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Volume 13 (2); June 2002
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Original Articles
Development and Evaluation of a Stage Matched Exercise Intervention Program for Elders: Application of the Tran Theoretical Model
Yeun Jung Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):205-215.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This study was designed to develop and evaluate a stage matched exercise intervention program to effectively increase exercise behaviors in urban elders.
METHODS
The study included three phases: preliminary descriptive data collection, program development, and program evaluation. The data for the preliminary descriptive phase were collected between May and June 2001. The study participants were 89 urban elders who responded a questionnaire that included general characteristics, exercise related experiences, stage, and process of change in exercise behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi2-test, and content analysis. Development of the program was based on the preliminary data, and a literature review, and was guided by the tran theoretical model. It consisted of strategies to facilitate the process of changes used in each stage. Evaluation of the program was achieved from October to December 2001, using a case study method, in which eight urban female elders participated. Interviews were conducted on a weekly basis in the form of either an individual interview, or group discussion. Each elder subject received education in accordance with the program strategies and education materials. In the case that a subject's stage of change moved into another one, the scores for the process of change were re-measured. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique.
RESULTS
The results were as follows: 1. Elders who participated in the preliminary data collection phase were over 75 years of age, and the majority of them were women. They had a higher educational level, and fewer number of illnesses than the subjects in other studies. Their stage of change was divided into pre-contemplation and maintenance. The social liberation scores were the highest across all stages of change. There was no difference between men and women on scores for processes of change in each stage. 2. The stage matched exercise intervention program that was developed in this study consisted of one counseling type program and three distinguished educational booklet materials. 3. The results of the case studies are as follows: 1) The study participants were 8 women between 75 and 87 years of age. At the first interviews, all of them were in the pre-contemplation stage. All of them reached the action stage before the 7th week. The scores for processes of change that were the focus in each stage increased more than the scores for other processes of change. During the early stages of change, experimental processes increased more than behavioral processes. However, this pattern was reversed during later stages of change. 2) Characteristics of the subjects in each stage were identical as presented at the tran theoretical model. The intervention strategies were effective in the transition occurred in any stage. 3) Barriers for exercise included unwillingness to exercise, fatigue, shortness of breath, and pain. Ways to overcome these barriers were 'learning an alternative exercise method that can be done at home', 'self-promising/ exercise-promising', and 'use of cues to exercise'. 4) The factors that affected the application of the program were consideration of age and personal preference in selecting an exercise pattern, individualized intervention, and use of education materials appropriate to elders. Women over 80 years of age preferred muscle strengthening and stretching exercise, because they can be easily done at home. They also preferred individualized interventions, materials that were easy to read, and education contents appropriate for elders.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the stage matched exercise intervention program that considered the characteristics of the elders was effective to facilitate exercise behaviors of the elders.
Effects of a Ready Planned Self Growth Program through MBTI on Interpersonal Relationships and the Career Identity of Nursing College Students
Yun Hee Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):216-229.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a self growth program through MBTI on interpersonal relationships, and the career identity of nursing college students.
METHODS
A randomized controlled pre-post test experimental design was used for this study. The 24 nursing students were randomly assigned into two groups: 12 for the experimental group, and 12 for the control group. The subjects were junior nursing students, who were randomly selected from an undergraduate nursing program at K university located in Daegu, Korea. The data was collected from March 18 to April 1, 2002. The MBTI self growth program used in this study was based on the one developed by Shim and Kim(1997). The 12 experimental group students received the group self growth program through MBTI for 15 hours, while the 12 control group students received no treatment, except a series of tests. The Korean version MBTI test used in this study was developed and verified for reliability and validity by Kim and Sim (1990). Change in inter-personal relationships was measured using the Relationship Change Scale developed by Schlein and Guerney (1971), and modified by Lee and Mun (1982). Career identity was measured using the My Vocational Situation developed by Holland, Daiger and Power (1980), and revised by Kim (1997). The data were analyzed with the SPSS Win 10.0 program, through which the 2 test, t-test, and Repeated measures ANOVA were examined.
RESULTS
1) The first hypothesis, "the experimental group that received the self growth program through MBTI will obtain a higher interpersonal relationship score than the control group", was supported (F=5.295, p=.031, Interaction; p=.000). 2) The second hypothesis, "the experimental group that received the self growth program through MBTI will obtain a higher career identity score than the control group", was supported (F=28.575, p=.000, Interaction; p=.000).
CONCLUSION
The results showed that the ready planned self growth program through MBTI had positive effects on improving the interpersonal relationships, and the career identity of nursing college students.
Effects of Smoking Prevention Education on Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoking and the Satisfaction of Education among Middle School Students
Sun Hee Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):230-238.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This pre-post quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of school based smoking prevention education on knowledge and attitude toward smoking, and the satisfaction of education among middle school students.
METHODS
The subjects included 94 middle school students in the experimental group, and 87 students in the control group. The educational content contained smoking refusal skills, which were taught through lectures and videos. Data collection was achieved using a self-reported questionnaire developed by the investigator. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 10.0 program including frequency, percentile, chi2, paired t-test, and ANCOVA.
RESULTS
The results were as follows: 1. After the smoking prevention education, the smoking knowledge of the experimental group was significantly improved, whereas that of control group didn't change significantly. 2. There were no significant differences between pretest and post test attitude scores in both groups. 3. Refusal skill was the education content that provided the highest satisfaction for the subjects, and the degree of satisfaction was higher with video watching than with a lecture.
CONCLUSION
Smoking prevention education for middle school students increased their level of smoking knowledge, but did not affect their attitudes toward smoking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a more effective program, and to evaluate the effects of a long term education program with further studies.
Effects of Assertiveness Training on Assertiveness Behavior, Problem Solving Ability, and Interpersonal Relationships of Nursing College Students
Ik Soo Jang, Jung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):239-248.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to evaluated the effects of assertiveness training on assertiveness behavior, problem solving ability, and interpersonal relationships of nursing college students.
METHODS
A nonequivalent pre- and post-test experimental design was used. this study included 15 subjects in the experimental group, and 15 subjects in the experimental group, and 15 subjects in the experimental group, and 15 subjects in the control group, who were sophomore nursing students recruited from Gachon Nursing School located in Inchon City, The experimental group received 8 series of a ready planned and reorganized assertiveness training course, while the control group did not receive any training. The 120 minute training session was held on a weekly basis . the Maan-Whitney U test was done to identify the changes in scores of assertiveness behavior, problem solving ability, and interpersonal relationships between the experimental and the control groups, after the assertiveness training The data were collected before and after each collection period was from May 7 to July 10, 2001.
RESULTS
1) The assertiveness behavior scores of the nursing students who participated in the assertiveness training were higher than those of the nursing students who did no participate in the assertiveness training 2) The self problem solving evaluation scores of the nursing students who received assertiveness training were higher than those of the nursing students who did not receive the training. 3) The interpersonal relationship scores of the nursing students who participated in the assertiveness training were higher than those of the nursing students who did no participate in the assertiveness training.
CONCLUSION
The study results showed that the assertiveness training was effective in promoting assertiveness behavior, problem solving ability and changes in interpersonal relationships in nursing college students, It is suggested that well designed strategies are needed in the further studies in order to expand and apply the assertiveness training to other nursing student and nurse coherts.
A Study on the Impact of Mastery on Appraisal of Uncertainty in Women Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Kyung Hee Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):249-259.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mastery on appraisal of uncertainty in women patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
METHODS
The study subjects consisted of 168 patients who were recruited from the outpatient clinic of a rheumatic center in Seoul. Self report questionnaires were used to measure the study variables that included uncertainty, mastery, danger appraisal of uncertainty, and opportunity appraisal of uncertainty. Cronbach's alpha reliabilities of these instruments ranged from .72 to .93. For data analysis, the SPSSWIN 10.0 program was utilized to exam descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and regression analysis.
RESULTS
The results were as follows.: 1) The uncertainty scores of the subjects ranged from 33 to 87 with the mean score of 63.27. 2) The mastery scores of the subjects ranged from 10 to 27 with a mean score of 18.70. 3) The danger appraisal of uncertainty scores of the subjects ranged from 8 to 32 with a mean score of 20.22. 4) The opportunity appraisal of uncertainty scores of the subjects ranged from 7 to 28 with a mean score of 17.80. 5)Significant factors that explained the danger appraisal of uncertainty were mastery (=-.444, p<.001), and education level (=-.184, p<.05). 6) Significant factor that explained the opportunity appraisal of uncertainty was level of uncertainty (=-.328, p<.001).
CONCLUSION
Among the independent variables, the most significant factor that explained the danger appraisal of uncertainty in the women patients with rheumatoid arthritis was mastery. Therefore, a nursing intervention with strategies to improve sense of mastery should be developed for women patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
A Study on Model Development for Urban Community Nursing Center
Soon Nyoung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):260-271.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify basic health needs of adult clients to develop a community nursing center model in Seoul.
METHODS
Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from 894 adults registered at a public health center who were health management members, and visiting 4 community nursing centers, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee during the period from July 1999 to January 2000. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentile, t-test, and ANOVA.
RESULTS
1) The University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee School of Nursing has a long tradition of developing 4 community nursing centers with innovative health care programs. CNCs integrate the ability to implement and test effective intervention strategies with education, research, and practices of nursing students and faculty. They were designed to enhance the health status and quality of life for urban communities through the development of productive, outcome focused, collaborative partnerships among UWM-Nursing faculties and staff, other health and human service providers, consumers, and policy makers. It links the financial resources between UWM and 9 voluntary agencies and 12 public funding organizations including federal, state, and local governments. 2) Of the total health management members, 37.4% were reported to have at least one type of chronic disease such as hypertension, diabetes, and arthritis. Ten percent of them reported having obesity, and 44.2% reported lack of exercise. The health status of the subjects was within normal range in laboratory tests. However, female subjects showed more significant differences in obesity and cholesterol levels than male subjects. The subjects, who were in their 50s, showed more significant differences in obesity, SGOT, SGPT, and cholesterol levels than the subjects in other age groups.
CONCLUSION
A community nursing center needs to be developed, that has a link between the nursing college and the public health center, with partnerships and a multidisciplinary approach. Based on the study results, exercise programs for middle aged adults are considered necessary. In particular, specific exercise programs for pre-menopausal women needs to be implemented in the future to prevent them from developing osteoporosis.
A Study on Health Service Utilization and it's Determinants in the Low Income Family in Korea
Mee Young Im, Na Sun Ha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):272-279.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to analyze health service utilization, and its related factors in low income families who earned half of the average Korean household income.
METHODS
This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey study in which a nationwide randomization sampling technique was used. The data were collected from July 12 to August 7, 1999, and the total sample size was 5,819 individuals, belonging to 1,753 households.
RESULTS
1) In the utilization of health services for the last 3months, the pharmacy was the type of service that was the most utilized (32.0%), and the health center was the one that was the least utilized (10.3%). About 29 % (29.2%) of the respondents could not utilize the health service at all, and 19.8% of the respondents terminated their medical treatments half way to completion because of financial difficulty (89.4%). 2) Analysis of the data using logistic regression showed that living with spouse, level of education, occupation, and income had statistically significant effects on health service utilization.
CONCLUSION
The parameters of health care policies are equity and efficacy for health status, and the health service utilization by low income families. The conclusive resolution for these is the improvement of public health centers for an increased utilization rate of their services.
A Study on the Evaluation of Maternal Child Health Services in Public Health Centers
Yong Soon Kim, Jee Won Park, Kyung Sook Bang, Soon Re Jung, Hea Suk Woo, Hea Jung Lee, Hyeon Soon Jang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):280-291.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate the maternal child health services provided by public health centers in Pyungtaek city.
METHODS
Data were collected based on multiple sources of official records. A questionnaire survey was obtained from 50 mothers with premature babies, and 89 mothers with full- term babies, in order to compare their demographic factors, and physical, obstetrical, and emotional status. In addition, the investigators collected data on pre and post follow-up care for the remature group to evaluate the effects of home visiting services on them. Moreover, additional data were collected from 135 pregnant women and 315 mothers with infants, to assess their degree of satisfaction for prenatal education course and breast feeding practices.
RESULTS
1) The pregnant women's satisfaction for the prenatal education course, knowledge, and practices on self care were considered to be high. 2) Of the mothers with infants, 62.9% experienced breast feeding, but only 35.9% of them did it for six months. 3) Premature birth rate in the region was 5.6%, and 75.6% of all premature babies received follow-up care. 4) The mothers with premature babies experienced premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, preeclampsia, and cesarean section more frequently than the mothers with full-term babies. 5) At the pre-intervention data collection point, mothers with premature babies experienced significantly less social support than mothers with full-term babies. In addition, mothers with premature babies reported higher levels of stress and care-giving burdens, and lower level of self esteem, than mothers with full-term babies, although the differences were not statistically significant. 6) In the premature group, stress, care giving burdens, and postpartum depression decreased after the intervention, whereas maternal self esteem, and the husband's support were increased after the intervention. Social support from significant others were somewhat decreased. 7) Satisfaction for the home visiting service in the mothers with premature babies was very high.
CONCLUSION
These results showed a possibility that the recently started maternal child health services provided by the public health centers may be efficient. Although statistically significant differences were not found, the investigators found a potential for changes in a positive direction. Long-term effects of the health services on maternal child health needs should be addressed in future studies.
A Diagnostic Study on the Registered Beneficiaries of Health Centers - From the Perspective of the Precede Model -
Soon Nyung Yun, Jung Ho Park, Sung Ae Park, Hyeoun Ae Park, Chun Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):292-305.   Published online June 30, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic assessment on the level of health status, and quality of life of the health care beneficiaries registered in health management programs of public health centers. In order to investigate the level of health status and the quality of life and to find factors affecting them, the PRECEDE model, that was developed by Green, et al. for the purpose of a comprehensive diagnostic research, was used.
METHODS
The subjects were 81 residents who resided K-gu, Seoul. Data were collected from September, 1999 to August, 2000 using a self reported questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, Kruskall-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and path analysis.
RESULTS
1. The quality of life and the level of health promoting lifestyle were moderate or more, but were not significantly different by sex, age, marital status, educational level, occupation, and monthly household income. 2. Self-efficacy was significantly correlated to be a perceived benefit, social support and health-promoting lifestyle. Perceived benefit had a significant correlation with social support and health promoting lifestyle. There was also a significant correlation between the level of satisfaction, and the availability of the health promotion program. 3. Social support, health promoting lifestyle, and health status were found to influence the quality of life directly, whereas self efficacy and perceived benefit affected the quality of life indirectly through social support.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that the health promotion program should include strategies to strengthen self efficacy and perceived benefit to enhance social support, and to encourage health promoting behaviors in order to improve the quality of life of the health care beneficiary.
A Descriptive Study on the Health Status of University Students and School Personnel for the Development of a University Health Promotion Center
Eun Joo Lee, Jeong Hee Kim, Jung Hee Yeo, Eun Ok Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):306-320.   Published online June 30, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify health problems and health behaviors of university students and school personnel based on the PRECEDE model, which will be used as basic data for developing a health promotion center.
METHOD
Data were collected from a convenient sample of 878 university students and school personnel at C-university located in Jeju. The data were collected from May to June 2001 using a self report questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
RESULT
1. 17.2% of the school personnel and 36.7% of the university students reported that they were not satisfied with their life. 2. 44.0% of the school personnel and 42.1% of the university students described that they consider themselves healthy in terms of perceived health status. 3. The smoking and drinking rates of the school personnel were 30.4% and 78.5%, respectively. For university students, their smoking and drinking rates were 27.3% and 89.9%, respectively. 4. 91.3% of the school personnel and 88.8% of the university students responded that they were distressed.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study showed that the university students and school personnel had various types of health problems, and poor health behavior practices, despite their satisfaction for life. They were vulnerably exposed to unhealthy practices. Therefore, it is suggested that a health promotion program should be provided for university students and school personnel in order to help them maintain healthy lifestyles.
Factors Influencing Health Promoting Behavior of the Elderly: Perceived Family support and Life Satisfaction
Chun Gill Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):321-331.   Published online June 30, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to describe perceived family support, life satisfaction, and health promoting behavior (HPB), and to identify factors influencing HPB among the elderly.
METHOD
Study participants were 165 elderly over 65 years of age who were living in C city, Korea, The instruments included the Family Support Scale developed by kang. Life Satisfaction Scale develped by Choi, health Promoting Behavior Scale designed by Walker, et al. the data were anlayzed susing the SAS program by t-test , ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression.
RESULTS
1. The scores for family support ranged from 11 to 55 , with a mean score of 41.55. the scores for the satisfaction ranged form 0 to 40. with a mean of 22.02. The scores for HPB ranged from 40 to 160 with a mean score of 98.07. In the sub-dimensions of HPB. the participants showed the highest level of engagement in the nutrition domain, and the lowest level of engagement in the exercise domain. 2. Higher levels of family support and life satisfaction were correlated with more engagement in HPB. 3. The most influencing factor on HPB in the elderly was family support, accounting for 11% of the total variance in HPB. A combination of education level and types of living patterns accounted for 18% of the total variance in HPB. Life satisfaction accounted for 14% of the self-actualization domain, and 5% of the stress management domain, in the sub-dimensions of HPB.
CONCLUSION
Perceived family support was identified as an important factor to predict HPB in the elderly. However, life satisfaction was identified as only partially influencing HPB among the elderly.
A study on the level of ADL in Community Dwelling Elderly Registered in a Public Health Center
Keum Ja Kim, Jin Yoon, Hyo Soon Jang, Sun Hwa Ko, Oon Hee Yee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):332-342.   Published online June 30, 2002
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to assess the level of activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of community dwelling elderly.
METHODS
The subjects were 100 low-income elderly registered in a public health center. the data were analyzed using the SPSS/PC Program.
RESULTS
The results were as follows: 1. The basic ADLs of the subject were scored at 7 levels, and the mean score was 6.24 out of 7 points, The subjects did not necessarily require help from others, but might have needed more times or instrumental assists to perform ADLs. the lowest ADL score was reported on walking up to the stairs (5.05), for which the subjects did not need physical assistance, but needed a certain degree of supervision. the highest score was reported on self eating (6.74), followed by bowel management (6.60) 2. The mean IADL, score of the subjects was 1.77 out of 4 points, indicating that the subjects were very independent in performing IADLs, without help from others. 3. In relation to general characteristics, the level of ADLs of the subjects was significantly different by age (F=6.65, P=000), main activities (F=6.36, P=.001), perceived health status (P=4.66, P=.012), educational background (F=4.64, P=.03), marital status (F=4.62, P=005), and major household income (F=4.15, P=.002). 4. The subjects' level of IADLs in relation to their general characteristics was significantly different by perceived health status (F=3.53, P=.018), religion (F=3.10, P=.019), marital status (F=2.62, P=.055), and major household income(F=2.31, P=.049)
Nursing Students' Attitudes towards Sexually Active Elderly
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):343-353.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' attitudes towards sexually active elderly and to compare their attitudes with those of non-nursing students.
METHODS
Study subjects consisted of 118 nursing students, and 134 non-nursing students, recruited from two universities. The data were collected from September to November 2001. Vignettes, which presented hypothetical situations of sexual activities of the elderly (65 years of age, 80 years of age/sexual activity mentioned, non-mentioned). were provided as a research method, as well as the use of a structured questionnaire. Vignettes showed the hypothetical situations by male elder's sexual activity and their age, Respondents were asked to address their thoughts in the questionnaire.
RESULTS
1. Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the elderly than non-nursing students, regardless of the presence of sexual activity of the elderly. 2. No significant difference was found in nursing students' attitudes toward the elderly aged 65 and 80 years, between those who were sexually active and those who were no, These results were the same in non-nursing students. 3. Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the sexually active elders aged 65 years (5,6,1,43), than toward sexually active elders aged 80 years (4.89 1.55). This result was also the same in non-nursing students. 4. The variables significantly affecting attitudes toward the sexually active elderly in nursing students were familiarity with old person (p=.02), presence of living grandparents (p=.05), and the experience of caring for old people (p=.01). However, in non-nursing students, familiarity with old people was the only significant variable that affected their attitudes toward the sexually active elderly. 5. In nursing students, one variable to predict attitudes toward the sexually active elderly was the experience of caring for old people (p=.03), accounting for 10% of the total variance, In non-nursing students, familiarity with old people was the only variable to attitudes toward the sexually active elderly (p=.03), accounting for 3% of the variance for attitude, In both student groups, the sexually active elderly included college major (p=.03), school year (p=.01), familiarity with old people (p=.02), accounting for 12% of the variance for attitude by these variables.
CONCLUSION
Nursing students showed more favorable attitudes toward the sexual activity of elders 65 years of age or over, than non-nursing students. However, both the nursing and non-nursing students showed negative attitudes toward the elderly who were 80 years of age when compared with those 65 years of age, There should be a consideration in nursing education curriculums that university students may have negative attitudes towards sexual activity of the elderly over 80 years of age.
Relationships among Perceived Life Stress, Self-esteem and Depression in Middle-Aged Women
Geum Ja Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Mi Ok Kim, Boo Kyeong Bang, Su Jung Youn, Eun Ju Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):354-362.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine the relationships among perceived life stress, self-esteem, and depression in middleaged women.
METHODS
Data were collected from March 30 to May 25, 2000. The study subjects were 123 middle-aged women living in Pusan. The instruments used for this study were the Perceived Life Stress scale developed by Lee (1984), based on the original scale designed by Yu, et al. (1994), Self-esteem scale developed by Rho, et al. (1997), and the Depression scale developed by Ahn (1988). For data analysis, the SPSS PC+ was utilized, by which frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, Sheffe's test and Pearson's correlation coefficients were examined. The reliability of the instruments were tested by Cronbach's alpha, showing the internal consistency of 0.7328 for the self-esteem scale, and 0.8987 for the depression scale.
RESULTS
1) The results showed a relatively low perceived life stress score in the middle-aged women with a mean and standard deviation of 363.18 and 72.92 (range: .00 - 1877.38). 2) The results showed a relatively high self-esteem score in the middle-aged women with a mean and standard deviation of 29.77 and 5.06 (range: 10 - 40). 3) The results showed a relatively high depression score in the middle-aged women with a mean and standard deviation of 39.46 and 9.38 (range: 0 - 61). 4) There were no statistically significant differences in perceived life stress by demographic related factors. 5) There were statistically significant differences in self-esteem by health status (F= 8.930, p= .000) and economic status (t=4.792, p= .010). 6) There were statistically significant differences in depression by age (F=3.770, p= .0261), education (F=4.850, p= .003) and regularity of menstrual cycle (F=13.180, p= .000). 7) There was no statistically significant correlation between perceived life stress, and self-esteem in the middle-aged women (r=-.077, p= .399). 8) There was no significant correlation between perceived life stress, and depression in the middle-aged women (r= .010, p= .916). 9) There was a significant negative correlation between self-esteem, and depression in the middle-aged women (r=- .359, p= .000).
CONCLUSION
Higher self-esteem was related to a lower depression status. Therefore, it is necessary to elevate the level of self-esteem in order to reduce the level of depression in middle-aged Korean women.
An Analysis of Nursing Research on Cancer Prevention and Early Detection, Reported in Korea from 1980-2001
Jeong Sook Park, Yun Jung Oh, Hee Jung Jang, Young Hee Choi, Eun A Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):363-375.   Published online June 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend of research on cancer prevention and early detection in Korea, in order to suggest a future direction of research on cancer prevention and early detection for Koreans.
METHODS
A total of 97 studies published from 1980 to 2001 were analyzed according to the year of publication, research design, journal type, cancer type, major study concepts, and findings.
RESULTS
1) The number of studies related to cancer prevention and early detection had increased rapidly since the year 1995. 2) The most frequently used research design in the studies was the descriptive study design (55.7%). 3) There were 10 master's theses on cancer prevention and early detection, and 10 studies published in the Korean Epidemiology Journal. 4) When classified by the published field, 47 studies (48.5%) were published in nursing journals, 46 studies (47.4%) were published in medical journals, and 4 studies (4.1%) were published in public health journals. 5) The major topics of the studies were cancer prevention (51.5%), early detection (44.4%), and cancer prevention and early detection (4.1%). 6) Breast cancer was the most largely addressed issue in the studies (N=25; 25.7%), followed by lung cancer (N=23; 23.7%), hepatoma (N=17; 17.5%), gastric cancer (N=16; 16.5%), other general type of cancer (N=6; 6.2%), colorectal cancer (N=5; 5.2%) and cervical cancer (N=5; 5.2%).
CONCLUSION
It is suggested that there should be more studies on cancer prevention and early detection in the future, and, particularly, experimental studies to exam the effects of intervention on cancer prevention and early detection are considered necessary.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing