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Young Sook Kwon 14 Articles
Factors Associated with the Preparation Stage to Quit Smoking among College Smokers
Kyung Shin Paek, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2011;22(2):173-183.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2011.22.2.173
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to compare the Transtheoretical Model components according to the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior and identify factors associated with preparation to quit smoking among college smokers.
METHODS
Data were collected from 224 undergraduate students using the self-report questionnaire. The survey variables comprised the stage of change in smoking cessation, self-efficacy, and decisional balance and process of change in smoking cessation.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in self-efficacy, cons of smoking, and the process of change according to the stage of change in smoking cessation behavior. Cons of smoking and self liberation were significant factors related to the preparation stage of smoking cessation.
CONCLUSION
Strategies to enhance cons of smoking and self liberation in college smokers will be an important intervention component to prepare and plan smoking cessation in future studies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The association of stage of change for smoking cessation with smoking knowledge and attitude in women college students of Seoul, Korea
    Haena Kim, Kang-Sook Lee, Yeji Lee, Eunji Cho, Kyung Min Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2019; 36(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Comparisons of the stages and psychosocial factors of smoking cessation and coping strategies for smoking cessation in college student smokers: Conventional cigarette smokers compared to dual smokers of conventional and eā€cigarettes
    HyunSoo Oh, BoAe Im, WhaSook Seo
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2019; 16(4): 345.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Factors Related to Smoking and Smoking Conditions among College Students in Some Area
    Kyeong-Ah Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(8): 465.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Scale to Measure Reproductive Health Promoting Behavior of Undergraduates
    Ho Yoon Jo, Young Hae Kim, Hyun Mi Son
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2014; 31(5): 29.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Smoking Cessation Education for Male College Students
    Mi-Kyung Kwon, Kyung-Sook Bang
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2013; 19(4): 640.     CrossRef
A Study on Obesity Stress and Related Factors among Female College Students
Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):431-442.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of obesity stress and analyze factors having an effect on obesity stress among college women.
METHOD
The subjects were 347 female students from a university in J City. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire for general characteristics, health-related characteristics, and current and preferred somatotype. Obesity stress was measured using 10 items developed by Cho (1996) based on Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) of Ben-Tovim and Walker (1991). The survey was conducted from September 4 to September 7, 2007. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Spearman's rank correlation test, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS 14.0.
RESULTS
The average score of obesity stress was 2.78+/-0.90 out of 5.00. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the major factors that affect obesity stress of female college students were perceived body shape, disagreement between current and preferred somatotype, history of weight control, body mass index (BMI), and perceived health status, and these factors explained 38.4% of obesity stress.
CONCLUSION
Subjective judgment in the perception of or preference for body shape was the most important factor affecting obesity stress in female college students. Therefore, a plan is necessary to mitigate obesity stress and evaluate individually subjects who perceive themselves to be fat or want to be thinner than the current somatotype. And consultation and constant management are needed to help the high risk group (experience of weight control, BMI > or =23kg/m2, not good health status).
The Effects of a Smoking Prevention Program on Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoking and Smoking Coping Behavior among Preschool Children
Kyung Shin Paek, So Young Min, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):358-367.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking prevention program among preschool children.
METHOD
This study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 141 preschool children aged 6 or 7 at two childcare centers in Jecheon City, who were divided into an experimental group (n=66) and a control group (n=75). The smoking prevention program was applied through 9 sessions and 30 minutes per session. Surveys were conducted before and after the smoking prevention program to examine the preschoolers' knowledge and attitude toward smoking and smoking coping behavior.
RESULTS
There were significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in smoking knowledge (t=-2.02, p=.044) and smoking coping behavior (t=-2.01, p=.047), but smoking attitude (t=-1.20, p=.230) was not statistically significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION
As a result, further research is needed into the long term effects of a smoking prevention program on the future behavior of preschoolers so that the health benefits of early prevention can be quantified. It is necessary for parents to participate actively in influencing preschoolers' attitudes and behaviors with regard to the avoidance of smoking.
The Relationships among the Suicidal Risk, Self-Esteem, and Spiritual Well-being of High School Students
Yeong Ah Kim, Young Sook Kwon, Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):112-124.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to investigate the relationships among suicidal risk, self-esteem, and spiritual well-being of high school students, and to provide basic data for developing suicide prevention programs.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 1.176 high school students from six academic high schools and two technical high schools in Daegu City. Data were collected from the 13th to the 25th of September 2004. The research tools were the Suicide Probability Scale developed by Go. Kim and Lee (2000), the Self-Esteem Inventory modified by Choi and Jeon (1993), and the tool of Spiritual Well-Being modified by Yoo (2002). Data were analyzed with SPSS Windows 11.0.
RESULT
Variables that showed statistically significant difference in suicidal risk were school type, whether to have the best friends, the number of close friends, current relationship with close friends, experience of school violation, respect for the teacher, grades, financial condition, parents marital status, father's education level, mother's education level, home atmosphere, conversation with father, conversation with mother, smoking, drinking, experience of counseling for problems, whether to have physical illnesses, experience of thinking about suicide, experience of attempting suicide. Suicidal risk was in a significantly negative correlation with self-esteem and spiritual well-being.
CONCLUSION
The researcher identified many different variables that affect the suicidal risk of high school students. Self-esteem and spiritual well-being were found to be in a significant correlation with suicidal risk. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as basic data and information for suicidal prevention programs.
Effects of Smoking Cessation Program applying Aromatherapy massage on Smoking cessation in female college students
Sung Hee Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(4):608-616.   Published online December 31, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking cessation program applying aromatherapy massage on female college students' quitting of smoking.
METHODS
Forty-eight female college students were assigned to a smoking cessation program applying aromatherapy massage or a control group. The treatment group was taught to conduct a self hand massage with aroma essence oil. Lavender extra, Camomile roman and Bergamotte aroma essence oil were used for massage. The results of this study showed that the smoking cessation program applying aromatherapy massage resulted in significant effects on the number of cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety, smoking cravings and withdrawal symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS
The findings presented above suggest that the smoking cessation program applying aromatherapy massage may be an effective intervention for female college students attempting to quit smoking to alleviate smoking-related anxiety and to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, smoking cravings and withdrawal symptoms.
A Correlation Study on Spiritual Well-being and Death Anxiety of the Elderly
Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(1):132-143.   Published online March 31, 2003
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PURPOSE
A descriptive correlation study was done to provide basic data for comprehensive nursing care by analyzing the relationship between spiritual well-being and death anxiety of the elderly.
METHOD
358 respondents who lived in facilities for elders such as nursing homes and elder's rehabilitation centers were selected, and their age was over 65 years old. Paloutzian and Ellison(1982)'s spiritual well-being scale and Park(1989)'s death Anxiety scale was used. From August 2nd to November 7th, 2002, readymade questionnaires were handed out by the researcher to those who could fill it out and for those who could not fill out the questionnaires alone, the researcher read it and completed it by interview. The data were analyzed with SPSS Win 10.0 program, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation coefficient.
RESULT
1) The mean score for spiritual well being of the elderly was 43.95 in a possible range of 20-80. The mean score of religious well being was 22.22 and that of existential well being was 21.73 in a possible range of 10 - 40. 2) The mean score for death anxiety of the elderly was 109.04 in a possible range of 34 - 136. 3) There were significant differences in spiritual well being according to religion, and present occupation. 4) There were significant differences in death anxiety according to age, religion, and family status. 5) In testing concerning the relationship between spiritual well being and death anxiety, there was a statistically negative correlation(r=-.70 p=.000).
CONCLUSION
There was a negative correlation between spiritual well being and death anxiety. When the nurse implicates the nursing intervention, which can promote the spiritual well-being, elder's death anxiety also can be released.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Demented Elderly staying at home
Jin Joo Oh, Jin Joo Oh, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):214-225.   Published online March 31, 2001
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The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of the demented elderly and normal elderly over 65 staying at home in Seoul. Here the demented elderly are defined as the aged who score under 20 on the MMSE-K testing. The subjects were 15.104 elders in home. The method is a cross-sectional study home visiting survey with questionnaires. Data analyses were conducted by using frequency percentage t-test and ANOVA procedures.
Results
are as follows: First general characteristics such as sex age marriage education physical health and family characteristics such as economic level and single living showed a significant variance between demented elderly and normal elderly. Second the demented elderly showed a significantly high point of AD and IADL. Third in contrast with normal agents the dementia showed a high need for assistance from the care giver but followed the same pattern. In conclusion the above findings suggested that a social support system should be developed for the demented elderly and care givers in the home.
Effects of School Safety Education on the Safety Behavior among Elementary School Students in Korea
Myung Ae Jung, Kyung Min Park, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):566-576.   Published online December 31, 2000
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This study was carried out to examine the effects of school safety education on the safety behavior among elementary school students. Sixty-two 4th grade students were sampled from an elementary school in Pohang city and divided into one experimental group and one control group. The safety education has been provided to the experimental group for 4 weeks The data were collected before, just after, and 8 weeks after the education. In the pre-test, the general characteristics and safety behavior between two groups were measured. The experimental group was given school safety education twice a week for 4weeks. They also filled out the self behavior check list. In the post-test and follow up-test safety behavior was collected. The data analysis was done using chi2-test. t-test. Repeated measures ANOVA, analysis of simple main effect and time contrast methods, they were processed with an SPSS Win 9.0/pc. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) There were no differences between experimental group and control group on the general characteristics and safety behavior in the pre-test. 2) The hypothesis: 'The experimental group which was given school safety education will show higher scores on safety behavior than the control group which was not given this was supported(F=6.43 p=0.01). 3) The subhypothesis 1 : 'The scores on the indoor safety behavior of the experimental group which was given school safety education will show higher than those of the control group which were given this was supported(F=3.59 p=0.03). 4) The subhypothesis 2 : 'The scores on the outdoor safety behavior of the experimental group which was given, school safety education will show higher than those of the control group which was not given this was supported(F=5.70 p=0.00). In consequence, the experimental group which was given school safety education scored higher on safety behavior than the control group. Therefore, school safety education should continue to encourage safety behavior among elementary school students.
Parishioner's role Expectations of Parish Nursing
Chung Nam Kim, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):231-244.   Published online June 30, 2000
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Parish nursing is a community health nursing role developed in 1983 by Lutheran Chaplain Granger Westberg. An increasing emphasis on holistic care, personal responsibility for a healthy lifestyle, and changes in healthcare delivery systems have undoubtedly facilitated the establishment of an innovative nursing role in the community. Parish nurses are functioning in a variety of church congregations of various denominations. The parish nurse is a educator, a personal health counselor, a coordinator of volunteers. The parish nurses helps people relate to the complexed medical care system and assists people to integrate faith and health. The purpose of this study is to investigate what the korean parishioners want in parish nursing and what type of role expectation from parish nurse. The subjects were 1138 parishioners of 23 churches of various denominations in nationwide Korea. Data were collected by self-reported question naires from Feb 4 to June 25. 1999. The data were analyzed by using percentage. frequency, chi2-test. multiple Response set with SPSS program. The results are as follows: 1. Desired parish nursing contents by parish nurses are: psychological counselling(23.4%) out of private counselling. stress management(21.1 %) out of private health education. Emergency care(14.1%) out of group health education. Blood Pressure check-ups (19.0%) out of Health check ups. home visiting(44.9%) out of patient visiting method. B T. pulse, respiration and blood pressure check(15.0%) in Care to serve in home visiting. spiritual preparation to accept the death(41.7%) in hospice care, advices to choice of medical treatment using guide(50.1%) in introducing and guiding of health care facilities, pray(21.7%) in spiritual care.faith support. 2. Desired Health Teaching Content According to Period of Clients by Parish Nurse are: Vaccination(22.5%) in infant and toddler health management. sexual education(25.3%) in adolescent health management. prenatal care (29.5%) in pregnant health management. osteoporosis prevention and management (22.4%) in Middle aged health management. dementia prevention and management(25.5%) in elderly health management. 3. The expectant role from parish nurse is spiritual care.faith support(14.1%). patient visiting care(13.2%), hospice care(12.9%), private counseling(12.8%), health check ups (11.1 %), volunteer organization and training out of believer(11.0%), private health education (9.3%), group health education (8.3%). 4. In Necessity of Performing Parish Nursing according to Region, Most(over 95%) responded that nursing program is needed. so there is no significance between regions. In Performing Parish Nursing in their church, Most(92.2%) responded they want to perform program. 5. In case of performing parish nursing, 52% out of the subjects responded they want to participated in parish nursing volunteer's activity, for example. to be in active to be a companion to chat(42.1%), necessity support (25.3%), donation support(25.0%), exercise support(18.2%), vehicles support (9.9%). As a result. in holistic care and spiritual care, the need of parish nursing and the role expectation from parish nurse are very high among korean believers. Therefore, I suggest parish nursing centering around Taegu and Kyungbuk province should be extended to nationwide. For extending parish nursing program. more active advertisement and research is needed. After performing parish nursing program through out the country, further comparative research between regions should be practiced and Korean parish nursing program will be developed and activated.
Literature Review on Community Health Assessment based on the Concept of "Community as Client"
Kyung Ja June, Young Sook Kwon, Jin Ju Oh, Eun Ok Park, Eun Young Kim, Hee Girl Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):3-20.   Published online June 30, 2000
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The purpose of this study was to compare the concept of community and community health, community health assessment tool, and community health nursing diagnosis based on the concept of "Community as Client". The method for this purpose was to search the articles and textbooks related to community assessment and review the contents by the researchers who were 5 community health nursing faculties and 1 doctoral candidate. The sources of articles were limited in Public Health Nursing and the Journal of Community Health Nursing. As the result, three types of conceptual model were classified: epideiological model. fuctional model. system model. System model by Newman and Helvie included more comprehensive concept of community health than others. Helvie model suggested the most specific indicators among them. The components of nursing diagnosis in the system model had the subjectives. problems and the related factors. It makes the nursing care plan related to the nursing diagnosis. But there was no nursing diagnosis system among the three model. It is needed to compare the nursing intervention based on the concept of "Community as Client". It will be helpful to the community health nursing practice to develop the nursing diagnosis system based on the system model. For the community health nursing education, it is suggested to try the case study by the using three types of model. Finally, it is needed to validate the community assessment tool in Korean setting.
Analysis of Church based parish nursing activities in Teagu city
Chung Nam Kim, Jeong Sook Park, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):384-399.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The concept of parish nursing began in the late 1960s in the United States when increasing numbers of churches employed registered nurses (RNs) to provide holistic, preventive health care to the members of their congregations. Parish nursing role was developed in 1983 by Lutheran chaplain Granger Westberg, and provides care to a variety of church congregation of various denominations. The parish nurse functions as health educator, counselor, group facilitator, client advocate, and liaison to community resources. Since these activities are complementary to the population-focused practice of community health CNSs, parish nurses either have a strong public health background or work directly with both baccalaureate-prepared public health nurses and CNSs. In a Midwest community in U.S.A., the Healthy People 2000(1991) objectives are being addressed in health ministries through a coalition between public health nurses and parish nurses. Parish nursing is in the beginning state in Korea and up untill now, there has been no research was conducted on concrete role of korean parish nurses. The main purpose of this study was to identify, classify and analyze activities of parish nurses. The other important objective of this study was to establish an effective approach and direction for parish nursing and provide a database for korean parish nursing model through analysis and classification of the content of the nursing record which included nursing activities. This study was a descriptive survey research. The parish nurses were working in churches where the demonstration project developed on parish nursing. The study was done on all nursing records which were working in churches where the demonstration project developed on parish nursing. The study was done on all nursing records which were documented by parish nurses in three churches from March, 1995 to February, 1996. Namsan, Taegu Jeei and Nedang presbyterian churches in Taegu and Keimyung nursing college incooperated together for the parish nursing demonstration project. The data analysis procedure was as follows: First, a record analysis tool was developed and second, the data was collected, coded and analyzed, the classification for nursing activities was developed through a literature review, from which the basic analysis tool was produced and cotent validity review was also done. The classification of the activities of parish nurses showed 7 activitity categories. 7 activity categories consisted of visitation nursing, health check-ups, health education, referring, attending staff meetings, attending inservices and seminar, volunteers coordinating. The percentage of activities were as follows: Visitation nursing(A: 51.6%, B: 55%, C: 42.6%) Health check-ups(A: 13.5%, B: 12.1%, C: 22.3%) Health education(A: 13.5%, B: 13.2%, C: 18.2%) Referring(A: 1.4%, B: 4.2%, C: 2.4%) Attending staff meeting(A: 18.8%, B: 13.0%, C: 12.2%) Attending inservices and seminar(A: 1.5%, B: 2.2%, C: 2.1%) Volunteers coordinating(A: 0.3%, B: 0.4%, C: 0.0%) To establish and develope parish nursing delivery network in Korea, parish nurses role, activities and boundaries of practice should be continuously monitored and refined every 2 years. Also, It is needed to develope effective nursing recording system based on the need assessment research data of various congregation members. role, activities and boundaries of practice and arrangement of the working structure, continuing education, cooperation with community resources and structuring and organizing parish nursing delivery network. Also, It is needed to develope effective nursing recording system based on the need assessment research data of various congregation members.
Comparison of Health Practice and Health status of college students according to Sex
Kyung Min Park, Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):257-264.   Published online December 31, 1996
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The purpose of this study was to compare health practice and health status college students according to sex. The data consisted of a random sample of 743 students (388 males and 355 females) at 4 colleges in Pohang city. The analytic methods for the study were chi-square analysis and an odds ratio analysis. The results were as follows: 1. The most prevalent religious group was protestant (35.7%). The most prevalent monthly income of parents was 100-200 million won. The educational level of the father was college level or more for 60% of the samples for the mother, 70% was a high school graduate or more. 2. As far as health practice female students practiced better health than male students concerning smoking while male students practiced better health than female students in exercise and BMI(P<.001). 3. Odds ratio (OR) of the female students to the male students for BMI (odds ratio=0.30), exercise(odds ratio=0.15), alcohol drinking (odds ratio=0.69) were all significantly smaller than 1. On the other hand, ORS for smoking was significantly greater than 1. 4. A good health pratice score(5-7) were 38.1% in male students and 26.9% in female students. 5. Health pratice had a statistically significant association with physical well-being among male students. OR of the bad health pratice for physical well-being (OR=1.59) was significantly greater than 1.
Pastor's Expectations from Parish Nurses
Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(1):154-169.   Published online June 30, 1996
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Parish nursing is a community health nursing role developed in 1983 by Lutheran chaplain Granger Westberg. An increasing emphasis on holistic care, personal reseponsibility for a healthy lifestyle, and changes in healthcare delivery systems have undoubtedly facilitated the establishment and nurturance of an innovative nursing role in the community. Parish nurses are functioning in a variety of church congregations of various denominations. The parish nurse is a educator, a personal health counselor, a coordinator of volunteers. The parish nurses helps people relate to the complexed medical care system and assists people to integrate faith and health. The autors conducted a study on pastor's expectations from parish nurses.
Results
of this study will be useful to those instrumental in planning, initiating, supporting, and evaluating a parish nurses program The research was done on 130 pastors in Taegue and Kyong Sang Buck Do, of various ages ranging from their 20's to 60's: and pastoring churches of various sizes, ranging from under 100 to over 300 members. 94.6% agreed that they needed a parish nurse on their staff; and 86.2% said they wanted to start a parish nurse program in their churches if certain basic conditions were met. The pastors responded that some would hire the nurses on a full-time basis(22.3%), a part -time basis (37.7%) or use volunteer nurses (40%). The pastors said they would expect the following from a parish nurse: health counselling (80.0%) regular health check-ups (78.5%) health care for the elderly (78.5%) health information and education (72.3%) hospice care (72.3%) visiting sick church members at home (69.2%) arranging and training volunteers to help the seek (59.2%) health care for expectant mothers (50.0%) introducing and taking people to health care facilities (46.2%) The pastors were surveyed about specific areas of health education they would want the parish nurse to teach(for example, high blood pressure and heart disease prevention and management(76.2%) ; stress management(74.6%); and diabetes prevention and management(73.8%). The pastors were surveyed about specific areas of health counselling they would expect the parish nurse to do (for example, drug abuse, (73.1), alcohol abuse(64.6%), marriage conflict(60.0%), recovery after the loss of a loved one(56.9%), and women's conflict with parents-in-law(53.8%). The pastors were surveyed about types of things they would want included in regular health check-ups, what they would want a parish nurse to do on home visits, and what they would want included in home care for the elderly. They were also surveyed on what kind of spiritual care they would like parish nurses to give. Most (90.7%) wanted their parish, parishioners to be involved in the parish nurses program as volunteers, and in a variety of ways(such as visiting sick in their homes(68.5%) and helping with housework(63.1%) and taking sick people to health facilities(60%). Parish nurses role, activities, and boundaries of practice should be continuously monitored and refined and a "case manager" should be conceptualized as an additional or all-encompassing role. An initial parish / community needs and readiness assessment should be done prior to establishing a program to detemine if the congregation is ready, willing, and able to support such a position for at least a 2 to 3 year period.
A Survey on Low Back Pain of General Hospital Nurses
Young Sook Kwon, Chung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(1):100-117.   Published online June 30, 1996
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The purpose of the survey was to find out the prevalence rate and related factors for low back pain of nurses and to develop educational program for prevention of the low back pain. The subjects of the survey were 593 nurses of general hospitals in Tae-gu City. The survey was conducted from June 10, 1994 to October 3, 1994. The questionnaire included 34 question items concerning general characteristics, factors related to low back pain, physical nursing activities, and characteristics of low back pain. The results were as follows : 1. Among 593 of subjects, the prevalence rate of low back pain showed 62.1%. 2. In relation of health related life activities and low back pain prevalence, self-reported health state was highly significant(P=.000). 3. In relation of work environmental factors and low back pain prevalence, job satisfaction (P=.026), job stress(P=.020), and workload(P=.002) were significant. 4. In relation of physical nursing activities and low back pain prevalence, bending (P=.000), trunk twisting(P=.003), stretching(P=.006), and pulling and pushing(P=.046) were significant. 5. Physical nursing activities inducing back stress was varicant according to wards. The results of this study pointed out that the subjects' low back pain prevalence was related to the work-related physiologic and psychologic factors. Therefore, for the effective prevention of low back pain, both practicing the body mechanics and raising the morale of the nurses are needed in educational program.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing