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Volume 14 (3); September 2003
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Original Articles
Social Support and Quality of Life for the Elderly in Rural Areas
Kyung Sook Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):375-384.   Published online September 30, 2003
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The purpose of this study is to identify the amount of social support and quality of life perceived by elderly people in rural areas and to examine the relationship between social support and quality of life in an effort to provide the basic data for effective nursing intervention to enhance quality of life among elderly people. Data were collected from a sample of 220 elderly people aged over 60 from a stratified probability method from one rural area in South Jeolla province from Aug. 15 to Sep. 15, 2002. For data collection, pre-educated researchers visited the participants' homes and surveyed them face-to-face. The statistical analysis was performed using the SAS program along with t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Correlation. The findings were as follows: 1. The most socially supportive people they answered were spouses (57.28%), followed by children, friends/neighbors, in descending order. In terms of satisfaction about social support, the subjects felt the most satisfaction from spouses, followed by friends/neighbors, children, in descending order. 2. The participants' perceived social support was 26.0 and the highest score was 108.0 out of 125. Also, the average score and average grade point was 81.7 and 3.35, respectively. A comparison of the average grade points per items within sub-areas of social support revealed financial aid(3.56), informative support(3.34), emotional support (3.27), and evaluation support(3.22). 3. Their perceived social support had statistically significant differences in terms of how much they earned (F=18.56, p= .00001) and whether they had family members living together (F=2.68, p= .0512), quality of life had statistically significant differences in terms of how much they earned (F= 35.34, p= 0.00001). 4. The quality of life they perceived was the lowest score 47.0, the highest score 196.0, average score 145.7, and average grade points 3.28. A comparison of the average grade points per items within sub-areas of quality of life revealed neighbor relationships(3.97), self-esteem(3.49), family relationships(3.35), economic conditions 3.12), physical health (2.98), and psychological health(2.74). 5. The relationship between the amount of the subjects' social support and quality of life was significantly correlated (r= .696, p< .001). The findings revealed that social support for elderly people in rural areas was a greatly effective factor on their quality of life. Also, it was shown that the larger the social support for the elderly, the greater the quality of life for them. Therefore, it is necessary to foster geriatric nurse specialists and develop nursing intervention programs connected with health care and social wellbeing in order to enhance the quality of life of elderly people in rural areas. Also, it is necessary to develop effective models for community and its applications, which will play a leading role for elderly people.
An Investigation on the Status of Care-giving for the Demented Elderly and Desire for In-house Care Services
Jung Soon Kim, Sui Il Lee, Ki Tae Kim, Ihn Sook Jeong, Nam Hee Park, Kyung Nam Lee, Mung Soo Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):385-396.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to examine the status of care-giving for the demented elderly and to find out the need of community in-house care services- day care services, short-term care services, home help services, and home care services.
METHOD
It analyzed the data of 186 old people having dementia, and caregivers. Data were collected for five days, in September 2002.
RESULTS
The caregivers were mostly women and the burden for the care giving was high (87.5%). They used community care services, that is, day care services (26.5%), home care services (21.6%), home help services (10.8%), short-term care services (6.2%). Caregivers' age and education level were significant factors in the demand for day care services. Caregivers' education level was a statistically significant factor in the demand for short-term care services and home help services. Caregivers' age and education level were significant factors in the demand for home care services.
CONCLUSIONS
It is necessary to expand the financial aid for the active implementation of daytime protection for dementia-patients under medical treatment at home and to promote patients' recovery. It is necessary to enhance home help services and home care services, and to establish many day care centers and short term care centers. Through this, it will prevent caregivers from becoming burnt out due to the burden of care giving.
A Study on Service Satisfaction of Users' Family in Charged Recuperation Facilities Specializing in the Old
Young Mi Lee, Yeon Kang Chung, Seung Eui Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):397-406.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data in order to improve the quality of charged recuperation facilities which are specialized in the old, after finding out the satisfaction degree for the services which are provided in the current charged recuperation facilities specialized in the old and surveying the services which are demanded by users. As for the research method, the subjects were 88 family members of the users in the five charged recuperation facilities, which are specialized in the old and located in Seoul and Incheon. The survey research was executed from 27th July to 15th September, 2002. Then the collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS 10.0 for windows program. The research results are as follows. Firstly, in the satisfaction degree of the user's family about the daily service showed the highest satisfaction degree for the kind service of the staff to the users. In the satisfaction degree about the specialized service of the user's family, the satisfaction degree was high in bedsore prevention, periodical health care, proper medical treatment, family counsel, and adequate disease management. In the satisfaction degree about the facility and environmental service, the satisfaction degree about the surrounding environment of the facility or safety facility, and the comfort condition was high. In the satisfaction degree about the services related to the local society, it was high in the hospital and medical-related field. Secondly, in the demanded services, the demanding degree for worship, mental and spiritual nursing, hospice, funeral service, family meeting, and support for the special vehicle were not so high, but it was shown that they were generally demanded. Thirdly, it was shown that the provided services had an overall high satisfaction degree. In the service satisfaction degree according to the general characteristics of the user's family, it was recognized that there was a significant difference between the distinction of sex and local society related services. Also, there was a significant difference in the satisfaction degree between age and specialized service. Through the above research results, detailed rehabilitation programs such as linguistic treatment and working treatment should be more and more compensated in order to supplement the insufficient points of the services provided by the charged recuperation facility specialized in the old. Additionally, the correlation with the local society such as education and training for specialized human labor, close cooperation among the facilities, and positive participation in local society events are thought to be reinforced.
The Effects of the Music Therapy on the Anxiety and Satisfaction of Clients with Cataract Surgery under Local Anesthesia
Sun Young You, Hye Sun Jung, Jung Wan Koo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):407-414.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to discern the effects of music therapy on the patients' level of anxiety and operative satisfaction during cataract surgery under local anesthesia.
METHOD
The subjects for this study were fifty patients. Half of the subjects were categorized as an experimental group and the other half as a control group. All of the subjects were admitted to one hospital in Seoul for cataract surgery. This study was conducted from September 7 to October 2, 2002. The level of anxiety determined by self-reporting anxiety, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, was measured before and after the music therapy. The satisfaction degree was measured after the surgery. The tools for this study were Spilberger's state anxiety inventory and Patient Care Management System. Each patient in the experimental group chose the music used in his/her surgery and it was played through an audio system in the operating room. The data analysis was performed using the SAS/pc+(version 8.0).
RESULTS
1. The anxiety of the experimental group decreased significantly compared to the control group. 2. The pulse rate of the experimental group decreased more than the control group. 3. The blood pressure of the experimental group decreased more than the control group. 4. The operative satisfaction of the experimental group was higher than the control group.
CONCLUSION
According to the previous results, music therapy turned out to be a very efficient way to increase the satisfaction of a cataract patient after surgery by reducing the anxiety and the pulse rate of the patient during an operation with local anesthesia.
A Study on the Effects of the Kinesio Tape Method on Perimenstrual Discomforts
Eun Su Do, Kyung Min Park, Sung Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):415-423.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study aims to examine whether the kinesio tape method can relax perimenstrual symptoms and decrease the menstrual pain of those who complain of perimenstrual discomforts.
METHOD
This study has been designed to use the nonequivalent control group in the pre and post-test. The data have been collected from unmarried females complaining of perimenstrual discomfort and living in D city from the 2nd of February through the 10th of April, 2002. An experimental group of 32 people and a control group of 35 people were chosen, and they were first investigated for symptoms before and after menstruation when the menstrual pain was the severest and for the VAS measurement of menstrual pain. For the experimental group, the kinesio tape method was conducted two times a week for three weeks (six times in all), and the control group remained intact. The investigations after the experimental treatment were carried out in the same way as before. The measuring instruments were the perimenstrual measuring instruments of symptoms of 42 items and the menstrual pain was measured by VAS.
RESULT
The primary hypothesis: The experimental group who used the kinesio tape method would experience less perimenstrual discomfort than the control group who did not use it. The first sub-hypothesis: The first sub-hypothesis that suggests 'The experimental group who used the kinesio tape method would experience more relaxation of perimenstrual symptom than the control group who did not use it' was supported. The second sub-hypothesis: The second sub-hypothesis that suggests that 'The experimental group who used the kinesio tape method would get lower scores of menstrual pain of VAS than the control group who did not use it' was supported.
CONCLUSION
These results of the study show that the kinesio tape method is effective in relaxing perimenstrual symptoms and lessening menstrual pain.
The Effects of Hand Acupoint Massages on ADL Ability and Grip Strength of Stroke Patients
Yeon Hee Choi, Hyun Hee Kim, Eun Young Jeon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):424-431.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of hand acupoint massages on ADL ability and grip strength of stroke patients.
METHOD
This study was designed as a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group for pre and post-test. Twenty-eight patients were assigned to the experimental group and thirty to the control group. The hand acupoint massage was applied to both hands of the experimental group for sixteen minutes each time, a total of 15 times during five weeks. The patient's ADL ability and grip strength were measured before and after the program. The data were analyzed with mean, percent, chi-square, a paired t-test and t-test.
RESULT
The level of ADL ability was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Also, the level of grip strength was significantly higher in the experimental group of the plegic side than in the control group, but not in the normal side.
CONCLUSION
We have found that the hand acupoint massage helps the stroke patients improve their ADL ability and grip strength. Through this result, the hand acupoint massage could be considered as an effective application for rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients after stroke.
Effects of Koryo Hand Therapy on Menstrual Cramps and Dysmenorrhea in College Women Students
Young Sim Chang, Jung Nam Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):432-444.   Published online September 30, 2003
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No abstract available.
Live Spiritual Experiences of Patients with Terminal Cancer
Mae Ok Yoon, Jung Sook Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):445-456.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Development and Performance Analysis of Elementary School Health Promotion Policy Guideline
Chung Yul Lee, Young Sook Chung, Joo Hee Han, Chun Ok Lee, In Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):457-467.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study examined the development and performance of the school health promotion policy guideline that is applicable to Korean school health.
METHODS
1. The WHO's guideline was translated into Korean and modified by school health experts 2. A questionnaire was conducted to assess the performance of school health policy on 207 nurses in elementary schools in Seoul and Cheonbuk.
RESULT
The Korean version of the school health promotion policy guidelines were developed including 9 components and 36 checkpoints. Compared to that of WHO, the component 'school nursing teacher' was added and three components were eliminated: 'equitable access to school resources', 'control of helminth', and 'sun protection policy'. The performance degree of first-aid, closure of school in a calamity, and control of HIV/AIDS was very low. The performance degree of a healthy diet, and regular physical examination was quite high. This study was the first that developed the school health promotion policy guideline and examined the performance. Further research is needed to validate the guidelines developed by this study.
A Relationship among Sexual contact, Sex Role Identity, and Self Esteem of Girls' High School Students
Jung Nam Sohn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):468-478.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship among sexual contact, sex role identification, and self esteem in Korean girls' high school students.
METHODS
The data were collected from 522 girls, who were stratified samples from a target population of 63,375 11th grade students from 200 regular high schools and 70 vocational high schools in Seoul, Korea from June 22 to July 18, 2002. Data were processed with the SAS program.
RESULTS
It was found that 42.51% of girls haven't experienced any sexual contact at all. The highest frequency in the final level of sexual contact was 'kiss', which was 22.03%. The 'androgyny' type among sex role identities of girls was most common, 32.57%, being followed by the 'undifferentiated' type 31.61%, the 'masculinity' type 18.97%, and the 'femininity' type 16.86, in that order. The sexual contacts such as 'holding hands', 'arms around', 'embracing', and 'kiss' were significantly different depending on sex role identity types. The score for self-esteem was significantly different depending on sex role identity types. The score for self-esteem was not significantly different depending on the final level of sexual contact.
CONCLUSION
Based on the findings of this study, sex education programs should be developed in order to delay the sexual contacts of girls.
Scoliosis Progression according to the Growth of Middle School Students
Eun Ju Kim, Juk Hyang Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):479-487.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate the progression of Cobb's angle of middle school students according to the Risser grade changes during a one-year follow up period, and to identify the prevalence rate and related factors regarding scoliosis.
METHOD
A total of 2,124 middle school students were preliminarily screened by the Adam's forward bending test. Among them, 21 adolescents diagnosed with scoliosis (above 5Cobb's angle) by X-Raying were the subjects and followed up for checking Cobb's angle and the Risser grade for one year.
RESULTS
The overall prevalence of scoliosis in middle school students was 2.13% and the prevalence in girls was higher than in boys. The Cobb's angle was significantly high in seniors and girls. The cases in low angle and low Risser grade demonstrated significant changes in progressive Cobb's angle compared to the cases in high angle and high Risser grade after one-year. But gender and pattern of curvature were not significantly different from the changes scoliosis angle after one-year.
CONCLUSION
Based on these study results, juniors in low Risser grade were inclined to aggravate scoliosis despite the low degree of curvature at the first measurement.
Family Functions Characterized by the Industrial Accident Disabled
Jeong Myung Choi, Jin Joo Oh, Hye Jin Hyun, Hyun Joo Lee, Soon Nyung Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):488-495.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was attempted to provide the basic data in order to develop a supportive system for the family by investigation of the general and disability-related features of the industrial accident disabled and their family function.
METHOD
Three hundred and forty six industrial accident disabled were randomly selected among those who resided in the Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi areas, and who were confirmed as disabled according to its severity from the first to fourteenth grade from January, 1998 to December, 2000. The data were collected for one month from August 1 to August 31, 2001. Each study team consisted of two members out of 20 researchers and they interviewed the disabled individually by visiting their homes. Collected data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and Correlation, etc.
RESULTS
The average score for family function was 102.60. The adaptability represented the highest score among the concepts dependent on the family function. The concepts were cohesion, adaptability and communication, which scored as 33.59, 35.38, 33.34, respectively. The family function was significantly different in education, marital status and subjective health status. In particular, the family function was excellent from the industrial accident disabled who had graduated from middle school, was married, and felt healthy. Depression and quality of life were other factors, which were also correlated significantly with the family function. The lower the degree of depression and the better the quality of life, the better the family function.
CONCLUSION
The industrial accident disabled who had been in poor health or faced with difficulties in daily activities even after the therapy for the disability was completed. In particular, their family always had a great burden to care for the disabled and to take financial responsibility. Therefore, the rehabilitation program for the disabled should be family oriented.
The Affecting Factors on Breast Self-Examination(BSE) of Korean
Young Im Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):496-506.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to analyze the affecting factors on breast self-examination of middle-aged women in Korea. The subjects were 141 women on Jeju Island, and materials were collected through an organized questionnaire from March to August 2002. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, chi2 -test, A-nova and Discriminant analysis by the SAS program. The major results are as follows; 1. 53% of the subjects performed the breast self-examination. The practice of breast self-examination was correlated with the education level, income, low salt diet, more than 30 minutes of regular exercise. 2. Attitudes towards breast self-examination were not a significant practice regarding breast self-examination. However, the cognition about difficulty of breast self-examination partly showed an important barrier factor to the positive attitude. 3. The average self-efficacy concerning breast self-examination was 3.03. The stages of change related to the subjects showed that a contemplation stage was high. 4. With a stepwise multiple regression, the most significant factor on self-efficacy related with breast self-examination was the contemplation stage, 30-40 aged women, high income, regular exercise, low salt diet, family cancer history, etc. 5. With the discriminant analysis, the most important factors related with the practice of the breast self-examination were income and self-efficacy. The power of discriminant was 59%. The results of this study suggests that programs should be developed to promote practice and the self-efficacy related with breast self-examination.
The Prevalence, Health behaviors, and Control of Hypertension in Rural Areas in Korea
Mi Yang Jeon, Mi Yang Jeon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):507-519.   Published online September 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence, health behaviors, and control of hypertension in rural areas in Korea.
METHOD
A total of 927 subjects above age 20 were selected from the areas which fell under the jurisdiction of the 24 Community Health Center located in Chungcheongbuk-do. The employees in the Community Health Center visited and interviewed patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire from July to October 2002.
RESULT
The result showed that women had higher hypertension prevalence rates than men and the increment of its rate leveled up according to age. The hypertension prevalence rate was significantly high when the monthly income was less than 1 million won, their type of the Medical Insurance was the Guardian, they were only able to read Korean characters, and they were bereaved of spouses. In the Health behavior related to hypertension, the hypertension group showed a significantly lower level than the non- hypertension group in terms of drinking rate, smoking rate, intake of salt and intake of meat. There was no significant difference in the exercise rate and coffee intake rate between these groups. In the degree of the obesity the hypertension group was significantly higher than the non-hypertension group. The factors related to hypertension were that the duration for the incidence of hypertension was 12 to 60 months and took up 41.2%. The places where the medical check-ups occurred were the Community Health Center at 46.6%, the medical institution was mostly hospitals recording 46.5%. There were 66.1% of the targets who knew well about their blood pressure and there were 64.7% people who received education about it. As for the education place, the rate of Community Health Center was mostly high and it stood at 77.0%. In the aspect of the management of hypertension, the targets who took medicine on a regular basis were up to 76.1% and the targets who measured blood pressure once a month happened to be about 46.1%. The targets who always recorded their blood pressure were 3.8%, chest X-ray as a related examination of hypertension reached 32.6%, electrocardiogram examination was 36.2%, cholesterol and serum lipid examination took up 33.6%, and the eye ground examination took 7.3%, which showed the lowest level of all.
A Study on Model Development for Community based Health Life Enhancement Centers
Song Sil Choi, Hye Kyung An, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(3):520-532.   Published online September 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the health status and request of community residents. This study is part of development of efficient health life enhancement programs.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 586 households in a rural community and well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households for general information and health service utilization. The data were collected using a questionnaire for seven months from March 25 to September 24, 2002. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage by SPSSWIN (v 10.0).
RESULTS
1. 58.9% of subjects were above sixty, and 60.8% of them were women. 2. The most serious problems they identified were health problems (45.6%), and the second was(##-was +were) economic problems(22.0%). 3. Almost half of the study population regarded themselves as healthy (46.2%). The types of illness they had were neuralgia, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. 4. Most of the study population answered that they didn't do anything special for health enhancement. 5. Among medical facilities, hospitals or medical clinics (55.3%) were most commonly utilized when they were sick. 6. The highest request of the subjects was 'Home visiting service (45.4%)', and 'free treatment connected to the service of hospitals' was the second. What they needed most regarding health enhancement programs in health life enhancement centers was 'free health examination (58.2%), and heath education programs (57.7%). 7. As a result of investigating the subjects' demand for nursing services in health life enhancement center, 'the clinical examination' was the most requested, and next was 'blood pressure check', 'emergency treatment', and 'rehabilitation service', in that order.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing