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HOME > J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs > Volume 26(1); 2015 > Article
Original Article
The Effects of an Individual Cognitive Improvement Program on the Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairments
Inhyae Park, In-Hee Choi, Seo Young Kang, Younkyoung Kim, Chong Mi Lee
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing 2015;26(1):1-10.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2015.26.1.1
Published online: March 31, 2015
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1College of Nursing, Chonnam National University, Chonnam Research Institute of Nursing Science, Gwangju, Korea.

2Department of Nursing, Gwangju Health College, Gwangju, Korea.

3Department of Nursing, Gwangju University, Gwangju, Korea.

4Chosun Nursing College, Gwangju, Korea.

• Received: November 27, 2014   • Revised: December 29, 2014   • Accepted: February 6, 2015

© 2015 Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • Purpose
    This study was conducted to investigate changes in cognitive functions, depression and life-satisfaction for elderly participants with mild cognitive impairments participating in an individual cognitive improvement program.
  • Methods
    A quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was implemented. The participants were senior citizens over 65 years of age who had been clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairments in G City and J Province (experimental group: 29, control group: 27). The experimental group participated in the individual cognitive improvement program based on Korean traditional tales and games for nine weeks.
  • Results
    After the intervention, only the participants in the experimental group reported significant improvement in K-MMSE (t=-2.5, p=.016), MoCA-K (t=-2.6, p=.008), depression (t=3.51, p=.001), and life satisfaction (t=-2.75, p=.008) when compared to those in the control group.
  • Conclusion
    These results indicated that the individual cognitive improvement program was effective in improving cognitive functions, depression, and life-satisfaction among the elderly with mild cognitive impairments. Therefore, the application of this individual cognitive improvement program developed in this study by visiting nurses may strengthen the cognitive functions of seniors with mild cognitive impairments.
Table 1

Cognitive Improvement Program based on Korean Traditional Tales and Games

Session Contents Items to prepare
1 Introduction, obtaining written informed consent, pre-test Consent form, questionnaires for pre-test
2 Kongjwi and Patjwi Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, five stones
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Playing gonggi (fivestones)
3 Kongjwi and Patjwi Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, colored papers
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making origami (a Korean style jacket)
4 Kongjwi and Patjwi Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, clay
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making household items in clay
5 Hyungbo and Nahibo Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, small bean-bags
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Playing with small bean-bags
6 Hyungbo and Nahibo Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, colored papers
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making origami (swallow)
7 Middle-test Questionnaires for middle-test
8 Hyungbo and Nahibo Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, hardboard, colored papers, glue, colored pencils
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making origami (house)
9 Sim Chung, the dutiful daughter Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Playing Ssalbab and Boribab
10 Sim Chung, the dutiful daughter Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, colored papers
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making origami (flowers)
11 Sim Chung, the dutiful daughter Cotton flannel board, picture images, the script, colored hardboard
 - Introduction, main activities
 - Making Dakji, playing Dakjichigi (picture cards in chilrens game)
12 End of program, post-test Questionnaires for post-test
Table 2

General Characteristics and Homogeneity

Characteristics Categories n (%) Exp. (n=29) Cont. (n=27) χ2 p
n (%) n (%)
Gender Male 4 (7.1) 1 (3.4) 3 (11.1) 1.24 .266
Female 52 (92.9) 28 (96.6) 24 (88.9)
Age (year) 65~74 11 (20.0) 8 (27.6) 3 (11.5) 2.49 .289
75~84 35 (63.6) 16 (55.2) 19 (73.1)
≥85 9 (16.4) 5 (17.2) 4 (15.4)
Education year None 24 (43.6) 13 (44.8) 11 (42.3) 0.55 .760
≤6 23 (41.8) 11 (37.9) 12 (46.2)
≥7 8 (14.5) 5 (17.2) 3 (11.5)
Marital status Unmarried 1 (1.8) 1 (3.4) 0 (0.0) 0.95 .330
Married 55 (98.2) 28 (96.6) 27 (100.0)
Family relationships or family support Very satisfied 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4.31 .230
Satisfied 22 (39.3) 11 (37.9) 11 (40.7)
Moderate 17 (30.4) 6 (20.7) 11 (40.7)
Unsatisfied 14 (25.0) 10 (34.5) 4 (14.8)
Very unsatisfied 3 (5.4) 2 (6.9) 1 (3.7)
Smoking No smoker 49 (87.5) 26 (89.7) 23 (85.2) 2.32 .314
Ex-smoker 5 (8.9) 3 (10.3) 2 (7.4)
Smoker 2 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (7.4)
Current disease Yes 54 (96.4) 28 (96.6) 26 (96.3) 0.00 .959
No 2 (3.6) 1 (3.4) 1 (3.7)
Health status Very healthy 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.02 .797
Healthy 6 (10.7) 3 (10.3) 3 (11.1)
Moderate 14 (25.0) 8 (27.6) 6 (22.2)
Unhealthy 30 (53.6) 14 (48.3) 16 (59.3)
Very unhealthy 6 (10.7) 4 (13.8) 2 (7.4)
Excercise (per week) None 22 (39.3) 7 (24.1) 15 (55.6) 5.87 .053
1~2 13 (23.2) 8 (27.6) 5 (18.5)
≥3 21 (37.5) 14 (48.3) 7 (25.9)
Regular diets Yes 44 (78.6) 23 (79.3) 21 (77.8) 0.02 .889
No 12 (21.4) 6 (20.7) 6 (22.2)
Nutritive conditions Very satisfied 1 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 2.62 .624
Satisfied 11 (19.6) 4 (13.8) 7 (25.9)
Moderate 19 (33.9) 11 (37.9) 8 (29.6)
Unsatisfied 23 (41.1) 13 (44.8) 10 (37.0)
Very unsatisfied 2 (3.6) 1 (3.4) 1 (3.7)

Fisher's exact test; Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Table 3

Homogeneity of Two Groups at the Pretest

Outcome measures Exp. (n=29) Cont. (n=27) t p
M±SD M±SD
K-MMSE 20.7±4.59 19.4±4.59 1.02 .315
MoCA-K 15.2±4.83 13.6±6.39 1.05 .299
Depression 23.5±8.59 23.7±10.79 -0.11 .922
Life satisfaction 16.6±8.21 16.3±6.69 0.11 .914

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Table 4

Differences between Groups in K-MMSE, MoCA-K, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

Outcome measures Groups Pretest Posttest Difference t p
M±SD M±SD M±SD
K-MMSE Exp. (n=29) 20.7±4.59 22.9±4.44 -2.2±2.51 -2.50 .016
Cont. (n=27) 19.4±4.59 20.1±4.59 -0.7±2.06
MOCA-K Exp. (n=29) 15.2±4.83 18.0±5.67 -2.8±2.53 -2.60 .012
Cont. (n=27) 13.6±6.39 14.2±5.63 -0.6±3.63
Depression Exp. (n=29) 23.5±8.59 17.7±8.82 5.8±7.33 3.51 .001
Cont. (n=27) 23.7±10.79 24.2±10.26 -0.5±5.91
Life satisfaction Exp. (n=29) 16.6±8.21 21.8±8.46 -5.2±6.56 -2.75 .008
Cont. (n=27) 16.3±6.69 16.6±8.18 -0.3±6.88

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

This Study was conducted(in part) by research funds from Gwangju University in 2015.

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