CONCLUSION
Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to develop comprehensive stress management programs including interventions of personal and organizational levels for promoting workers' health.
The Processes of Habituating to Smoking among Teenagers
Soon Nyoung Yun, Yun Jeong Yi, Eun Young Suh, Chun Mi Kim, Young Ko, Mi Gyeong Jang, Jeong Hee Hyeon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):636-648.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The smoking rates among teenagers in Korea grow gradually since 1980s despite of the numerous programs for youth smoking prevention and cessation have been developed and implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the processes of habituating to smoking among teenagers using the grounded theory methodology.
METHOD
Qualitative data was collected via six focus group interviews. A total of 38 people, twelve teachers and 24 middle school students participated in this study. All focus group interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to the grounded theory methodology.
RESULTS
The overriding theme of the elicited grounded theory was "stepping into a quagmire by a merest chance". The student participants began smoking by a simple chance. The contingent factors to starting smoking were "discord within the family", "family member's smoking", "schoolwork stresses", or "a rebellious spirit". The conditions of smoking included accessibility, going around in group, and the lack of discipline. "Stigmatizing", "involved in mob violence", and "making a poor academic record" coexisted as the covariance of the smoking habituation.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study illustrated the comprehensive and insightful picture of the phenomena under investigation. Nursing implications and further directions for research were discussed.
Analysis of Working Time of Nurses in Urban Public Health Center Branches in South Korea.: Focused on Nurses for Visiting Health Service and Chronic Disease Management
Kyung Ja June, Hee Gerl Kim, Souk Young Kim, Ae Young So, Shin Young Sohn, Eun Ok Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):649-659.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to investigate working time of nurses in urban public health center branch, especially for nurses for visiting health service and chronic disease management.
METHOD
Daily note, which was developed by this research team, was distributed to nurses at 7 urban public health center branches to be filled out them for 2 weeks during 2 month from June 2007 to August 2007. We analyzed 121 daily notes recorded by visiting nurses and 65 daily notes written by chronic disease management nurses were analyzed.
RESULTS
The total working time for visiting nurses at urban public health center branches was 589.85 minutes per day on the average. They spent 147.13 min in actual visiting nursing services, 149.36 min in documenting, 66.94 in preparing, 77.69 min in transferring, and 11.84 min in referring. The total working time for chronic disease management nurses at urban public health center branches was 582.92 minutes per day on the average. They spent 148.77 min in actual chronic disease management services, 120.62 min in documenting, 42.46 min in group education, 37.38 in preparing, and 10.38 min in referring.
CONCLUSION
Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to improve documenting systems and to increase community resources linkage were recommended through the results of this study. The results of this study are expected to be used to plan staffing at urban public health center branches in the future.
An Analysis of the Elderly Care and Management in Hospital-Based Home Care Agencies
Chong Rye Song, Im Ok Kang, Yun Ok Kim, Hea Sook Jo, Moon Sook Hwang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):660-672.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To analyze the home care services provided to the elderly aged 65 and older by a hospital-based home care agencies and to investigate the effects of long-term care insurance for the elderly.
METHOD
The subjects were the home care service recipients aged 65 and older in 172 hospital-based, home care agencies registered in Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in January, 2007. The data were collected using a questionnaire from March 16 to April 15, 2007. The questionnaire return rate was 43.8%.
RESULT
The hospital-based home care agencies were able to visit 66.5% of the national administrative districts. Of the home care service recipients, over 50% were 65 years old and older. About 43% of the agencies reported that over 50% of their patients would be subject to the long-term care insurance. They expressed concern that home care services would be withdrawn once the insurance system is initiated.
CONCLUSION
This study suggests that hospital-based home care agencies need to manage home care services with long-term care insurance. It also recommends developing guidelines for the use of services and referrals.
A Study for Evaluating the Performance of a Community-based Home Care Services Model
Se Young Kim, Sung Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):673-683.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of a community-based home care services model.
METHOD
The subjects were 138 patients who have been enrolled during a 6 month's period, nursing records and nursing service bills. The data was collected by self report and chart review. The mean cost per visit was compared with those of hospitalization & clinic visit in the data from National Health Insurance Corporation.
RESULT
A significant number of patients were bed ridden(63.8%) and unconscious(27.5%), and most of the patients had complex chronic diseases. Except nursing assessment, bed sore care was the most frequent nursing treatment(25.1%) in home care services. The mean cost per visit of home care services was 34,665 won, which was lower than those of hospitalization & clinic visit for medical aid. The patients were highly satisfied with the services by visiting nurse specialists.
CONCLUSION
Community-based home care services provided cost-effective and satisfied services. Community-based home care services needs systematic supports to expand it's domain for promoting community health.
The Effects of Holistic Education on End-of-Life Care
Ki Wol Sung, Kae Hwa Jo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):684-695.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes regarding knowledge, attitude and practice toward end-of-life care in nursing university students.
METHOD
This study adopted nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects consisted of 35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group. The education was performed for 2 hours a session, once a week for 16 weeks. Data was analyzed by the SPSS/WIN 14 computer program, and included chi2 test, independent t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA.
RESULTS
There were statistically significant differences in knowledge toward end-of-life care between the experimental group and the control group.
CONCLUSION
Findings suggested that holistic education on end-of-life care was effective to change students' knowledge toward end-of-life care. Therefore, holistic education is recommended as nursing education for nursing university students.
A Comparative Study on the Effects on Urinary Incontinence between Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise and Magnetic Stimulation Therapy
Myung Sook Cho, Hae Young Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):696-703.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To Perform a randomized comparative study investigating the effects of Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise(PME) and Magnetic Stimulation Therapy(MST) and to identified the problems in each of PME & MST.
METHOD
Forty-nine patients with mild stress incontinence were randomly assigned to either of two treatment groups (24 patients in the PME group and 25 in the MST group). The PME group had a video exercising program for 40 times every day during 6 weeks. The MST group was treated with BioCon-2000TM, 2 times/week for six weeks. Pre-test and post-test were performed by Prineometer, 1-hour pad test. and Jackson's BFLUTS questionnaire of Jackson. Collected data were analysed using SAS 9.1 by frequency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z. Chi-Square-test, t-test, Fisher Exact probability test, Paired t-test, and Wilcoxon's rank sum test.
RESULTS
In comparison between before and after PME and MST, statistically significant difference was observed in maximal vaginal pressure, duration of vaginal contraction, amount of urine, and symptom of urination. In the comparison of the effectiveness between PME & MST, only the maximal of vaginal pressure (Z=2.58, p=.010) was significantly different.
CONCLUSION
The factor more effective in the MST group than in the PME group was high compliance.
A Feasibility Study of an Exercise Intervention Based on Self-efficacy Theory among Overweight and Obese College Students in Korea
Eun Seok Cha, Yun A Shin, Hee Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):704-714.   Published online December 31, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study explored the feasibility of a 12 week self-efficacy based exercise intervention for overweight and obese college students.
METHOD
A repeated measure, 4-group randomized controlled design was used. Students were recruited from two universities, in Seoul, Korea using: (1) flyers either on the campus bulletin boards or in campus restrooms; (2) advertisement on campus e-board; and (3) self-referral. Inclusion criteria were: (1) Korean college students aged 18 to 29; (2) BMI >23; (3) viscerally obese; and (4) accessible to a phone and a computer. Participants completed three self-reported questionnaires: socio-demographic questionnaire (at the baseline), Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (at the baseline and 12th week), and Physical Fitness sub-subscale (at the baseline and 12th week). Additionally, physiological data (height, weight, blood pressure) were collected at the baseline and 12th week. Descriptive statistics and a two-way mixed ANOVA were performed using SPSS12.0.
RESULTS
No significant group difference was observed. However, students with increased exercise self-efficacy during the program showed better physical fitness in the 12th week. When students' physical fitness was enhanced, the physiological factors were improved.
CONCLUSIONS
Self-efficacy based exercise intervention may be applicable and acceptable to the college students. It is necessary to conduct a replicated study with a larger sample and an elongated intervention period.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing