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Volume 20 (4); December 2009
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Original Articles
The Effects of a Physical Activity Promotion Programs with Telecoaching Negotiation on Physical Fitness and Quality of Life in the Frail Elderly
Yoon Ji Kim, Ji Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):391-402.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to show the effects of a Physical activity promotion program with tele-coaching on physical fitness (grip strength, static and dynamic equilibrium) and quality of life in the frail elderly.
METHODS
Data were collected from May 30 to October 19, 2008. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, an experimental group (n=27) and a control group (n=26). The experimental group participated in the Physical activity promotion program, and the control group did not participate in any Physical activity promotion program.
RESULTS
The results of this study supported the hypothesis that "the experimental group will have higher physical fitness (right grip strength, left grip strength and static equilibrium except dynamic equilibrium) and quality of life than the control group." CONCLUSION: Physical activity promotion programs with tele-coaching are strongly recommended as health promotion for the frail elderly.
The Effects of Group Movement Training on Psychophysiological Variables and the Range of Motion in the Institutionalized Elderly
Boo Deuk Suh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):403-411.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of a group movement exercise program on psychophysiological variables in the institutionalized elderly.
METHODS
This research adopted the non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Twenty elders were selected as an experimental group, whereas twenty-two elders were as a control group. The group movement program consisted of 35 minutes of dance and three days a week for eight weeks. Resting systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured in a relaxed sitting position. The range of flexion and extension of joint was measured with a gonimeter. Life satisfaction and self-efficacy were measured by self-report. Data were analyzed through chi2-test, t-test and ANCOVA using SPSS/WIN program.
RESULTS
The results were as follows: Resting systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate decreased significantly by the group movement training. The range of flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints increased significantly. The scores of life satisfaction and self-efficacy increased remarkably by the group movement.
CONCLUSION
The results suggest that group movement training can be an effective intervention to improve psychophysiological variables and the range of motion for the institutionalized elderly.
Comparison of Gender Stereotype between Female Nursing Students and Humanities Students
Jeong Mo Park, Suk Jeong Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):412-420.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify difference in gender stereotype between female nursing students and humanities students.
METHODS
A descriptive comparative study was done. The subjects were 300 nursing students and 114 humanities students who were selected by convenient sampling. Data were collected from September 2008 to October 2008 using a constructive questionnaire with 30 questions, which was prepared for this study by modifying the instrument about gender stereotype developed by Kim. The data were analyzed through ANCOVA, factor analysis and Chronbach's alpha using the SPSS program.
RESULTS
1) Of the six subcategories of gender stereotype, five were higher in the nursing students than in the humanities students, but occupational gender stereotype was not. 2) Age affected total, familiar, social, external, and intellectual gender stereotype. 3) Self-satisfaction and major satisfaction affected social gender stereotype. 4) In the analysis of difference in gender stereotype with controlling age, self-satisfaction and major satisfaction, the nursing students showed statistically significant higher scores in intellectual stereotype than the humanities students.
CONCLUSION
Because female nursing students tended to show high gender stereotype, nursing educators need to develop programs for helping nursing students escape from gender stereotypes and increase their self-satisfaction.
Research Trends and Quality Evaluation of Family Nursing Interventions Outside Korea
Kasil Oh, Hyun Mi Ahn, Jin Suk Ra, Eun Young Cho
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):421-432.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study investigated trends in family nursing intervention studies and evaluated the quality of studies using the RCT design.
METHODS
This study included a total of 898 abstracts published from 1977 to 2007 in order to describe trends in family nursing intervention studies. Out of 898 studies, 153 RCT studies were selected for quality evaluation. The criteria of Jadad et al. (1996) were employed for the quality evaluation.
RESULTS
The number of RCT studies on family nursing interventions increased since 2001. Only 6.8% of the studies were published in the area of nursing. Most of the family interventions (27.1%) focused on individual family members and only 8.2% of the studies provided interventions to family as a whole unit. Nine different modes of family nursing intervention could be categorized, but none of the studies used the double blind design. Few studies utilized protocols for interventions. Only 17.5% of the studies reported the rationale for sample size. The mean score was 1.6 out of 5 according to the criteria of Jadad et al. (1996).
CONCLUSION
Refined definitions and attributes of family nursing intervention modes are needed. Most of the studies did not meet the expectations of RCT. Thus, it is needed to improve the quality of design. More RCT studies should be conducted to provide evidence-based practice of family nursing interventions.
Factors affecting the Success of Smoking Cessation for Six Months in the Smoking Cessation Clinic of a Public Health Center Based on the Trans-theoretical Model
Yun Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):433-442.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting on the successful cessation of smoking for six months in the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 568 adult smokers who had registered in the smoking cessation clinic of a public health center in B City. Data were analyzed through chi2-test, t-test, and logistic regression using the SPSS/WIN 12.0 program.
RESULTS
Identified factors affecting the successful cessation of smoking for six months were service type, number of counseling, alcohol problem, previous quit-smoking trial, dependency on nicotine, CO level in expiration at the first visit time, self-reevaluation, helping relationship, negative/affective situational temptation, and Cons.
CONCLUSION
Trans-theoretical Model variables were confirmed as factors affecting the success of smoking cessation. Based on the results of this study, a smoking cessation program was suggested, which uses Trans-theoretical Model variables affecting smoking cessation for six months in a public health center.
Influencing Factors on the Need of Community Care Services in the Family Caregivers of Hospital-based Home Care Patients
Mee Young Jang, Ga Eon Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):443-452.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study were to examine the need of community care services and the influencing factors of the need in the family care givers of hospital-based home care patients.
METHODS
Data were collected from 256 family caregivers, who were recruited from 10 hospitals in a metropolitan city. A structured questionnaire on the characteristics of caregivers, resources, and patients was administered. Also, questions on the need of community care services were added. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the influencing factors of the need for community care services.
RESULTS
The participant needed more transportation service, lease of health care devices, visiting bath, caring, visiting hair dressing than that of housekeeping, short-term care, and day care service. Various variables from the three factors were found to be influenced on the need of community care services.
CONCLUSION
The accessibility of the higher need of community care services should be increased for hospital-based home care users. Also, the factors of Family care giver, Resource, and Patient might be considered to provide community care services of hospital-based home care users.
Development of Health Education Program Components for Early Childhood and the Investigation of Teachers' Awareness and Performance Rate of Health Education
Myung Soon Kwon, Suk Jung Han, Oh Soon Yoon, Myung Sun Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):453-464.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to develop health education program components for early childhood and to investigate teachers' awareness of the importance of health education and their performance rate of health education.
METHODS
Early childhood health education program components were developed using two rounds of the Delphi method. The Delphi group consisted of 21 experts in childhood education. After health education program components were developed, they were used in surveying child care teachers' awareness of importance and performance rate and 151 teachers sampled from 30 child care centers participated in the survey.
RESULTS
The early childhood health education program components consisted of 5 areas, 16 subjects and 33 specific contents. Early childhood teachers' awareness of importance was over 4.5 points in all the areas and in 11 out of the 16 subjects. The most frequently educated subjects were 'the importance of hand washing' and the least frequently educated subject was 'obesity prevention'. The teachers' awareness of importance and their performance rate of specific contents were high in 'maintaining order' and 'using children's rides safely,' and low in 'obesity prevention' and 'infectious disease prevention.' CONCLUSION: The components of this health program were developed in consideration of field feasibility and the relationship of health program education in elementary, middle and high school.
Workers' Health Belief in Health Promotion Programs and Related Factors
Young Im Kim, Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Souk Young Kim, Hyun Ju Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):465-473.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between worker's health belief in health promotion programs and their demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics.
METHODS
This study used survey data from 262 small- and large-scale workplaces. The study included 1149 male and female workers who completed the questionnaires.
RESULTS
The health belief score increased significantly with age and length of service. Male, married, shift-work, and white-collar workers showed a significantly higher health belief score than female, single, non-shift-work, and blue-collar ones. Workers with disease history, hypertension, or obesity had a significantly higher health belief score. Regular exercise was significantly correlated with the health belief score. When all the variables were included in the model, the health belief score was significantly higher in workers who were married, had a longer length of service, worked in the sales department, were diagnosed with hypertension, exercised regularly, and felt fatigue.
CONCLUSION
The results showed that workplace intervention programs meet more the needs of workers who have a higher health belief score. In addition, given that healthier life style was related to a higher health belief score, further research is required to find how to change health behavior in workers.
The Effects of Danjeon Breathing Exercise on Vital Capacity, Physical Fitness, Anxiety and Depression among Older Adults
Kyung Sun Hyun, Jeong Sook Won, Won Ock Kim, Sang Sook Han, Ji A Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):474-482.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Danjeon Breathing Exercise (DBE) on vital capacity, physical fitness, anxiety and depression among older adults.
METHODS
This study employed the nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The experimental group participated in a 12-week DBE program. Vital capacity and physical fitness were measured with a health measurement system (HELMAS). Anxiety and depression were measured with SCL-90-R-K. Data were collected from 37 community-dwelling older adults (experimental group=21, control group=16) in the Seoul metropolitan area. The data were analyzed by chi2-test, Mann-Whitney test and ANCOVA.
RESULTS
The experimental group taking DBE reported significant increases in flexibility than the control group, but differences in vital capacity and balance were not significant. Older adults taking DBE showed significant decreases in the anxiety and depression levels.
CONCLUSION
A DBE program may be a useful nursing intervention for older adults to improve their flexibility and to reduce anxiety and depression.
Comparison of Health-related Characteristics and Self-care Behavior between a Hypertension Controlled Group and a Non-Controlled Group of Hypertension Patients in a Customized Home Visiting Health Service
Hyo Soon Jang, Hee Kyoung Hyoung, Kyoung Huy Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):483-492.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to compare health-related characteristics and self-care behavior between a controlled group and a non-controlled group of hypertension patients in a customized home visiting health service.
METHODS
This study was conducted as cross-sectional research. The subjects were 1,317 hypertension-controlled patients and 555 non-controlled ones. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi2-test, and t-test using the SPSS WIN 15.0 program.
RESULTS
Socio-demographic characteristics and self-care behavior were not significantly correlated between the groups. According to health-related characteristics, the health status was significantly higher in the hypertension-controlled group than in the non-controlled group. The cholesterol level was significantly lower in the hypertension-controlled group than in the non-controlled group.
CONCLUSION
Attention should be paid to patients who are not in good health status in order to control their hypertension. Also, it is necessary to educate the patients in order for them to manage their hypertension and cholesterol.
The Effects of Aromatherapy and Hand Massage on Anxiety, Sleep, and Depression in the Female Aged at Residential Facilities
Sung Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):493-502.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study adopted the non-equivalent control group pre-posttest design in order to examine the effects of aromatherapy and hand massage on anxiety, sleep, and depression in the female aged at residential facilities.
METHODS
This study was executed with the female aged at two residential facilities divided into an experimental group (n=35) and a control group (n=37). Data were collected by checking changes in the anxiety, sleep, and depression of the subjects who had received aromatherapy and hand massage ten times for two weeks. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance).
RESULTS
The condition of anxiety and depression of the experimental group who had received aromatherapy and hand massage was significantly lower than that of the control group. Also, the condition of sleep of experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group.
CONCLUSION
The aromatherapy and hand massage program had a positive effect on institutionalized elders' anxiety, sleep, and depression pattern.
Factors Influencing Hotel Workers' Health Practices
In Sook Rhie
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):503-512.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the factors influencing hotel workers' health practice.
METHODS
This study was based on the partial PRECEDE model. The subjects of this study were 261 servers sampled at random from a hotel located in Seoul. For the statistical analysis of collected data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression were performed with the SAS (Version. 8.01) program.
RESULTS
There were statistically significant primary factors influencing different parts of health practice. That is, regular exercise was influenced by gender, age and marital status, diet habit was by marital status, and type of working, prohibition of smoking was by gender, age and type of employment, and drinking by gender and job stress.
CONCLUSION
This study has a limitation in generalized application to hotels in this country because it is a cross-sectional examination about the factors affecting health practice in the employees of a hotel. Further study is needed with various and broad variables that promote health practice and contributed to the development of health promotion programs.
The Effects of a Death Preparing Education Program on Death Anxiety, Spiritual Well-being, and Meaning of Life in Adults
Me Ok Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):513-521.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analysis the effect of death preparing education on death anxiety, spiritual well-being and meaning of life in adults.
METHODS
This study adopted the one group pre-posttest design. Data collection and intervention were performed from January 19 to 25, 2009. The participants were 30 adults (aged 20 or older) in Jeonju City. The death preparing education program consisted of five steps. Data were analyzed through paired t-test with the SPSS/WIN 12.0 program.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in death anxiety, spiritual well-being and meaning of life between before and after the death preparing education program.
CONCLUSION
The death preparing education program for adults was confirmed to be an effective intervention to lower death anxiety and to improve spiritual well-being and the meaning of life. Therefore, we look forward to the broad application of this program to adults.
The Effects of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Depression and Quality of Life among Women in Urban Areas
Seung Mi Park, Ji Yun Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):522-530.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to investigate the effects of lower urinary tract symptoms on depression and quality of life among women in urban areas.
METHODS
The participants in this study were 306 women in P city. Data were collected using a questionnaire from May 1 to June 6, 2008. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were measured with BFLUTS-SF and categorized into voiding, filling and incontinence. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Fisher exact test, and multiple regression.
RESULTS
Age, filling and incontinence, and all of the subcategories of LUTS explained 16% of variance in depression. Older women, LUTS with incontinence, filling and incontinence, and all the problems including filling, voiding and incontinence lowered the quality of life.
CONCLUSION
In order to develop nursing interventions for women with urinary tract symptoms, comprehensive understanding of LUTS is needed.
A Study on Knowledge of Oral Health, Behavior, Self-Efficacy, Belief, and the Number of Dental Caries of Elementary School Students
Ggod Me Yi, Hye Jin Hyun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):531-539.   Published online December 31, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To understand the differences and correlations of the knowledge of oral health, behavior, self-efficacy, belief, and the number of cavities in accordance with the general traits of elementary school students.
METHODS
The survey was conducted at 2 elementary schools in D city, which 740 respondents were analyzed.
RESULTS
A group of students who have received health education has plentiful knowledge of oral health and have more cavities. Also, a group of students who have been to dental clinics recently have more knowledge of oral health, follow guidance on oral health, and have high level of belief in health. The more knowledge of oral health the students have, the better they behave for oral health and the higher self-efficacy and belief in oral health become. Students with higher self-efficacy show more knowledge of oral health, more appropriate behavior, and stronger belief in oral health, while the number of cavities are much less.
CONCLUSION
Health education contributes to improving the level of knowledge of oral health. Comprehensive programs beyond simple introduction of knowledge will be needed to improve behavior, self-efficacy, and belief in oral health. It is recommended to include a health clinic within a program for improving oral health in school so that it can help more students get oral health.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing