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Kwang Ok Lee 10 Articles
The Effect of a Comprehensive Intervention Program on the Functional Status and Bone Density of the Socially-Vulnerable and Frail Elderly
In Sook Lee, Kwang Ok Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2016;27(1):51-59.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2016.27.1.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to provide a disease management, nutrition education, and group exercise program for three months to the moderately frail elderly whose physical functions have deteriorated, and to investigate its effects in order to develop an intervention program.
METHODS
As a quasi-experiment, this study was conducted based on non-equivalence studies designed as a similar experiment. The milk intake group and calcium intake group participated in the disease education, individual nutrition education, and group exercise program for three months, and the control group was visited once in the three months by a nurse who provided disease education, nutrition education, and oral instruction of exercise, and asked them to exercise on their own every day. For the data analysis, χ2-test, ANOVA and Scheffé test were used.
RESULTS
After three months of intervention, there was a significant difference in the frailty level (p=.029) and bone density (p=.001) between the groups.
CONCLUSION
The comprehensive intervention program had an effect on the bone density and the frailty level of the socially-vulnerable and moderately frail elderly, suggesting that the program can be used as a nursing intervention to prevent functional deterioration and damage of the moderately frail elderly.

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  • Effects of Calcium/Vitamin D Intake and Taekkyeon Exercise on the Elderly's Frailty
    Kwang Ok Lee
    Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science.2016; 18(3): 185.     CrossRef
Evaluation of KDSQ-C's Reliability and Validity between the Subject Elderly and Caregiver
In Sook Lee, Kwang Ok Lee, Young Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(4):446-450.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2012.23.4.446
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is exploratory research to check the survey instrument KDSQ-C used to measure cognition for agreement between the elderly and their caregivers.
METHODS
Elderly persons from 170 families, who are aged over 65, have never been diagnosed with dementia, and who have caregivers in S City and K City were randomly selected by their nurses. A survey was conducted in the time from September to November, 2009 through personal interviews using a questionnaire.
RESULTS
In terms of consistency among items, there was high consistency (0.813) in the responses regarding complex task competence for the statement 'it is hard to reach a destination alone with public transportation'. There was relatively low consistency (0.63) in the responses regard memory for the statement 'they forget an appointment'. When the subject elderly and caregiver live together, as when their children or spouses responded, consistency was greater than when the caregiver lived in a different home.
CONCLUSION
KDSQ-C showed high agreement in measurement between the subject elderly and their caregivers, demonstrating that it can be used as a measurement scale for cognition which can be directly applied to the subject elderly.

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  • Self‐ and informant‐reported cognitive functioning and awareness in subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and very mild Alzheimer disease
    Seon Young Ryu, Ahro Kim, SangYun Kim, Kyung Won Park, Kee Hyung Park, Young Chul Youn, Dong Woo Lee, Jun‐Young Lee, Jun Hong Lee, Jee Hyang Jeong, Seong Hye Choi, Hyun Jeong Han, Semi Kim, Seunghee Na, Misun Park, Hyeon Woo Yim, Dong Won Yang
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.2020; 35(1): 91.     CrossRef
  • Screening for Normal Cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia with the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire
    Sun-Ju Lee, Jung-Hoon Han, Jung-Won Hwang, Jong-Woo Paik, Changsu Han, Moon Ho Park
    Psychiatry Investigation.2018; 15(4): 384.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between Subjective and Objective Cognitive-Linguistic Tests in Older Adults
    Mi-Sook Lee
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(5): 548.     CrossRef
Evaluation of the Effects of a Frailty Preventing Multi-factorial Program Concentrated on Local Communities for High-risk Younger and Older Elderly People
In Sook Lee, Young Ko, Kwang Ok Lee, Eun Shil Yim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(2):201-211.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.0000/jkachn.2012.23.2.201
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a local community based multi-factorial program for high-risk younger and older elderly people.
METHODS
The quasi-experimental research design (pretest-post test) was employed. Participants were recruited in Seoul and a total of 98 elders completed an 8-week multi-factorial program for preventing frailty. Descriptive statistics, chi2-test and GLM were used in the data analysis with SPSS/WIN 15.0.
RESULTS
The high-risk elderly people in the younger and older stages showed differences in IADL, TUG and BMI, and after being provided with the multi-factorial program for preventing frailty, some effects were shown on improving the total score of frailty, a physical function, TUG, BMI, depression, subjective feeling of health, and social interaction.
CONCLUSION
The 8-week multi-factorial program for preventing frailty had positive effects on improving physical, emotional and social functions of the high-risk elderly people. It is necessary to evaluate the effects after individual intervention as well as group intervention and to evaluate the effects of the program by setting a control group in the future.
The Effects of Follow-Up Care on Social Support, Self-esteem and Maternal Confidence in Low Birth-weight Infant's Mothers
Kwang Ok Lee, Ja Hyung Lee, Yun Mi Paek
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2004;15(4):628-638.   Published online December 31, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of follow-up care on the social support, self-esteem and maternal confidence in mothers of low birth weight infants.
METHODS
This study applied a quasiexperiment study method to examine the pre-post intervention effects. Eighty-eight mothers whose infants were below 2.5kg of Low birth weight were studied. The period for the data collection was from July to December in 2003. Self Reported Survey and Face to Face Interview by the highly trained home Visiting Nurses were used for this study.
RESULTS
Most of the participants reported statistically significant improvements in the score of social support, self-esteem and maternal confidence after they received the intervention.
CONCLUSION
Longitudinal study for the mothers of low birth weight infants might reveal more comprehensive findings. Moreover, follow-up care, which is linked with community health care services, is needed to continue the post hospital care services. Additionally, qualified and professional intervention programs should be provided to consider the characteristics of mothers of low birth weight infants.
A Research Study on the Sexual Awareness of Teenagers, Their Parents and Teachers in an Urban Area
Mi Lim Lim, Soon Ok Yang, Kwang Ok Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(3):755-772.   Published online December 31, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Relationship between Inequalities in Health and Inequalities in Socioeconomic Status
Kwang Ok Lee, Hee Sang Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(3):609-619.   Published online December 31, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This cross-sectional study is to measure the distribution of self-reported health by income, house type, level of education, income satisfaction and self reported social class in an effort to compare the level of health inequality in Korea. The data used in the research are the Social Statistics Survey undertaken in 1999. The correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between inequalities in health and inequalities in socioeconomic status. The correlation coefficient was the most significant between self-reported health and the level of education and income satisfaction. As for the health-related behavior, hypertension, smoking, overweight and drinking were shown to be highly correlated with self-reported health.
The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Smoking in Elementary School Students
Kwang Ok Lee, Hye Young Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):209-221.   Published online June 30, 2000
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I began the study to identify the issues related to knowledge. attitude and behavior regarding smoking by sixth graders. which will ultimately lead to the development of a smoking prevention program that will not only help deter school-age children from smoking, but also make them aware of the more desirable behaviors and techniques for healthier life. The results are as follows: 1. Smoking Behavior: Of the focus group. 4.15% are current smokers and 18.23% are ever smokers. 2. Correlation between smoking knowledge and ever smoking: Ever smoking sample(11.10+/-3.66) is less knowledge able than the never-smoking sample(12.17+/-3.95), (t=3.23. p=.001). 3. Correlation between smoking attitude and ever smoking: Ever smoking sample(28.12+/-8.51) was less desirable than the never-smoking sample(12.17+/-3.95). (t=8.24, p=.000). 4. Correlation between smoking Knowledge and smoking attitude: knowledge about smoking and attitude toward smoking are quantitatively correlated in such way that the more knowledgeable the child is about smoking. the more desirable the attitude toward smoking is(r=.17. p=.000). 5. Correlation between socio-anthropological characteristics and ever smoking: family . atmosphere(chi2=16.49. p=.001), school life (chi2=l1.58, p=.003), grades in school(chi2=11.89. p=.003), gender(chi2=8.97. p=.003). friends' gathering place(chi2=13.19. p=.02), marital status of parents(p* =.03). and family's financial status(chi2=6.71. p=.035). In addition, Correlation between somking-environmental characteristics and ever smoking: number of friends who smoke(chi2=76.01. p=.001). information source for smoking(chi2=48.03. p=.001), whether or not siblings smoke(chi2=26.07, p=.001), whether or not female relatives smoke (chi2=15.65. p=.001), whether or not father smokes (chi2=12.10. p=.007), errands to buy cigarettes for someone(chi2=9.18. p=.010), and whether or not male relatives smoke (chi2=8.82. p=.35). 6. Results of the logistic analysis performed to identify the factors correlated to ever smoking show that: one point decrease in attitude score translates to 25.39 times' increase in ever smoking one person decrease in the number of friends who smoke translates to 0.66 times' decrease in ever smoking: the group where the father has quit smoking has 1.40 times more ever smoking than the group where the father does not smoke at all: and likewise, the group where the father currently smokes has 1.40 times more ever smoking than the group where the father has quit smoking. 7. The overall cause-and-effect relationship between the ever smoking and the related factors: attitude toward smoking caused ever smoking by -.43, smoking by friends, by .12, marital status of arents, by .05, school life. by .04, gender, by -.03, and smoking by father, by -.02. Knowledge about smoking (t=-1.67) did not cause significant effects on ever smoking.
Study of the Positive and Negative Caregiving Experiences in the family members who care for the psychiatric mentally ill relatives
Kwang Ok Lee, Hee Jung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(2):435-454.   Published online December 31, 1999
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The caregiving experiences of 100 family menbers of outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders were investigated for the presence of positive(positive family-patient relationship. patient' contribution to the family) and negative caregiving experience(objective and subjective burden) and their predictors. This study attempts to make the analysis of caregiving experience more useful by expanding the focus to incoporate these positive aspects of the experience of family caregiver. Objective burden consists of two elements: "disruption of family life", "care"(amount of caregiving related to activity of daily living). Subjective burden is defined as emotional reactions to the care giving and it comprised of 6 emotional subdimensions such as "stigma", "grief". "worry", "pity", "fear", "despair" Also we investigate the severity of patients' disturbing behaviors into two categories, positive and negative disturbing behaviors and patient' contribution to the family as a predictors of positive and negative caregiving experiences. This study use Pearson's correlation coefficient, Hierardhical regressions in the SAS Program. The results are as follows: 1. Respondents reported moderate level of objective burden "disruption of family life" (mean=2.48, range=1-4), and "care" (mean=2.54, range=1-4), and slightly high level of total subjective burden(mean=2.19, range=1-4). Mean scores for the measure of the severity of behavioral disturbance indicated that the caregiver experienced negative disturbing behaviors around almost "somtimes"(mean=2.28, range=1-4), and positive disturbing behaviors "almost not frequent"(mean=2.78. range=1-4). So they reported that they perceived patient's negative disturbing behaviors more than positive disturbing behaviors. Mean scores for the measure of the patient' contributions (mean = 1.99. range = 1-4) indicated that caregivers experienced these contributions a little. It means that there should be a positive aspect of possibilities of patient' family roles that can be developed in the daily life. Mean scores for the measure of the positive family-patient relationship indicated that caregivers experienced moderate level of positive family-patient relationship(mean=2.52, range = 1-4). 2. Hierardhical regression analysis 1) Hierardhical regression of 'disruption of family life' showed that the interaction between positive disturbing behaviors and patient' contributions (B=.20. p=.022) and caregiver's educational level(B=.06. p=.000) were 'significant and Hierardhical regression of 'care' showed that 'negative disturbing behaviors'(B=.35. p=.007). 'patient' contributions'(B=.28, p=.019). 'family income'(B=-.l1. p=.096) were significant. 2) Hierardhical regression of 'total subjective burden', 'stigma', 'grief', "worry", "pity". "fear", "dispair" showed that "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.51. p=.000). "negative disturbing behaviors" (B=.17, p=.026), "caregiver's educational level"(B=.03. p=.036), "family income"(B=.08. p=.041) were significant predictors of "total subjective burden": "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.32. p=.066). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24, p=.096) "durations of illness"(B=.03. p=.079) were significant predictors of "stigma" "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.005). "patient sex"(B=-.32. p=.022). "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.020), "patient age"(B=.02. p=.010), "caregiver age"(B=-01, p=.002) were significant predictors of "grief" "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28, p=.005). "patient sex"(B=-.32. p=.039), "caregiver age"(B=-.02, p=.023). "caregiver's educational level"(B=.04, p=.044) were significant predictors of "worry" "patient sex"(B=-.46. p=.005). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.28. p=.018), "caregiver age"(B=-.01, p=.037) were significant predictors of "pity" "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.83. p=.000). "patient" contributions" (B=.22, p=.017). "family income"(B=.09. p=.65) were significant predictors of "fear" "positive disturbing behaviors"(B=.49, p=.001). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24. p=.057) "patient sex"(B=-.4l, p=.017), "family income"(B=.14, p=.047) were significant predictors of "dispair". 3) Hierardhical regression of "positive relationship" showed that "patient contributions"(B=.32, p=.000). "negative disturbing behaviors"(B=.24, p=.005), "patient sex"(B=-.23, p=.036).
A comparative study on the 4-year college and 3-year college nursing curriculum
Kwang Ok Lee, Young Lan Han, Hee Jung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):361-383.   Published online December 31, 1996
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This study analyze and find problems in the 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum through comparison and analysis of each college curriculum according to the Nursing Education Standards Criteria from the Korean Nurse Association, 1994. Analyzed areas and results are as follows : 1. Nursing education philosophy To analyze Nursing Education philosophy, we reviewed the categaries of Person, Health, Nursing, Environment. In of 4-year colleges, 50% of them were presenting definitions of Person that were the same as the Nursing Education Standards. But in the definitions of Environment and Health, they presented limited contents. In the 3-year college, we could not find any statement of Nursing Education Philosophy similar to Nursing Education Standards. 2. Nursing education purpose In 4-year colleges, they stated aboict only 3 aspects and others werelacking in correspondance with Nursing Education Standards. In 3-year colleges, some aspects were sincere, but when they were compared to the standards they were very limited. 3. Nursing education curriculum As we analyzed 4-year and 3-year college nursing curriculum, We found that 3-year colleges use curriculum from 4-year colleges in a modified and condensed form. Thus, it is considered that 3-year colleges have considerable burdens because they have to teach all the credits within 3-years that is normally taught in the 4-year college. Therefore, we can suppose that 3-year colleges have more problems in the quality. And, the majority of 4-year and 3-year college curriculums don't include recent concepts such as health promotion, prevention, and rehabilitation.
Value of Health, Multidimensonal Health Locus of Control and Level of Self-esteem in Low Income Mothers
Kwang Ok Lee, Soon Ok Yang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(1):52-68.   Published online June 30, 1996
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As a product of poverty, health means the physical, mental and social instability caused by poverty. High mortality, high morbidity, and unsatisfied needs for medical care indicate the health condition of poor people. These indicators are related to the social and psychological property. This study is to develop an effective method of nursing in the poor family which is an essential unit in the nursing field of the community and to which a fundamental approach is need as a top priority. We can make such a study, though partially, by revealing the relationship among the Health-value, Health Locus of Contol, and the Level of Self esteem. We randomly sampled 243 women who are participating in the nursing department of the comnnity nursing centers in Seoul. We investigated by using questionaries and made an analysis on the result by SAS program. The result of this investigation can summarized as follows : 1. The average age of the subjects investigated is 43.4 and the participation rate in the economic activity is as high as 49.4%. Most of them are paid daily. The average members of the family are 4.28 persons, and 80.2% of which are nuclear families. The type of housing is as follows:51.4% are monthly-rent houses. Rent houses represent 23.5%. And 43.6% of the subjects graduate the high schools 2. The level of self-esteem possessed by the subjects is 37.17. The quality of task performance(3.46) and the morality(3.53) are low as compared with the other qualities. 3. In relation to the locus of control, internality is 22.39, the influence of powerrful others represents 20.24, and the effect of chance occurance is 16.41. 4. The orderings of value scale are the physical and mental health, comfortable life, happiness, mental peace, and pleasure. The lowest order is social recognition. 5. Considering in relation to the self-esteem and the locus of control, we found out that there is a negative relationship among the self-esteem, the influence of powerful others. The lower the level of self-esteem is, the higher the influence of powerful others is. There is also a negative relationship among the detailed items such as the qualities, and the positive attitude. 6. In a significant test in the general characters of the subjects and in the level of self-esteem, we can obtain the follwing results. The higher the economic level is, the higher the level of self-esteem is. And the higher the level of satisfaction with life is, the higher the level of self-esteem is. 7. In the locus of control, the higher the economic level is, the higher the internality is. 8. In the health-level, 75.72% represent the high health -level. And the group which has the low satisfaction with life represents the high level of health-value(81.6%). With these results, we can conclude that the level of self-esteem possessed by the poor women living in the city is high and that they have the multi-dimemsional health-value even though they are living in the poor condtions. Traditionally, the poverty has been recognized as an unfavorale factor in the health care. But this study shows that the poverty is no longer an unfavorale factor and, on the contrary, it has a potential power with which people can improve their health by possessing the high self-esteem and the high health value. The ultimate purpose which the nursing task of the community has is to make the patients keep and improve their own health. So, when the nurses approach the poor patients, the nurses should put an emphasis on the individual responsibilities of the patients, and respect their own health value.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing