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Ji Soo Yoo 1 Article
A Meta Analysis on the Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Density among Middle-aged and Older Women
Ji Soo Yoo, Jee Won Park, Suk Jeong Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(3):285-295.   Published online September 30, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to examine the effectiveness of exercise for bone mineral density (BMD).
METHODS
Four investigators reviewed English articles from Pub Med and CINAHL, selecting randomized controlled trials on exercise programs for middle-aged and older women. Out of 25 studies identified, 14 that satisfied with the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis. The quality of the studies was assessed using recognized methods and the effect size was calculated as a Hedges' g using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2.0. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine. Subgroup analysis included changes in BMD according to exercise style.
RESULTS
Weight bearing exercise was effective (Q = 20.1, p > .05, ES = 0.32), and resistance exercise was effective in case of comparing to pre and post intervention (Q = 4.15, p = .98, ES = 0.14). At the femoral neck, 9 study groups were homogeneous and the experimental groups demonstrated a positive effect on BMD (Q = 19.5, p > .05, ES = 0.33). In contrast, marked heterogeneity (Q = 33.3, p < 0.01) was apparent in 7 study groups evaluating trochanter.
CONCLUSION
These findings suggest that weight bearing is effective for BMD of the femoral neck, and is relevant to the non-pharmacological treatment of bone loss for middle-aged and older women.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing