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Sun Ok Jung 1 Article
The Effects of Non-pharmacological Interventions on Sleep among Older Adults in Korean Long-term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Sun Ok Jung, Hye Young Kim, Eun Ju Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2022;33(3):340-355.   Published online September 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2022.33.3.340
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Purpose
This study aimed to examine the effects of non-pharmacological sleep intervention programs in improving sleep quality among older adults in long-term care facilities. Methods: A literature search and selection was performed on nine different databases using the guidelines of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Overall, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. For the metaanalysis, the effect size was estimated using the random-effects model in Review Manager (RevMan) desktop version 5.4 of the Cochrane Library. Results: The meta-analysis of overall non-pharmacological interventions obtained a total effect size of 1.0 (standardized mean difference [SMD]=1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64~1.35), which was statistically significant (Z=5.55, p<.001). The most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention was aroma therapy, with an effect size of 0.61 (SMD=0.61, 95% CI: 0.14~1.08), which was statistically significant (Z=2.55, p=.010). In the subgroup analysis, group-based interventions, interventions for >4 weeks, and untreated control studies were more effective. Conclusion: This study confirms that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in improving sleep quality among older adults in long-term care facilities. However, the sample size was small and the risk of bias in assessing the interventions of individual studies was unclear or high, thereby limiting the generalizability of the results. Further reviews that evaluate randomized control trials, evidence-based interventions that consider older adult participants' physical activity levels, different intervention methods and durations, and different control group intervention types are needed to obtain more conclusive evidence.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing