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Volume 14 (2); June 2003
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Original Articles
The Use and Needs on Community Rehabilitation Service of Industrial Accident Victims at Home
Jin Joo Oh, Hyun Joo Lee, Jeong Myung Choi, Hye Jin Hyun, Soon Nyung Yoon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):179-189.   Published online June 30, 2003
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OBJECTIVES
This study described the features of home-bound industrial accident victims and their needs for rehabilitation services. This study was also aimed to find a future direction of development of community rehabilitation programs that are suitable for their needs and demands.
METHODS
This study is a descriptive study. Data were collected through two phases using structured questionnaire. In the first stage, surveys were performed via telephone interviews. In the second stage, surveys were performed via home visiting. Subjects in the first stage included 2203 industrial injured victims staying at home, of whom, 368 individuals complaining of post-traumatic complications became the subjects of the second stage.
RESULTS
This study showed that the home-bound industrial accident patients were complaining of complications from the injury even after receiving treatment by IACI. However, they were neglecting their health problems without any intervention. Even if they use health care services, the treatment is mainly focused on acute medical care, which may not effective for them. Furthermore, they had unstable employment status and suffered from financial burden for health care costs. The Labor Welfare Organization has established a plan to remove barriers of industrial accident victims in reinstatement, and has been preparing various programs in order to establish an all-embracing service system for industrial accident victims from accident occurrence to reinstatement. However, these rehabilitation services can be truly helpful only when the injured are able to obtain enough information about them. The current restrictive system is also not appropriate for solving health problems of the industrial accident victims. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a plan that can provide industrial accident victims high-quality rehabilitation services so that they can use those services in the community without being dependent on hospitals. This study proposes visit nursing services as a way to provide various health services within community for the industrial accident victims.
Factors Related with Job Satisfaction in Workers: Through the Application of NIOSH Job Stress Model
Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Bok Im Lee, Jong Eun Lee, Kyung Yong Rhee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):190-198.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting job satisfaction in workers by using the Job Stress Model proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Data were collected from December 1 to December 30, 1999. The subjects were 2,133 workers employed at 155 work sites, who were examined using NIOSH Job Stress questionnaire translated by the Korea Occupational Safety & Health Academy and Occupational Safety & Health Research Institute. SAS/PC program was used for statistical analysis using descriptive analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA, and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows. 1. According to general characteristics of the subjects, job satisfaction was high in those with less number of children. 2. By work condition, job satisfaction was higher in those who were working in a permanent job position, were working with regular time basis than with shift basis, were working in regular shift hours than in changing shift hours, were working for a short period, and were working less hours and overtime works per week. 3. In terms of physical work environment, job satisfaction was significantly related to 10 physical environmental factors. In other words, job satisfaction was high in workers who were working in an environment with no noise, bright light, temperature adjusted to an appropriate level during summer and winter, humidity adjusted to an appropriate level, well ventilation, clean air, no exposure to hazardous substance during work hour, overall pleasant work environment and not crowded work space. 4. By work-related factors, job satisfaction was high in those with less ambiguity about future job and role, high job control/autonomy, and less workload. On the other hand, job satisfaction was low in those with little utilization of competencies, and much role conflict at work and workload. 5. As for the relationships between job satisfaction and the non-work related factors, job satisfaction was high in workers who were volunteering at different organizations or active in religious activities for 5-10 hours per week. 6. In the relationships between job satisfaction and buffering factors, significantly positive correlations were found between job satisfaction and factors such as support by direct superior, support by peers, and support by spouse, friend and family. 7. There were nine factors that affected job satisfaction in the workers: age, number of children, work hours per week, noise, temperature at the work site during summer, uncomfortable physical environment, role ambiguity, role conflict, ambiguity in job future, work load, no utilization of competencies and social support from direct supervisor. These nine factors accounted for 26% of the total variance in the multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, the following are proposed based on the results of this study. 1. The most important physical environmental factors affecting job satisfaction in workers were noise, role ambiguity, and work load, suggesting a need to develop strategies or programs to manage these factors at work sites. 2. A support system that could promote job satisfaction is needed by emphasizing the roles of occupational health nurses who may be stationed at work sites and manage the factors that could generate job stress. 3. Job satisfaction is one of the three acute responses to stress proposed in NIOSH job stress model (job satisfaction, physical discomfort and industrial accidents). Therefore, further studies need to be conducted on the other two issues.
Effect of Health Promotion Program on Self-efficacy, Healthy Lifestyle and Serum Lipid Level in Employees with Hyperlipidemia
Eun Ha Kwon, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):200-210.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This quasi-experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of a health promotion program(HPP) on self-efficacy, healthy lifestyle and blood lipid profile in employees with hyperlipidemia.
METHODS
The subjects were forty-three employees who were diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia during routine health examination at two worksites in Seoul in 2001. Of the forty-three subjects, thirty were allocated to the experimental group and the remaining thirteen were allocated to the control group. Data were collected from September 24, 2001 to March 16, 2002. The HPP was applied to the experimental group for 11 weeks and included health education, diet counseling, watching videos, conference, and so on. The health education included information about exercise, smoking cessation, and abstinence from drinking alcohol and seven sessions of hyperlipidemia education. The experimental group was requested to keep a daily health promotion lifestyle diary. This diary was analyzed by a dietician and subjects were instructed based on the results. As for data analyses, wilcoxon signed rank test and wilcoxon rank sum test and x2-test were carried out using SAS program.
RESULTS
1. Self-efficacy scores of the experimental group were significantly more increased than those of the control group (experimental: 5.86 10.80, control: -4.04 11.91, p=0.018). 2. Healthy lifestyle scores of the experimental group were significantly more increased than those of the control group (experimental: 0.19 0.26, control: -0.05 0.29, p=0.024). 3. Blood total cholesterol values of the experimental group were significantly more decreased than those of the control group (experimental: -13.07 30.10mg/dl, control: 10.00 26.57mg/dl, p=0.033). 4. Blood triglyceride values of the experimental group were significantly more decreased than those of the control group (experimental: -29.17 192.40mg/dl, control: 63.31 107.53mg/ dl, p=0.050).
CONCLUSION
These findings indicate that the HHP could be effective in improving self-efficacy, healthy lifestyle and blood HDL cholesterol and decreasing blood total cholesterol in employees with hyperlipidemia. Therefore, the HHP could be suggested as an effective nursing intervention for employees in the worksite by ultimately preventing cerebral and cardiac vessel complications related to hyperlipidemia.
Smoking Cessation Counselling Activity among Nurses in a Community
Jin Sun Kim, Young Jung, Eun Young Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):211-222.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
S: The purposes of this descriptive correlational study were to assess knowledge and attitude toward smoking and smoking cessation counseling activity among nurses in a community, and to identify predictors of their smoking cessation counseling activity.
METHOD
Nurses employed by institutions such as university hospital, hospital, clinic, and health department in a community were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Of the nurses invited to participate in this study, 760 (88.5%) responded with completed questionnaires.
RESULTS
Nurses had relatively positive attitude toward their roles and responsibilities about smoking cessation counseling activity. However, smoking cessation counseling activity was not a routine part of their nursing practice. Moreover, the level of engagement with smoking cessation counseling activity was significantly different by working place. Nurses who were working at the university hospital, hospital, and health department were more actively engaged with smoking cessation counseling activity than nurses who were working at the clinic. Smoking cessation counseling activity was significantly correlated with knowledge of smoking, attitudes toward smoking-related issues, and self-efficacy for smoking cessation counseling activity. In the final stepwise multiple regression, smoking cessation activity was predicted by the nurses' working place, attitudes toward smoking-related issues, and self-efficacy for counseling knowledge and skills.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, nurses need to participate routinely and actively in smoking cessation counseling activity. To help nurses counsel and intervene patients regarding smoking cessation more effectively, it is essential to integrate educational information on smoking cessation intervention into curriculums of nursing schools as well as to offer smoking cessation intervention as a continuing education program available for currently practicing nurses.
A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Experience of Middle School Boys Toward Sexual Behavior
Mee Young Im, Young Hee Mun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):223-231.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A study of Factors Influencing Health Promoting Behavior in College Students
Kyung Shin Paek
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):232-241.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
To investigate the factors influencing health promoting behavior in college students and to provide a basic data for developing an effective health promotion program.
METHOD
The subjects were 711 college students living in Jecheon city and were selected using a convenience sampling method. The instruments used in this study included the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile developed by Walker et al.(1987), Perceived Health Status developed by Lawston et al.(1982), Self-Esteem scale developed by Rosenberg(1965), Self-Efficacy scale developed by Becker et al. (1993), and Health Locus of Control developed by Wallston et al.(1978). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS/WIN program.
RESULTS
1) The mean score of health promoting behavior was 2.39 point out of 4. In terms of sub-domains of health promoting behavior, self-actualization(2.78) showed the highest mean score, followed by interpersonal support(2.75), stress management(2.38), nutrition(2.11), exercise(2.04), and health responsibility (1.97). 2) The health promoting behavior had significantly positive correlations with self-efficacy, powerful others health locus of control, internal health locus of control, chance health locus of control, and perceived health status. 3) In the relationship between general characteristics and health promoting behavior, health promoting behavior was significantly different by gender(t=2.17, p= .03), and financial status of parents (F=10.79, p= .00). 4) The most powerful predictor of health promoting behavior was self-efficacy. A combination of self-efficacy, self-esteem, powerful others health locus of control, and sex accounted for 40.4% of the total variance in health promoting behavior.
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study showed that health responsibility and exercise were the domains where the college student showed relatively lower scores than other domains, self-efficacy was the most important predictor of health promoting behavior. Therefore, it is suggested that health promoting programs should focus on health responsibility, and exercise. Nursing strategies that can enhance self-efficacy should also be developed in order to promote healthy lifestyles in college students.
The Effect of Smoking Prevention Program on Changing the Knowledge and Attitude about Smoking Behavior of Middle School Boy's
In Hong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):242-252.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
To examine the effect of a smoking prevention program on changing the knowledge and attitude toward smoking behavior of male middle school students.
METHOD
A total of 69 male middle school students participated in this study. Each of them was assigned to either smoking prevention program (n=35) or to a control group (n=34). The intervention for the experiment group was developed by the investigator. The questionnaires for assessing knowledge and attitude were created by modifying scaled employed in previous studies.
RESULTS
1) The experimental group with smoking prevention program showed higher scores in knowledge for smoking harmfulness in comparison with the control group (F=18.782, p=.000). 2) The experimental group with the smoking prevention program showed lower scores in attitude toward smoking behavior in comparison with the control group (F=17.483, p=.000).
CONCLUSION
The results showed that the smoking prevention program was effective on improving knowledge and attitude toward smoking behavior in male middle school students. More studies on development of comprehensive smoking prevention programs for adolescents need to be conducted in the future.
Factors Influencing Osteoporosis
Jin Kyung Lee, Eun Ju Kim, Min Hyun Suk, Eun Young Kim, La Il Hwang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):253-262.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to identify factors influencing osteoporosis in women at pre- and post-menopausal state.
METHODS
The subjects of this study were 52 pre-menopausal and 125 post-menopausal women who were assessed of bone density in one general hospital. The data were collected through review of clinical records and telephone interviews using a questionnaire.
RESULTS
In the pre-menopausal women, the factors influencing osteoporosis were regular exercise (protective factor) and age (risk factor). Regression analysis showed that the factors attributable to osteoporosis included educational level, weight, age and number of pregnancy, accounted for 41.89% of the total variance. In the post-menopausal women, the factors influencing osteoporosis were age (risk factor), low educational level (risk factor), low economical state (risk factor), high parity (risk factor), and intake of coffee (protective factor). Regression analysis also showed that factors attributable to their osteoporosis included age, educational level, number of delivery, intake of the coffee, regular exercise, number of pregnancy and duration of oral pill intake, accounted for 37.41% of the total variance.
CONCLUSION
In pre-menopausal women, regular exercise was one of the most powerful determinant of their bone mass. Therefore, it is necessary to participate in a regular exercise program to maintain peak bone mass density prior to the onset of menopause. In post-menopausal women, increased age was the most influencing factor of their bone mass. Therefore, it is essential to establish early diagnosis and management of osteoporosis after menopause.
Family Phenomena and Characteristics by Social-economic Charateristics of the Family
Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Jin Kyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):263-273.   Published online June 30, 2003
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify the family phenomenon and characteristics by ICNP such as family shape, life standard, area, and development stage.
METHOD
1. Sample size was 115. 2. Data analysis method included frequency analysis including ratio.
RESULTS
1. On the distribution of the family phenomena by family shape, the nuclear family showed a higher ratio on the distribution in family communication and the unhealthy life style. The nuclear family was related to children andhad a higher ratio on the inadequate care management of the sick member. The extended family showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 2. On the distribution of the family phenomena by family life standard, the family with medium life standard showed a higher ratio on the inappropriate family coping, whereas the family with lower life standard appeared to have a higher ratio on the inadequate care management of the sick member. 3. On the distribution of the family phenomena by area, the large city area showed the highest ratio on the inappropriate family coping, the medium and small city area appeared to have the highest ratio on the unhealthy life style. The county area showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 4. On the distribution of the family phenomena by development stage, the family in rearing period showed a higher ratio on the inappropriate family coping and the lack of family intimacy. Families with preschool children showed a higher ratio on the unhealthy life style, and families with school age children showed the highest ratio on the inappropriate family coping. Families with adolescents appeared to have the highest ratio on the disturbance in family communication, and families with launching young adults showed the highest ratio on the inadequate care management of sick member. 5. On the distribution of the family characteristics by family shape, the nuclear family showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances among family members and neglect of general child rearing, whereas the third generation family appeared to have a higher ratio on the characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role and short of caring among family members. 6. On the distribution of the family characteristics by family life standard, the family of medium life standard showed higher ratio on the family characteristics such as a few communication chance among family and overburden of housewife's role, and the family of lower life standard appeared to higher ratio on the family characteristics such as short of caring among family members. 7. On the distribution of the family characteristics by area, the large city area showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role and neglect of general child rearing. The medium and small city area appeared to have a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chancec among family members. The county area showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as short-term care among family members. 8. On the distribution of the family characteristics by development stage, the family with rearing period showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as neglect of general child rearing. Families with preschool children showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chancec among family members. Families with school age children showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as overburden of housewife's role. Families with adolescents appeared to have a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances among family members. Families with launching young adults showed a higher ratio on the family characteristics such as less communication chances and short-term care among family members.
A study Health problem and Perceived health status of the rural elderly
Jeong Sook Park, Yun Jung Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):274-286.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to provide a basic data that may help develop health promotion programs by identifying health problems and perceived health status of the rural elderly.
METHOD
The subjects of the study were 366 elders recruited from 24 villages located in Mari Myun, Geochang Gun, Korea. The sample was selected using a quota sampling method. The instruments used in the study included 117 items for health problems and 4 items for perceived health status. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA and scheffe test using SPSS program.
RESULTS
1) The most prevalent health problem was ailments in 'musculoskeletal system', followed by 'fatigue', 'eyes and ears', 'genitourinary system', 'mood & temper patterns', 'cardiovascular system', 'digestive system', 'nervous system', 'respiratory system' and 'skin'. 2) Womens health problems were more prevalent than men's health problems. 3) The mean score of perceived health status was 7.68. 4) Health problems of the rural elderly were significantly correlated with demographic variables such as education (F=9.532, p=0.000), gender (t=-4.246, p=0.000), marital status (t=-3.531, p=0.000), family type (F=5.742, p=0.001), and occupation (t=3.356, p=0.001). 5) Perceived health status of the rural elderly was significantly correlated with demographic variables such as education (F=6.408, p=0.002), gender (t=2.949, p=0.003), marital status (t=0.802, p=0.034), family type (F=4.844, p=0.003), and occupation (t=-2.485, p=0.011). 6) Health problems of the rural elderly were significantly correlated with life style pattern variables such as drinking (F=5.223, p=0.006), smoking (F=4.087, p=0.007), salty food intake (F=3.424, p=0.034), greenish yellow vegetables intake (F=6.343, p=0.002) and fat food intake (F=5.327, p=0.005). 7) Perceived health status of the rural elderly was significantly correlated with life style pattern variables such as sleeping hours (F=3.966, p=0.020) and drinking (F=7.231, p=0.001).
CONCLUSION
The findings of this study indicate that nurses need to understand health problems and perceived health status of the rural elderly and to develop health promotion programs for them in the future in the consideration of regional and environmental elements.
A Community-Based Integrated Preventive Program of Depression and Its Effectiveness in Caring for Vulnerable Elderly
Yang Heui Ahn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):287-298.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of the study was to develop an integrated prevention program to strengthen elders self-care capability and to examine its effectiveness on their psychological condition. This study used one group pre- and post-test design. Subjects were 85 elderly residents (over 65 years of age) who lived alone, and received free basic medical care and social welfare services in a rural community in Korea. Subject eligibility criteria for this study were to an elders who 1) is not currently taking any anti-depressant medication 2) is able to communicate, and 3) agrees to participate in this study. The integrated program was composed of horticulture, reminiscence, and friendship activities. Twelve sessions were provided for 12 weeks in community-based partnerships to achieve better outcomes. The intervention was case-managed by a public health nurse and aided by six volunteers. The main outcome variable was depression, which was assessed by using 15 items selected from the Geriatric Depression Scale-short form Korean version. Sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, and satisfaction with social support were used as covariates. Results showed that there was a significant intervention effect at post-intervention time point compared to pre-intervention time point(E.S. 0.94). Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant interaction effects between intervention and satisfaction with social support. These findings must be interpreted within the context that an effects of an integrated program could be more synergistically increased when social support factor is considered in the program. A community-based integrated prevention program of depression is effective for vulnerable rural elderly. It is suggested that randomized controlled trials within community setting for better methodological strength as well as multi-level outcomes on community need to be conducted in future.
Nursing students' Experiences on Home Visiting Nursing Service in Public Health Center
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):299-311.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Analysis of Research about Pulmonary Rehabilitation of Patients with COPD
Hee Jung Jang, Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):312-322.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is aimed to analyze the trend of research on pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), and to suggest a direction for future research of pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD.
METHOD
A total of 39 studies published from 1991 to 2002 were examined according to the year of publication, type of journal, characteristics of patients, rehabilitation program, research design, and instruments and research findings.
RESULTS
1) The number of studies related to pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD patients has rapidly increased since 1996's (87.18%) 2) There were 10 studies published in the chest. There were 6 studies published in domestic journals and 33 studies published in international journals. 3) The samples in the studies were mostly outpatients whose lung function was moderate. 4) The total period of the pulmonary rehabilitation program shown in the literature was 5 to 12 weeks. The programs included exercise interventions, educational interventions and psychosocial interventions. 5) The outcomes of the pulmonary rehabilitation were measured with lung function, 6-minute walk test, dyspnea, and chronic respiratory disease questionnaire. Research findings were found to be effective on 6-minute walk test, dyspnea, and chronic respiratory disease questionnaire but not on lung function.
CONCLUSION
Based on these findings, pulmonary rehabilitation should be further emphasized, and standardized protocols and community based pulmonary rehabilitation programs need to be provided. More qualitative research should also be conducted in the future to describe the experiences of the pulmonary rehabilitation of patients with COPD.
A Comparative Study of the Symptoms Between the Middle Aged Women Who Take Foot Reflexzone Massage and the Middle-Aged Women Who Do Not
Keum Jae Lee, Jae On Lee, Myoung Za Wang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):323-333.   Published online June 30, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A Study on the Simplification of Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification(QSCC II)
Jee won Park, Myung ja Wang, Jeong Ah Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):334-350.   Published online June 30, 2003
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The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the clinical validity of QSCCII (Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Classification), whose high accuracy as a constitutional diagnostic tool has been recognized by medical professionals. The subjects of this study were 568 clients from an A university hospital in Suwon. Of the subjects, 259 were health center visitors and 292 were ambulatory clinic visitors. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaire and were analyzed by X2-test and one-way ANOVA. The results of this study as follows: 1. In 4 types of constitution, Soeumin type was found in 41.5% of the subjects, Taeumin type in 39.2%, and Soyangin type in 19.2%, respectively. There was no Tayangin type found in this study. There were no significant differences on types of constitution by demographic characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, education, religion, and economic status. 2. As for 15 item-selective questionnaire, there were statistically significant differences on the response rate of the 12 items, except items such as A4, A11 and A14, by the types of constitution. When the subjects' own criteria on their constitution were compared to the given constitutional criteria on each item, 4 items such as A6, A11, A13 and A14 were advisable to be excluded from the questionnaire or to be reunited to the other criteria. In the meanwhile, 3 items such as A7, A18 and A15 were desirable to be re-categorized to the other constitutional types and reconstructed to the QSCC II questionnaire. 3. In terms of 106 true-false questionnaire, there were statistically significant differences on the response rate of 46 items by the types of constitution. The 46 items include 15 items (32.6%) of the domain of 'handling something/strength and weakness', 4 items (8.7%) of the domain of 'interpersonal relationship', 9 items (19.6%) of the domain of 'state of mind at ordinary times', 2 items (4.3%) of the domain of 'distinctive emotional characteristics' area, 11 items (23.9%) of the domain of 'specific behavioral trait' and 5 items (10.9%) of the domain of 'physical characteristics'. Therefore, the areas of 'handling something/strength and weakness' and 'specific behavioral trait' mainly contributed to the classification of constitutional type. 4. When the 106 true-false items were simplified to the 46 items, statistically significant differences were found on the rate of items allocated to the 3 types of constitution. The rate of selection assigned to the 3 constitutional types of the simplified 46-item questionnaire was higher than that of the original 106-item questionnaire.
CONCLUSION
It was concluded that the rate of selection of each lay person about his own constitutional type would be still higher even though the simplified items of QSCC II questionnaire were applied. If more replicated studies are conducted on the diverse population using the simplifying QSCC II questionnaire in the future, a more simplified standardized Sasang Constitution Questionnaire that is available to the public rather than to medical staffs in the clinical settings could be developed. Moreover, the simplified scale will help nurses deliver more efficient nursing care by providing a more rapid way of health assessment.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing