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Volume 20 (1); March 2009
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Original Articles
Activities of Daily Living and Nursing Needs of the Elderly in Nursing Home
Kwuy Bun Kim, Hye Kyung Lee, Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):1-11.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The study was a survey study to identify the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and nursing needs of the elderly in the nursing home and derive the fundamental data for offering the better quality of nursing service to them.
METHODS
The subjects were the 111 elderly aged over sixty five living in the nursing home located in Seoul. Measures were the nursing needs scale and ADL scale. The data were analyzed by SAS 11.0.
RESULTS
First, with regard to the nursing needs, the general need was scored average 3.0, and the emotional d social need was 3.7, and the physical need was 3.1, and the informational need was 2.7. Second, the ADL was scored at the average of 2.7, bathing 1.9, eating 3.1. Third, In correlation between the nursing needs by area, the informational nursing needs showed the sheer correlation with the physical nursing needs, emotional.social nursing needs. The physical nursing needs showed the sheer correlation with the informational.social nursing needs, and the inverse correlation with the ADL.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary that it should improve the service to meet the emotional and social nursing needs and develop the extensive nursing programs satisfying their desires based on the general traits of the elderly.
Depression and Quality of Life in Korean Elders
Hung Sa Lee, Hyun Sil Kim, Young Mi Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):12-22.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was done to investigate factors associated with depression and quality of life (QoL) among the community-dwelling elderly.
METHODS
This study used a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects were 730 elders aged over 65 living in D district of Daegu. Data were collected using questionnaires for 30 days in April, 2007. The research instruments utilized in this study were a physical function scale of long-term care insurance system, Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea Version (GDSSF-K), and Korean Quality of Life Scale (KoQoLs). The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan, stepwise multiple regression, and Spearman correlation.
RESULTS
The mean age of the subjects was 72.6, and 68.8% and 57.9% of subjects were, respectively, female and living alone. 12.3% of variance in depression was explained by age, education, economic status, subjective health, alcohol consumption, condition of teeth, and fall experience. 18.2% of variance in QoL was explained by economic status, number of diseases, condition of teeth, incontinence, paralysis, and IADL. Economic status and condition of teeth were contributing factors to depression and QoL of the elderly.
CONCLUSION
Findings of this study may be useful in understanding the health status of the community-dwelling elderly and developing more regionally specific health promotion strategies.
A Study on Self-Achievements and Related Factors in Elders
Myoung Ja Wang, Eun Ju Seo, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):23-30.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to identify the relationship among self-management, economic stability, self-esteem, self-achievement and predictor of the self-achievements in elders.
METHODS
A total of 294 subjects aged between 60 and 92 were selected through convenient sampling. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from May to June, 2008. Collected data were analysed by the SPSS/WIN 15.0 program.
RESULTS
Self-management, economic stability, self-esteem, self-achievement were positively correlated. The most significant predictor of self-achievement in elders were self-management and self-esteem.
CONCLUSION
These findings suggest that self-achievement is influenced by self-management and self-esteem and needed for aged well.
Factors Affecting the Self-Rated Health of Vulnerable Elderly
Young Ko, In Sook Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):31-40.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the factors affecting the self-rated health of vulnerable elderly in community.
METHODS
The subjects were 2,328 elderly over 65 years who were enrolled in the Visiting Health Care Center in J-gu of S-city from Apr. 2007 to Sep. 2008. Data were collected using questionnaires including general characteristics, health related behavior and health status by nurse at the time of enrollment. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS
47.2% of the male subjects and 57.2% of the female subjects rated their health "poor". Gender differences were observed in the factors affecting on Self-Rated Health. ADL, depression and the number of diseases played a major role for men, whereas depression, IADL, the number of diseases, ADL, regular exercise and education played a major role for women. These factors explained 17~29% of variance in Self-Rated Health.
CONCLUSION
Gender-specific programs for vulnerable elderly may be developed based on this study. Both physical and psychological functions need to be integrated into the programs to improve self-rated health of vulnerable elderly.
Relationship between Family Burden, Family Support Depression, and Satisfaction of the Elderly Caregiver
Joo Young Lee, Young Ae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):41-48.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was aimed to explain the relationship of family burden, family support, depression and satisfaction among caregivers of the elderly.
METHODS
The study population were 126 caregivers of 5 elderly residing in institutionalized nursing homes in Seoul and Kyunggi. The research tool of this study was a structured questionnaire on family burden, family support, depression and satisfaction. The data were collected from March 13 to April 30, 2008, and analyzed by Cronbach's alpha, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression by using the SPSS/WIN 14.0 program.
RESULTS
The major findings of this study were as follows: a significant positive correlation between family support and depression (r=.65, p=.001) was found. A significant positive correlation between family support and satisfaction (r=.68, p=.001) was perceived. Significant factors influencing Satisfaction were Family Support, which explained 38.2% of the variance of Satisfaction of Elderly Caregiver.
CONCLUSION
This study suggested that we should develop programs and policies to increase the satisfaction of caregivers for their family support. In conclusion, the study was done to give suggestions to improve caregiver satisfaction of the aged and to serve as a basis for policy strategies by examining the current conditions of the nursing facilities.
A Study on Yangsaeng for Health Promotion of Aged Women in Rural Area
Hee Young Jung, Hyoung Sook Park, Soo Youn Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):49-58.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to explore the yangsaeng level in a health management way of an aged women in rural area, and to offer basic material for the development of community's public health service.
METHODS
The subjects were 144 aged women who participated voluntarily in the questionnaire. The data were collected from January to February, 2008 with a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 win program for finding frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and Tukey.
RESULTS
The average age of workers was 72. Total yangsaeng level was 3.08+/-.33, highest yangsaeng factor was Activity & Rest Yangsaeng of 3.55+/-.46 and lowest yangsaeng factor was Season Yangsaeng of 2.43+/-.75. The total Yangsaeng level was the significant difference in monthly incomes(F=4.046, p=.047).
CONCLUSION
Considering the results above, the yangsaeng level of aged women is affected by the age, education level, a monthly income etc. Therefore, for health promotion plan of aged women, consider that their age, educational level, economic level ect, and systematic education for promotion of health is necessary.
Effects of Lower Extremity Muscle Strengthening Exercise Using Elastic Resistance on Balance on Elderly Women
Han Ju Lee, Sang Wan Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):59-66.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of study was to test the effect of lower extremity muscle strengthening exercise using elastic resistance on balance on elderly women.
METHODS
Twenty four women who were over 65 years old were randomly assigned to either the experimental group that received the exercise programme (n=12) or to the control group (n=12) that continued normal activities except programme. Exercises included the following 7 different activities; chair squat, knee flection, extension, hip flection, extension, calf muscle raise, ankle dorsiflection. All the participants were subject to 3 tests, including One-Leg Standing Test, Functional Reaching Test, and Up & Go Test. The measurements were made before the excercise, 4 and 8 weeks after the exercise. The data were analyzed by using the two way repeated ANOVA.
RESULTS
The results were as follows; As compared with change of balance capacity between groups, a significant difference was shown in the up and go test (p<.05), but not in balance performance clinical test of OLST (p>.05) and FRT (p>.05).
CONCLUSION
The lower extremity muscle strengthening exercise using elastic resistance for the elderly women had some positive effects on the balance. Therefore this intervention can be broadly applied to other elders for preventing falls.
The Relation between Social Support and Loneliness in Migrant Workers
Soon Hee Lee, Shin Jeong Kim, Young Joo Lee, Sook Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):67-74.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual condition of social support and loneliness and to examine of the relation between social support and loneliness in migrant workers.
METHODS
One hundred and thirty migrant workers were sampled from two churches located at Seoul and Gyeonggi-do in order to collect basic data onmigrant workers from August to December, 2007 using a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA test.
RESULTS
1) The average scores of social support and loneliness were 3.73 +/- 0.31 and 2.57 +/- 0.31, respectively. 2) With respect to the general characteristics of subjects, there was no statistically significant difference in social support, but there was a significant difference in loneliness according to religion (t=2.586, p=.001). 3) The correlation coefficient between social support and loneliness was not significant (r=-.010, p=.929).
CONCLUSION
Social support should be considered in nursing intervention to decrease the level of loneliness in migrant workers. More studies are needed to identify variables influencing social support and loneliness in migrant workers.
An Analysis of Articles for Health Promotion Behaviors of Korean Middle-Aged
Young Sil Kang, Mi Ja Chung, Yong Sook Park, Yeong Sook Lee, Hyang Sook Kim, Dong Mae Lee, Dong Won Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):75-86.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study has a purpose to suggest research and intervention directions for health promoting behaviors (HPB) of the Korean middle-aged in the future.
METHODS
Forty four articles on HPB of the Korean middle-aged were reviewed and analyzed. The articles analyzed are theses written for a doctoral or master's degree and published between 1995 and 2007.
RESULTS
1. As for the major characteristics of the subject groups, most of them were between 40 and 60 years old (61.4%), were females (79.5%), and resided in cities (84.1%). 2. The dependent variables adopted were physiological, psychological and cognitive factors (self-efficacy, knowledge of health management, etc.), HPB and factors related to Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). 3. The average scores of HPLP were 1.57~3.08 on a 4-point scale. The highest score was observed in self-actualization, and the lowest score in exercise. 4. Self-efficacy, perceived health status and income had significant correlations with HPB. 5. In regression analysis, self-efficacy, self-esteem and perceived health status were the most powerful predictors.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to develop intervention tools for more diverse HPB of the Korean middle-aged. The interventions are recommended to focus on increasing exercise and to use strategies for improving self-efficacy and self-esteem.
The Effects of an Aquatic Exercise Program on Pain, Fatigue, Physical Fitness, Disability in ADL, and Psychological Variables in Women with Arthritis
Koung Oh Chang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):87-95.   Published online March 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aquatic exercise on pain, fatigue, physical fitness, disability in ADL, and psychological variables in women with arthritis.
METHODS
With a quasi-experimental design, 46 women who has arthritis were assigned into an experimental group (n=23), or a control group (n=23). Data were analyzed with SPSS/WIN using descriptive statistics, t-test and ANCOVA.
RESULTS
The mean age of the subjects was 60.9 years in the experimental group and 59.8 years in the control group. The pretest scores of theoutcome variables were similar between the two groups except fatigue and waist flexibility. After controlling fatigue and waist flexibility, the experimental group showed more improvement than the control group in Rt shoulder flexibility score (F=4.36, p=.04), sit-up score (F=32.34, p=.00), and muscle strength score (F=30.78, p=.00). The score of disability in ADL decreased in the experimental group (F=5.49, p=.02). The depression score decreased in the experimental group (F=12.01, p=.00), and self-efficacy was improved more than the other variables(F=8.88, p=.00).
CONCLUSION
Aquatic exercise is likely to be an effective nursing intervention to improve physical fitness, to reduce pain, fatigue, and disability in ADL, and to enhance psychological functions in women with arthritis.
A Study on the Awareness of Importance, Performance Level, and Perceived Competence Level of School Health Promotion Programs
Soon Ok Yang, Myung Soon Kwon, Geum Hee Jeong, Seung Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):96-104.   Published online March 31, 2009
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental materials for improving school health promotion programs by investigating school nurses' awareness of the importance, performance level, and perceived competence level of school health promotion programs in Gangwon-do.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 173 school nurses who were working in Gangwon-do. The instrument for this study was a scale for awareness of importance, performance level, and perceived competence level. Data were collected on December 15, 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 for Windows.
RESULTS
The mean score of awareness of importance was 3.51 (range: 1~4). The mean score of performance level and the mean score of perceived competence level were 3.35 (range: 1~4) and 3.29 (range: 1~4), respectively. The younger school nurses were (F=4.380, p=.014), the higher their awareness of importance was. The performance level was lowest in high school nurses (F=5.013, p=.008). There were significant correlations between awareness of importance, performance level, and perceived competence level in school nurses.
CONCLUSION
In order to improve the effectiveness of school health promotion programs, training and education programs for school nurses' competencies and technical support systems for school nurses should be provided.
Identifying Minimum Datasets for Pressure Ulcer Assessment and Analysis of Nursing Records in Home Nursing
Hyun Young Kim, Hyeon Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(1):105-111.   Published online March 31, 2009
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify minimum datasets for ulcer assessment and to map the minimum datasets to paper-based nursing records for pressure ulcer care in homecare setting.
METHODS
To identify minimum datasets for pressure ulcer assessment, the authors reviewed four guidelines for pressure ulcer care. The content validity of the minimum datasets was assessed by three homecare nurse specialists. To map the minimum datasets to nursing records, the authors examined 107 pressure ulcer events derived from 45 pressure ulcer patients who received home nursing from two hospitals in Gyeonggi Province.
RESULTS
The minimum datasets for initial assessment were anatomical location, stage, size, tissue, exudate, condition of periwound skin, undermining, odor, and pain. 'Location' was recorded best, accounting for a complete recording rate of 98.1%. 'Exudate' and 'pain' showed the poorest record, accounting for 2.8% and 0%,respectively. The minimum datasets for progress assessment were wound size, tissue, and exudate, each accounted for 31.8%, 2.8%, and 4.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSION
This study concluded that data on pressure ulcer assessment was not sufficient homecare and it can be improved by adopting minimum datasets as identified in this study.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing