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Volume 7 (2); December 1996
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Original Articles
Study on Effective Utilization Strategies of the Home Health Care Program in the Community Care Service of Welfare Policy
Sung Sil Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):183-202.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study was designed out to develop a home health care service for nurses working in community care services. This study investigates actual conditions at welfare institutions related to health needs the demands of clients, and the state of home health care services we hope that this study will improve upon the current service system. In Korea home health care services are still developing and only new becoming a part of the health care supply system. The data was collected by recording the client home nursing assessments modified to the situation of UTMB home health agency. In this study 107 clients were selected for home care who needed care for physical and mental deficits. The study lasted from March to November of 1995 at one of the welfare service institutions in Chunchon city. The results show that those who most frequently needed care services were over 50 years old with a health deficit of 80.3%, followed by sex as women who needed care at 59.8%. 50.5% of the clients had very little education. 99.1% of the clients live with their family, and a medical diagnostic analysis reveals that 73.9% of the 5 year period of illnesses were the following : 38.8% - muscular -skeleton system disorder, 24.4% - hypertension and stroke, 25.7% sole disease of arthritis. For behavioral conditions 43.3% of the patients were without care services, 56.6% of the patients were taking treatment that 73.5% of those were taking medication. The most main complaint of patients were 22.4% of pain in the extremities, next were 16.8% of a limitation of body activities, 15.0% was lumbo-sacralgia. According to the investigator who was a senior student nurse, the following suggestions were made: 32.7% for curative medical services, 29.9% for physical exercise, 19.6% for emotional support. Consultation nursing services consisted of 67.2% for physical therapy, 11.2% for the maintaining healing, 9.4% for counseling. The patients at home, required assistance most frequently for muscular-skeleton problems under the category of physical systems (33.3%). But, on the other hand, 49.5% of the patients required care givers at home, 28.2% had a knowledge deficit, 21.0% had malnutrition, 18.4% had bad impaired communication. The character of health problems were devided into chronic disease(67.0%), accidents(I3.1%), and general disease(15.9%). 86% of the disabled client had an impairment of the physical system. Eating (86.9%) , Toileting(77.6%), and personal care showed much the same of ADL condition, the level and range of achievement of mobility, the most frequently self performed was 81.3% only in a room size area, and 40.2% were completely dependent when going out. Although there were a large number of home care services in th community at these welfare institutions, many clients needed a variety of curative services. As policy changes have gathered momentum, responsibility for the development of a more suitable program was demanded by the clients from the community.
A Study of Activities and Demand on Welfare Nursing in Korea
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):203-215.   Published online December 31, 1996
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Social security is concerned with ensuring all citizens maintain basic needs, community health nursing maintains and promotes health for all community members. Lately, This new area of community health nursing, concern social welfare has increased. The objectives of this study are, first, to analysis the activities of nurses at community social welfare institutes, second, to estimate nursing demand for social welfare areas. The study methods used were as literature review, an analysis of statistical data and case study etc. The analytical framework also included a demand analysis of nursing manpower in community social welfare areas. The major results are as follows; 1. Employees which work at social welfare institutes number 55,464, nursing manpower (including nurse aids) number 1,458 and this is 3% of the total employees. Within nursing manpower, nurses number 780, nurse aids number 670. 2. The rates of nurses among total employees were high in institutes for mental disorders and institutes for the age. 3. The salary level of nurses was lower than average and the rates of retirement showed a roughly middle level in welfare institutes. 4. The satisfaction level of nursing services was high, and it is the trend that nurses substitute for nurse aids which retire at social welfare institutes. 5. Nurse demand that follows legal criteria is 2,221, but only 35% are working. It is therefore insufficient from the minimum of 733 to a maximum 1433. 6. The sufficiency rates by institution were high at institutes for vagrants, aged and the handicapped. In conclusion, the conditions are of nurses which are working in with the social welfare institutes are poor. Also the number of nurses compared rates of demand were in surplus. But, the basic direction of welfare policy is universal-preventive and provision of the family and of community centered service, and nursing service demand in the social welfare institute will increase continuously, we predict. Therefore, we will need a positive plan such as the development of an inservice education program and the construction of an information collection system etc.
A Study on Physical, Cognitive, and Social Functioning Levels in Institutionalized elderly
Jung Soon Kim, Ja Youn Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):216-228.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purposes of this study were to investigate levels of physical, cognitive, and social functioning in institutionalized elderly. The subjects were 78 residents of a nursing home for the elderly in Pusan. The data were collected from June 24th to July 8th, 1996 using interview and observational method. The structured questionnaires developed by Kim, by Kwon & Park, and by researcher were adopted to measure physical, cognitive, and social function, respectively. The data were analyzed using percentages, means, t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha with the SPSS PC programs. The results were summarized as follows: 1. 34.2% of the subjects had a paralysis, strokes 26.3%, hearing impairment 15.9%, vision impairment 11.8%, mental disturbance 11.8%, cognitive disturbance 10.5%. 2. The mean score on the physical function for the subjects was 73.14, and the items with low functioning levels were 'ascending the stairs', 'bathing' in that order. There was no significant difference in physical function according to the following demographic characteristics: sex, age, and education level. 3. 50.0% of subjects was categorized 'definite dementia', 'questionable dementia' 11.5%, 'definite non-dementia' 38.5%. There was a significant difference in cognitive function according to sex, but were no significant differences according to following demographic characteristics: age and education level. 4. The mean score on the social function for the subjects was 17.60. The items with comparatively high score were in simple activities such as 'enjoying talking with his friends', 'watching TV or listening to the radio', and the items with low score were in complex activities such as 'enjoying a hobby',. 'enjoying a game', 'reading the newspaper or book'. There were no significant differences in social function according to sex and age, but was a significant difference according to education level. 5. Social function was positively correlated with both physical function and cognitive function.
A Study on the Health as Perceived by the Aged
Koung Hee Yang, Hey Sook Jang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):229-243.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purpose of this study was to develop a nursing model for the aged. This study was conducted to measure the physical, psychological and mental health status of the aged and to identify relationships between these health levels and various variables. The data were collected from 172 aged(over 60 years old) by interviews. The tools used for this study was a structured questionnaire which was developed and revised by the researchers. The tool consisted of 22 items on physical health assessment, 7 items on psychological health assessment, 9 items on mental health assessment and 10 items on an ADL evaluation. The major results of the study were as follows ; 1. In physical health, the aged complained of visual disturbance(60.5%), incontinence of urine (55.2%), back or muscle pain(73.3%), dizziness(70.3%) and diarrhea or constipation(44.2%). In psychological health, most aged people felt anger when they got some order from an other person(80.2%). Also, they had depression (69.8%) and felt like dying(64.0%). The ADL level was mostly normal for daily life. 2. The aged man was more healthy than the aged woman in physical and mental health especially the 60-64 year old group. The physical, mental health and ADL level had a positive correlation with age(p>.004), but psychological health had a negative correlation with age. 3. The physical, psychological, mental health and ADL level was positively interrelated with each other. 4. The physical, mental health, & ADL level lowered with inceasing age. Physical & psychological health worsened rapidly from 65-69 years, but for 10-15 years, their health level was preserved. Psychological health level was high in 80-84. 5. The physical health was affected by edu cational level, sex and pocket money (R=.4029, 16.24%). The psychological health was affected by the supportive style and pocket money (R=.5128, 26.30%). And the mental health was affected by education level, age, support ive style, sex and job(R=.4377, 19.16%). As seen above, we suggest the intervention of the young for the old to cope with their life and to maintain their healthy late adulthood. Also, if they have received psychological support in the institution, they will maintain healthy life condition. For further studies should be a search for variables that affect aged health, and should contribut to a nursing program better suited for the aged.
A Comparative Study of Health Status in Urban and Rural Elderly: Kwangju, Chonnam Area
Hae Young Kang, Su Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):244-256.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This Study was conducted to investigate and compare of elderly lived in a urban and rural Area. The Subject were sampled in convenient sampling and total number of sample were 450 Persons (Urban=150, Rural=300). The Data were collected through one by one interview with interview schedule in the period of March 1-30, 1995. The Study Tools for this study were 1) CMI, 2) Self Rating Score for Health Status, 3) No. of Dignosed Diseases, 4) ADL to investigate for physical health status, 5) IADL for social health status and, 6) Life Satisfaction for psychological health status. The Data was analyzed in percentage, t-test, chi2 and pearson correlation by SAS program. The Results could be summarized as follows; 1) In the status of physical health, the group of rural elderly were tended to have more physical problems but more active in daily life (ADL, IADL) and more satisfactory psychologically in their life than urban elderly. 2) There were negative correlations between the number of Health Problems and Self Rating Score for Health, ADL, IADL, Life Satisfaction. And there was positive correlation between the Number of Health Problems and Diagnosed Diseases.
Comparison of Health Practice and Health status of college students according to Sex
Kyung Min Park, Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):257-264.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purpose of this study was to compare health practice and health status college students according to sex. The data consisted of a random sample of 743 students (388 males and 355 females) at 4 colleges in Pohang city. The analytic methods for the study were chi-square analysis and an odds ratio analysis. The results were as follows: 1. The most prevalent religious group was protestant (35.7%). The most prevalent monthly income of parents was 100-200 million won. The educational level of the father was college level or more for 60% of the samples for the mother, 70% was a high school graduate or more. 2. As far as health practice female students practiced better health than male students concerning smoking while male students practiced better health than female students in exercise and BMI(P<.001). 3. Odds ratio (OR) of the female students to the male students for BMI (odds ratio=0.30), exercise(odds ratio=0.15), alcohol drinking (odds ratio=0.69) were all significantly smaller than 1. On the other hand, ORS for smoking was significantly greater than 1. 4. A good health pratice score(5-7) were 38.1% in male students and 26.9% in female students. 5. Health pratice had a statistically significant association with physical well-being among male students. OR of the bad health pratice for physical well-being (OR=1.59) was significantly greater than 1.
An Analysis of the Relationship between Female Adolescents' Perceived Family Characteristics and Their Mental Health in Korea
Yang Heui Ahn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):265-280.   Published online December 31, 1996
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A cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design was employed in this study. The main purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between female adolescents' mental health and their perception of family characteristics, such as family adaptability, family cohesion, family type, and family satisfaction, The theoretical rationale for this study is the 3-Dimensionl Circumplex Model that was formulated by Olson, et al. With respect to method, a structured questionnaire was employed to obtain the data. A total of 199 female students(high school second year) were recruited by convenience sampling. Data for this study were collected in October 1994 after a pilot study and pretest of the tools. The research tool used the following four self-report research types : Youth Self-Report (YSR) developed by Achenbach and Edelbrock, Family Adaptability & Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES) III, Family Satisfaction(FS) developed by Olson, et al. and a Demographic Data Sheet. The resulting data were processed using an SPSS PC for a Pearson prod uct-moment correlation coefficient, ANOVA. A linear relationship were found between female students' mental health and their perceived family cohesion(r=-.2237, p<.001), and family satisfaction(r=-.3951, p<.001), but no significant correlations was found between female students' mental health and their perceived adaptability. These findings demonstrated that family cohesion, family type, and family satisfaction were more powerful predictors than family adaptability. This study contributes to nursing practice by demonstrating the usefulness of YSR to differentiate deviant behavior in youth and also by providing nursing interventions designed to promote female mental health.
Effects of the Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal on Breast Self-Examination Practice in Adult Women
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):281-293.   Published online December 31, 1996
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Breast cancer ranks as one of the major health problems of adult women. Studies have shown that Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is effective in detecting breast cancer in its early stages. To motivate women BSE practicing, a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was conducted. Women 40 years or older who participated in the public education program for BSE from March 11 to April 6, 1996, were randomized in an experimental group(N=50) which received a letter about the Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal and in a control group(N=50) which didn't received a letter about the Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal. After 6 months, a follow-up phone survey was taken on all participants to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. Collected data was analyzed by one, two, and three-way ANOVA with an SAS program. The results are summarized as follows : 1. The level of the Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal of the subjects is high risk(17%), moderate risk(12%), boderline risk(14%), no increased risk (57%). 2. The intervention was effective in increasing the practice scores of BSE for women(F=5.12, P<.05). 3. BSE practice scores according to breast cancer risk appraisal level of the experimental group was not significantly increased after the intervention as contrasted with the control group (F=2.33, P>.05). 4. BSE practice scores according to educational level of the experimental group was significantly increased after the intervention, as contrasted with that of the control group (F=10.09, P<.001). On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal increases practice of BSE.
A Study on Woman's Experience of Being Bereaved of Her Husband by an Accident
Sung Hark Park, Mi Hye Choi, Yeon Kang Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):294-312.   Published online December 31, 1996
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Relatively young widows, who are left with young children by a sudden death of their husbands, will be faced with not only psychological troubles such as individual anxiety and frustration but also the dual burden of playing both father and mother roles in a family, Also, family members have difficulty in adapting themselves to new circumstances of the family system, the training and raising of family members, and management of the family economy. In this study, the realistic resources on the experience of middle-aged women who are bereaved of their husbands by accidents were explored. The purpose of this study is to help widows adapt to life in society and live a more positive life by setting a new goals and recovering from a lost and twisted life. 11 women, who have experienced the loss their husbands and live in the Seoul metropolitan area were studied. The research took 116 days from December 15, 1995 to April 8, 1996. The method of research was direct interviews. While having interviews with them, the contents were recorded with their consent. The ground theory was that used by Strauss & Corbin(1990) in the analysis of the data. 81 concepts were analyzed and they were subdirided into 22 subordinate categories through the course of the analysis. These were then classified into 9 general categories. In the course of being categorized, "absurdity" was showed as a core category. The subordinate categories "surprise", "gloom", "grudge", "helplessness", "emptiness", and "loss" were united in the core category "absurdity". Ominous presentiment, belated notice, death, surprise, gloom, grudge, helplessness, emptiness, loss, the situation of the children, lack of support from neighbors, support from neighbors, mulling over ways to live, choosing a job, strengthening, reinforcement, burden, sadness, smoldering, yearning, overcoming these 22 subordinate categories were re-composed into 9 general ones the husband's death, absurdity, presence of children, existence of support, self-support ability, preparation of countermeasures, self-reinforcement, toilsomeness, and overcoming. "Absurdity" widows experience was shown in the results of "toilsomeness" and "overcoming" through reaction, confrontation, and adaptation. According to the analysis the central phenomenon was absurdity, the causal condition of the death of a husband, the presence of children and the existence of support, and the meditated situation of self-support. To solve absurdity, the preparation of countermeasures and self-reinforcements were shown resulting in toilsomeness and overcoming. Through the contrast in the data, the following statements were deduced: (1) If the death of the husband is expected, the more a widow will feel absurdity. (2) The more children she has and the younger she is, the more a widow will feel absurdity. (3) The lower support she is given, the more a widow will feel absurdity. (4) The larger self-ability she has, the more actively she will prepare countermeasures. (5) The smaller self-ability she has, the more passively she will prepare countermeasures. (6) The larger self-ability she has, the weaker self-reinforcement she will preform. (7) The smaller self-ability she has, the stronger self-reinforcement she will perform. (8) The more actively she prepares countermeasures for absurdity, the better she will overcome. (9) The more passively she prepares counter measure for absurdity, the worse she will overcome. (10) The stronger self-reinforcement for absurdity she performs, the better she will overcome. (11) The weaker self-reinforcement for absurdity she performs, the worse she will overcome. Through the results in this study, the following suggested: 1) A study whose object is all family members, and a comparative study on the case of a husband who has lost his wife should be done. These studies can be expected to develop a more refined theory. 2) Because of the collapse of the extended family system and the changes of family culture in Korea, a widow's status and position are apt to be ambiguous between her husband's home and her parent's. Therefore a new study on family culture should be made. 3) A continuous study on growing social Self Help Groups should be requested for the widows of this study to re-establish and recover from their twisted and scattered lives.
A study on the Knowledge and Attitudes of Abortion in 3 Junior College's Freshmen
Eun Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):313-332.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study was conducted to grasp the condition of freshman's knowledge and attitudes on abortion and to offer the basic materials to prevent abortion in family planning and health promotion. The objects were comprised of 290 who volunteered from 3 Junior colleges. The material of this study was by questionaire(chronbach alpha=.8589, .8959) suited to the purpose of this research which has been made through studying references. All the questionaires were collected immediately without explanation. The data was collected from the 29th of April to the 17th of May in 1996. Analysis of the data was done utilizing SPSS program for percentage, mean+/-standard deviation and ANOVA. The results are as follows: 1. General features of the objects of study. Mean age was 20.47, mean of brothers and sisters was 2.93. Those who had no experience in abortion with her mother was 59.0%, and the middle social level was the highest (95.5%). 2. The conditions of attitudes about abortion. 5 points were given to "very affirming" and, 1 point was given to "strong denial" the total average was 4.00, and the range was 4.83~2.99. 3. The condition of knowledge about abortion. 5 point were given to "very affirming" and, 1 point was given to "strong denial", the total average was 2.75, the range was 3.65~2.18. Also knowledge of abortion was 6.2 points. Knowledge of medical and therapeutic abortion was 9.4 points. Knowledge of the physical complications of abortion was 3.4 points. 4. Correlation between general features and attitude variables. Age groups may have a higher affirmative attitude score in abortion(F=8.097, p<.000). The having 2 sisters group may have a low attitude towards abortion(F=10.34l, p<.000). Experience in abortion with mother group may have a lower affirmative score concerning abortion (t=8.925, p<.000). 5. Correlation between general features and knowledge variables. Age groups may have a higher knowledge score in abortion (F=10.829, p<.000). The having brothers group may have more high knowledge in abortion(F=2.534, p<.050). The 22~23 years group may have higher knowledge in abortion (F=3.075, p<.028). The having more than 2 sisters group have more higher knowledge in abortion(F=5.605, p<.004). The having more the 3 brothers group may have higher knowledge the physical complications in abortion(F=4.022, p<.019). 6. Correlation between regions of the major variables and knowledge, attitude variables. There was no significance in the statistics.
The Effect of Information on the level of need fulfillment and anxiety of the emergency patient's family members
Sang Soon Kim, Yeon Hee Choi, Mi Han Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):333-348.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nursing information on the level of need fulfillment and anxiety of the emergency patient's family members. The quasi-experimental study was designed using a noneqivalent control group non-synchronized design. During the first period, 30 subjects were assigned to the control group and 25 to the experimental group at a late period. The experimental group was provided with nursing information via guide booklet designed by the researcher. The control group received only routine care. Data was collected from January 31 to April 16 in 1996 at the K hospital in Taegu and analysed by chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation with SAS program. The instruments used for this study were the Family Needs Scale developed by Jung and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory developed by Spielberger. The results of this study were summarized as follows : 1. The first hypothesis that the family members who received nursing information will have greater need fulfillment than family members who did not receive nursing information was supported. 2. The second hypothesis that the family members who received nursing information will have lower anxiety level than family members who did not receive nursing information was not supported. 3. The third hypothesis that the more the need of family member of emergency patient was met, the lower the anxiety level, was not supported. In conclusion, it was proved that nursing information about the emergency room provides family members with more need fulfillment, but did not decrease the anxiety level.
Changes of Nurse-Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes toward AIDS by Education
Young Sil Kang, Hyun Sook Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):349-360.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study compares nurse-teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward AIDS after education with those before education. Data were collected by way of questionnaires, made up of two sections: to examine attitudes toward AIDS patients Kelly's prejudicial evaluation scale and social interaction scale was used, and to measure knowledge about AIDS a knowledge evaluation tool developed by the investigators was used. Subjects of the study were 108 nurse teachers participating in a qualifying education program which was held at Education College, Gyeong Sang National University in 1996. The data were analyzed using percentages, means, Pearson correlation coefficients and paired t-test. The results of the study were summarized as follows ; 1. The knowledge on AIDS of nurse teachers was improved considerably after a 2 hour education. The average score was 19.1 over 20.0 after education against 15.3 before education. 2. The prejudicial attitudes of nurse teachers toward AIDS patients were also improved with statistical significance; 33.63 over a total score of 60.00 after education against 31.81 before education. The prejudicial evaluation is performed on 12 items on a scale of 1~5. 3. The social interaction scale of nurse teachers toward AIDS patients improved a little. But this improvement did not show any statistical significance. 4. The prejudicial evaluation scale showed a significant negative correlation with the social in teraction scale before and after education, and the same was true for the knowledge scale but only after education.
A comparative study on the 4-year college and 3-year college nursing curriculum
Kwang Ok Lee, Young Lan Han, Hee Jung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):361-383.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study analyze and find problems in the 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum through comparison and analysis of each college curriculum according to the Nursing Education Standards Criteria from the Korean Nurse Association, 1994. Analyzed areas and results are as follows : 1. Nursing education philosophy To analyze Nursing Education philosophy, we reviewed the categaries of Person, Health, Nursing, Environment. In of 4-year colleges, 50% of them were presenting definitions of Person that were the same as the Nursing Education Standards. But in the definitions of Environment and Health, they presented limited contents. In the 3-year college, we could not find any statement of Nursing Education Philosophy similar to Nursing Education Standards. 2. Nursing education purpose In 4-year colleges, they stated aboict only 3 aspects and others werelacking in correspondance with Nursing Education Standards. In 3-year colleges, some aspects were sincere, but when they were compared to the standards they were very limited. 3. Nursing education curriculum As we analyzed 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum, We found that 3-year colleges use curriculum from 4-year colleges in a modified and condensed form. Thus, it is considered that 3-year colleges have considerable burdens because they have to teach all the credits within 3-years that is normally taught in the 4-year college. Therefore, we can suppose that 3-year colleges have more problems in the quality. And, the majority of 4-year and 3-year college curriculums don't include recent concepts such as health promotion, prevention, and rehabilitation.
Analysis of Church based parish nursing activities in Teagu city
Chung Nam Kim, Jeong Sook Park, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):384-399.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The concept of parish nursing began in the late 1960s in the United States when increasing numbers of churches employed registered nurses (RNs) to provide holistic, preventive health care to the members of their congregations. Parish nursing role was developed in 1983 by Lutheran chaplain Granger Westberg, and provides care to a variety of church congregation of various denominations. The parish nurse functions as health educator, counselor, group facilitator, client advocate, and liaison to community resources. Since these activities are complementary to the population-focused practice of community health CNSs, parish nurses either have a strong public health background or work directly with both baccalaureate-prepared public health nurses and CNSs. In a Midwest community in U.S.A., the Healthy People 2000(1991) objectives are being addressed in health ministries through a coalition between public health nurses and parish nurses. Parish nursing is in the beginning state in Korea and up untill now, there has been no research was conducted on concrete role of korean parish nurses. The main purpose of this study was to identify, classify and analyze activities of parish nurses. The other important objective of this study was to establish an effective approach and direction for parish nursing and provide a database for korean parish nursing model through analysis and classification of the content of the nursing record which included nursing activities. This study was a descriptive survey research. The parish nurses were working in churches where the demonstration project developed on parish nursing. The study was done on all nursing records which were working in churches where the demonstration project developed on parish nursing. The study was done on all nursing records which were documented by parish nurses in three churches from March, 1995 to February, 1996. Namsan, Taegu Jeei and Nedang presbyterian churches in Taegu and Keimyung nursing college incooperated together for the parish nursing demonstration project. The data analysis procedure was as follows: First, a record analysis tool was developed and second, the data was collected, coded and analyzed, the classification for nursing activities was developed through a literature review, from which the basic analysis tool was produced and cotent validity review was also done. The classification of the activities of parish nurses showed 7 activitity categories. 7 activity categories consisted of visitation nursing, health check-ups, health education, referring, attending staff meetings, attending inservices and seminar, volunteers coordinating. The percentage of activities were as follows: Visitation nursing(A: 51.6%, B: 55%, C: 42.6%) Health check-ups(A: 13.5%, B: 12.1%, C: 22.3%) Health education(A: 13.5%, B: 13.2%, C: 18.2%) Referring(A: 1.4%, B: 4.2%, C: 2.4%) Attending staff meeting(A: 18.8%, B: 13.0%, C: 12.2%) Attending inservices and seminar(A: 1.5%, B: 2.2%, C: 2.1%) Volunteers coordinating(A: 0.3%, B: 0.4%, C: 0.0%) To establish and develope parish nursing delivery network in Korea, parish nurses role, activities and boundaries of practice should be continuously monitored and refined every 2 years. Also, It is needed to develope effective nursing recording system based on the need assessment research data of various congregation members. role, activities and boundaries of practice and arrangement of the working structure, continuing education, cooperation with community resources and structuring and organizing parish nursing delivery network. Also, It is needed to develope effective nursing recording system based on the need assessment research data of various congregation members.
Industrial Fatigue and Low Back Pain of the Workers
Soon Lae Kim, Jung Soon Moon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):400-409.   Published online December 31, 1996
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To investigate industrial fatigue and low back pain, the questionaire survey for subjective symptoms of fatigue and low back pain was carried out among 591 male workers aged 20-55 employed in an automobile industry in Korea. Workers participated to this study were divided into low back pain group(LBP) and control group, according to the self-reports by written questionaires. The subjective sysptoms of fatigue comprised three groups of 10 items each, representing dullness and sleepiness(level of cerebral activation), difficulty in concentration(level of motivation) and bodily projection of fatigue. The resultant data were processed for chi2-test, t-test and a pearson's correlation coefficient to confirm the relationships. The results were as follows: 1. 30 items of fatigue subjective symptoms exeptone item, 'lack in perseverance', were directly associated with low back pain. 2. The percentage of fatigue complaint were sig nificantly higher in LBP group. 3. Of the 30 items of fatigue subjective symptoms, the highest percentage was accounted for 'eye strain'(27.9%), followed by 'whole body feels tired' and 'legs feel heavy'(22.9%), 'feel like lying'(21.4%), 'feel a pain in the low back'(18.7%), 'feel drowsy'(16.4%) and 'feel stiffness in the neck or the shoulders'(16.2%) in the order of sequence. 4. The average weighted score for the first group of fatigue items(dullness and sleepiness) was the largest among three groups and was followed by the second group(difficulty in concentration) and the third group(bodily projection of fatigue) in the order of sequence, suggesting the heavier shift work stress of the workers. 5. In the groups of the aged 30-40, work duration of 5-7yrs, heavy work amount and irregular work speed, significant high fatigue complaints were revealed in terms of eye strain, whole body feels tired, legs feel heavy, feel like lying, feel a pain in the low back and feel stiffness in the neck or the shoulders. 6. A significant negative correlations were shown between age, work duration and eleven subjective symptoms while positive reciprocal correlations were shown between eleven items with one another.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing