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Shin Ae Park 11 Articles
The Effect of Oriental Self-help Group Program for the Living Alone-Aged Inhabiting Rural Region
Myoung Ja Wang, Shin Ae Park, Tae Ok Myung, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(2):242-251.   Published online June 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Oriental self-help group program on living-alone elders in rural areas.
METHOD
A one-group pretest-post test design was used. The subjects of the experimental group participated in the oriental self-help program, health education, feet bathing in hot water, cupping therapy, and foot-reflexology. The obtained data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson correlation coefficients of SPSS.
RESULTS
1) The level of blood triglyceride, SGOT and glucose decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 2) The scores of depression and stress decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 3) The score of Yangsaeng increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group. 4) Depression was higher when the score of stress was high, and the score of depression and stress were lower when the score of Yangsaeng was high.
CONCLUSION
Considering the results of this research, the program is effective in improving physiological indexes partially, emotional indexes and Yangsaeng. Therefore this program can be implemented as a community-based self-help group program for living-alone elders in rural areas.
A Study on the State of Recognition and Experience of Love; Sex Knowledge; and Self-esteem of Youths
Shin Ae Park, Myung Ja Wang, Nam Hyun Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(2):242-252.   Published online June 30, 2006
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No abstract available.
Family Support : a Review of Nursing Literature on its Trends and Implementations
Shin Ae Park, Kyung Sook Kang, Mi Young Jeong, Nam Hyun Cha, Soon Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(3):639-646.   Published online December 31, 2001
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the trend of nursing research related to family support and to provide an effective direction for future research by conducting a review of the Korean nursing literature from 1980 to 2000. A total of 73 studies were analyzed with the following results. 1) The number of studies related to family support has been rapidly increasing since 1984, and 77% of those were conducted in the 1990s. 48 studies, 65% of those analyzed, were degree-based research including 4 doctoral theses (4%) and 45 master's theses (62%). 2) Based on the objective frame of study types developed by Lee et al. (1991), the types of studies were analyzed: 56 studies, 76.6% of those reviewed, belonged to factor-relating; 9 studies (12.4%) belonged to factor-isolating; 7 studies (9.6%) belonged to situation-producing; and only 1 study (1.4%) belonged to situationrelating research, respectively. 3) In terms of research design, most studies of analyzed (90.4%) were conducted by non-experimental design, and 7 studies (9.6%) were conducted by experimental design. But, qualitative research related to family support was not found. 4) In terms of research subjects, target populations of experimental studies were patients with arthritis, mental disorder, tuberculosis, coronary artery disease and hypertension. In correlational studies, 51 studies, 69.9% of those analyzed, were conducted to patients with renal failure, cancer and hemiplegia, and 5 studies (6.8%) were conducted to aged people and adolescents. 5) Study concepts used in correlational studies were quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, hope, role behavior, compliance and self-care activities. The quality of life was most often used among studies with 12.5% of those analyzed. 6) Nursing interventions, including diet therapy, family involving education and supportive care, used in experimental studies mostly showed positive effects on client involvement and home health improvement. However, the nursing interventions of mental health rehabilitation and resistance exercise showed neutral and negative results. The findings of this study provide evidence that more empirical research including experimental or qualitative studies should be conducted actively to improve nursing practice related to family support. Also, to promote more diverse nursing interventions, a family assessment tool especially for Korean families needs to be developed.
Effects on the Frequencies of Self-foot Reflex Massage Seen in the Physical Index and Anxiety Level of Hypertension Workers : The pilot study
Nam Hyun Cha, Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(2):375-389.   Published online September 30, 2001
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Self-foot Reflex Massage (SRM) programme on the physical condition and anxiety level of hypertension workers. The research was designed in the pre and post-test. Sample test was done in five workers with essential hypertension. They were divided in two groups:- Group A and Group B. The Self-foot Reflex Massage (SRM) was applied three times a week for Group A and five times a week for Group B. The SRM was given in 40 minutes each time for 4 weeks from the 1st of January to the 30th of April in 2001. In order to evaluate the effect on SRM, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were measured as physical parameters and state trait anxiety inventory was used twice each time between before and after the exercise. The collected data was analysed by Mann-Whitney test with SPSS program. The results were as follows: 1. Average age for the subjects were 39.8 (ranged from thirty-two to fifty-three) and average period of hypertension history was 42 months (ranged from twenty to eighty-four). 2. There was no significant difference between two examined groups in blood pressure. But, there was a significant difference in SRM of pre and post-test for two groups. 3. There was no significant difference in blood cholesterol between two groups and between pre and post-test. 4. State trait anxiety showed significant difference between pre and post-test except the results between two groups. This result suggests that SRM is effective on the decrease of systolic and diastolic pressure and the relief of state trait anxiety except for the blood cholesterol. Therefore, blood cholesterol is needed further evaluation in large subjects and longer period. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare the precise effects of SRM on the foot reflex massage (FRM) in anxiety.
An Explorative Study on Using the Method of Natural Family Planning
Hee Jung Choi, Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):226-238.   Published online March 31, 2001
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This study was attempted to understand experiences of the user of natural family planning(NFP) by applying Q-methodology. 37 statements were used to Q population through literature research and interviews. For the P sample. I interviewed personally 30 people who had taken a lesson in NFP for over 6 months and had been using and experiencing it autonomously for more than 2 years so far, and asked them to Q-classify the statement cards in order of the degree of approval from the one they most approved to the one they least approved. Data were coded and input into a computer and wee analyzed using QUANL PC Program. In this study I discovered 4 types of experiences by the users of NFP and named them each according to their features: the first a type of mutual control with morality the second a type of the pursuit of mutual cooperation the third a type of the pursuit of conviction and the fourth a type of the perception of health management. The first type said that NFP was a good contraceptive way in which no drug or devices are used that the husband's cooperation was needed and that they became able to control sexual desire with morality. The second type perceived that continuous efforts were required to put NFP in practice that the husband's cooperation was essential and that dialogues between husband and wife were also necessary to use it and as such they regared mutual cooperation between husband and wife as highly important. On the other hand the third type perceived that one's conviction played a big part that knowledge of physiological changes was useful and the ability to sense physical changes improved and that one's willpower was important and thus they regarded one's own willpower as most important. The fourth type reported that this method was a good way to control pregnancy and should be taught about at the beginning of sex education and thus they were emphasizing the importance of NFP as a helpful way to manage one's health. I, therefore intend to provide the following suggestions based on the result of this study. 1) It is necessary to develop a program that allows NFP to be applied to sex education program. 2) It is necessary to analyze factors that affect the execution of NFP. 3) It is necessary to analyze causes of failure of those who fail to execute NFP.
Literature Review on Adolescent Runaways
Woon Sook Jung, Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):105-114.   Published online March 31, 2001
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It was orginally thought that runaway adolescents needed to improve their ability to cope with personal problems based on their own understanding of them. As a result we exchanged theoretical background on the matter as follows: 1. Generally adolescency is a transitional period from childhood to adulthood and characterized by a dramatic conversion period with unique phenomena relative to other periods. Futhermore it is the key transitional moment in the development of an adult personality. 2. Runaway adolescents are defined as "adolescents who leave impulsively or intentionally their homes without permission of their parents for at least 24 hours." 3. The reason for this behavior are generally regarded as complex interdependent and dynamic including a cast-away factor seducing factors and other action-provoking factors. There is also another view to explain the adolescent run-away as a combination of personal domestic academic peer or socal factors. 4. We found that adolescent runaways have different attitudes dependent on the reasons and procedures of runaways lifestyles of adolescents and results of their runaway experience. In conclusion runaway adolescents are in a very important period in their development and growth of bodies and minds but are in a great crisis for various complex reasons. Therefore we propose that nursing should provide effective nursing interventions to improve the ability of the runaway adolescents address these problems by themselves.
A Study of the Attitude and Experience for Sexual Harassment in Adolescence
Eui Nam Chung, Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):538-555.   Published online December 31, 2000
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The purpose of this study, in which 573 students from 2 high schools in Kang Nung city participated was to identify the attitude and experience of sexual harassment. This information will provide useful data, and promote a more systematic sexual harassment education program. The subjects of this study were 278 male students and 295 female students. The data was collected from September 25 to October 6. 2000. The data was analyzed using the statistical Computer package. SPSS to manipulate the data along with frequency, percentage, and mean t-test. The results from this study were summarized as follows. 1. The results from this comparison between two groups were significant in their attitude on sexual harassment(t=-2.26. p=0.024). Female students had higher scores than male students. 2. As a cause of sexual harassment. 'A man's misjudgement regarding a women as sexual objects(n=130: 22.7%)'. 'Patriarchal system of unequal distribution of power and status between the sexes(n=105: 18.3%)'. 'The effect of sexual stimulatives. (pornography. pornovideo. TV program ect.)(n=89: 15.5%)'. 3. As a countermeasure for prevention, 'Punishment, law and regulation of the sexual harasser(n = 151; 26.4%)', 'A preventive education of sexual harassment in adolescence (n=125: 21.8%)'. 'Reformation of gender inequality and sex discrimination in the socio-structure(n=76; 13.3%)'. 4. Out of 573 students who participated in this study, 209(36.5%) students reported experiencing an incident of sexual harassment. For 278 males who participated in this study, 88(31.7%) had experienced an incident of sexual harassment. For the 295 females who participated in this study, 121(41.0%) had experienced an incident of sexual harassment. The type of sexual harassment is reported physical sexual harassment(n=248: 40.5%), verbal sexual harassment(n=226; 36.7%), and visual sexual harassment(n=139: 22.6%). 5. Their age in which they had experienced harassment was usually 'after 16 years of age(n=122: 58.4%)'. The age of harassers were mostly teenagers(n=112; 53.6%). The relationship to the with sexual harasser was a stranger (n=85; 40.7%), or a friend(n=78: 37.3%). After the incident of sexual harassment occurred, some students informed friends (n=114: 54.5%), 63(30.1%) told no one. Male students' feelings after the experienced harassment ranged from: 'be interesting', 'be pleasant'. Female students' feelings after the experienced harassment ranged from; 'be surprised', 'get a shock', 'fear', 'shame'.
A Theoretical Review on the Natural Family Planning Method
Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):410-419.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study was reviewed from 1000 articles related to family planning from 1970 to 1990 and 20 articles associated with natural family planning from 1980 until the present. The purpose of natural family planning(NFP) is to identify the time ovulation of women themselves, to have intercourse with periodic abstinence, and to deliver a healthy child. The ultimate goal of NFP is to promote the family's health. The NFP method is described as periodic abstinence of intercourse to avoid pregnancy by identifying the ovulation time in the menstration cycle. Clinical symptoms and signs of reflection underlying changes in Estrogen and Progesterone are the change of basal body temperature, the change of cervical mucus and cervix, abdominal pain and breast tenderness. The types of NFP are the calender rthythm method, basal body temperature methods, cervical mucus method, symptothermal method, cyclo-thermal method and home based ovulation test kits. Recently the cyclo-thermal method involved. It is calendar rhythm method applied to B.B.T. For the cervical mucus method, when the estrogen level in the blood concentration is increased, the mucus begins to excrete, the amount of moist mucus increases while the mucus is clear, slippery, and smooth. For 3 days, this timing can be considered contraception. Fertility is at a maximum on the day mucus appears, abstinence for 3 days is a type of contraception. Sexual intercourse on a maximum day of mucus maximizes pregnancy potential. But, the contraception depends on the practice of a perfect rule. For basal body temperature methods, at ovulation time, the temperature increases 0.2degrees C-0.5degrees C. Through the review of literature a high temperature above 0.2degrees C for 3 days indicates that the previous 6 day period was ovulation and fertilization. The Symptothermal method is used to determine the prediction of ovulation through the observation of mucus excretion, high temperature, the change of cervical mucus, low abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and breast change. Home based ovulation test kits are cervico-vaginal fluid aspiration, test a digital electric thermometer, body fluid(blood, saliva, urine) test kits, They are on the market. However, research on the contraception method is still in progress. For pregnancy it is still too early to use home based ovulation test kits because of deficit of reliability and simplicity more research on the technology is needed. It is suggested that NFP methods be included in nursing curriculum in order to educate NFP users how to effectively use NFP methods. Furthermore, this study has implications for the dissemination of NFP methods in terms of Korean policies of family planning and the support of community welfare agences.
A Study on the Family Planning Program of The Korean Catholic Church Its Acceptability's, and Effctivenes
Shin Ae Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(2):170-187.   Published online December 31, 1993
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The natural growth rate of the Korean population has decreased from 3.0% in 1960 to 1.0% in 1990. This was done with family planning program which was introduced by the government in 1961. The family planning program focused on birth control rather than the characteristics of the individuals and motivations of contraception. People were simply forced to use the method. Whereas, Natural Contraceptive is a method of family planning based solely on the timing of intercourse with the naturally occurring' physiological manifestation of fertilization and in fertilization during the menstrual cycle. This is the combination of self fertility awareness with periodic abstinence. Natural family .planning(NFP) programs in Korea were first started in the Chun-Chen diocese of catholic church by Bishop Thomas Stewart in 1970 In 1975, the Bishops conference launched the Korea Happy Family Movement in the Catholic Hospital Association, to promote the natural family planning. An average of 70,000 people, including adolescents, college students, unmarried and married persons, arid the clergies were trained during a six-year period (1986-1991). 61.5%(24,542 people) of those who completed 3 cycles during 6 year period (1986-1991) became autonomous users and the range was from 48.1% to 78.2%. In 1986, 22.7% of NFP individuals who drooped out of the program because of the desire for conception (23.4%), the difficulty of the method used(25.8%), and the loss of interest(22.8%). During the six-year period the unplanned pregnancy rate at the NFP was 2.9%. The range of the pregnancy rate was at 1.2-9.8%. The rate was decreased as years passed. The major reason for the failure of contraceptive was error by the individuals(61.1%). The percentage of the success of conception was 18.1% of 2.979 for achieving pregnancy. The highest percentage was 58.2% (99 users) in Kwang-Joo diocese and next was 37.1% (10 users) in Chong Joo diocese.
A Study of Workers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of the Occupational Health Services in Industries Located in Seoul
Yeun Gang Jung, Shin Ae Park, Na Mi Lee, Soon Young Yoon, Young Im Kim, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Nam Lee, En Hee Kim, Young Ae Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(2):91-99.   Published online December 31, 1993
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This research is undertaken for the purpose of providing basic data to improve the occupational health service for future. 415 workers of 46 firms in Seoul are included in this data points.
Results
from this analyzing are the following. 1) The level of knowledge, attitude and practice of workers on the occupational health is moderate. 2) The cognition of necessity about special health examination gains the highest point(3.94), but the understanding of the occupational health educational program gains the lowest point (.85) in the knowledge region. 3) In the attitude region, the highest point is marked by the workers' prudence of expending time on medical examination(3.45). The lowest one by the workers' feeling of satisfaction of the follow-up service after medical examination(1.79). 4) The workers' participation in medical examination is the most active(3.15), and that in occupational health education in the least active(.86) in the practical region.
A Study on the Health Care Management of Industries in Seoul
Yeun Gang Jung, Shin Ae Park, Na Mi Lee, Soon Young Yoon, Young Im Kim, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Nam Lee, En Hee Kim, Young Ae Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):5-13.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The objective of this study was to analyze the status of health examination, and the health care management of industries in Seoul. This will provide effective industrial health care services. 46 industries were selected as a sample, and were given self administered questionnaire developed by the academic affairs of community health nursing. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The general characteristics of industries: The greater part of the industries were manu facturing companies, 300-900 workers, in a one shift system. (2) The general characteristics of health man ager: 96% of the companies had industrial nurses and the larger industries had comprehensive health managers. 90% of the industrial nurses were full-time employees and 77% of the industrial physician were part time employees. 80% of the industrial physician were age 50 or older, while 59% of the industrial nurses were 25-29 years of age. (3) Health examination and follow up care: The proportions of the workers who took general health examination was 94%. Of those, 12% took secondary examinations. In secondary examinations, 36% were evaluated at the C-grade, 20% were evaluated at the D-grade. The proportion of the workers who were required to take special examination were 29% and of that, the proportion of the workers who actually took the examination was 88%. 85% of the workers who were recommended for follow up cares were given follow up care while working. The physical agents among the special examination were done the most frequently to detect the examination effects. (4) Health care services: Industrial nurses performed health examination most frequently and health education was done the least. There were significant differences in health care services according to the size of the industries. Companies with 300 workers or less had higher health care services than other groups. The three primary reasons of health care management and examinations of workers are: First, industrial nurses are requires to accumulate professional knowledge and experience through continuos' activities. Second, systematic and concert examination for industrial workers should be performed periodically. Third, it needs developing health education strategies that are important workers for health promotion in industries.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing