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Volume 16 (2); June 2005
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Original Articles
A Comparison of Characteristics between Home Health Care Needers and Non-needers in Rural Areas
Dong Suk Lee, Yoo Hyang Cho
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):115-126.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aims of this study were to describe general characteristics and needs of home health care, and to find the differences between home health care needers and non-needers.
METHOD
In this study, 642 subjects participated who lived in Muan, Jollanam-do. Data were collected in August 2001 using a self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire was a revised and simplified form of the Organization of Community Health System Program at the Seoul National University. Collected data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis test. t-test. and Chi-squire for cross-sectional analysis.
RESULT
The average age of the subjects was 52.6 years and 33.3% of them aged over 65 years. Twenty six percent of them had chronic degenerative diseases. The percentages of hypertension patients and D.M. patients were 6.4% and 2.5%, respectively. The number of family members was 2.95 on the average, 2.19 in cases of families with the elderly and 3.33 in cases of families without the elderly. The rate of disability of the elderly was 10.5%. Marital status (p=.000), the number of family members (p=.000), education (p=.000), job (p=.000) and health insurance (p=.027) were significantly different between home care needers and non-needers. Home care needers had less living expenses (p=.001), more frequent hospital admissions (p=.004), higher chronic disease rate (p=.000) and more frequent visits to public health center (p=.027) than non-needers. Home care needers who wanted free service were twice as many as non-needers.
CONCLUSION
Home care need was very high in rural areas and the needers had worse characteristics (low educational level. low income, no job and no family). Therefore, it is necessary to develop cheaper and more accessible services for home care needers in rural areas.
A Study on Evaluation of District Visiting Nursing Services of Urban Health Center
Ho Shin Ryu, Rah Il Hwang, Min Hyun Suk, Dal Lae Chin
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):127-136.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to present the outcomes of the district visiting nursing services.
METHOD
We analyzed nursing records and inspected public health center data for evaluating nursing tasks. and conducted a telephone survey of 651 district inhabitants.
RESULTS
According to the result, the coverage of the district population, the rate of new registration and overall program activities increased. Meanwhile, accessibility of visiting health care, the level of health problem management, personal cognition and satisfaction concerning visiting nursing care increased, but there was little change in personal perception of health improvement. Furthermore, the status of client management was improved. In the analysis of participation in national cancer screening program, we found that there was twice higher participation in the district than others.
CONCLUSION
We suggest that this district visiting nursing system takes responsibility for district inhabitant health management. Based on the study, we also suggest that the government and local autonomous entities should increase administrative and financial supports to execute the district-based visiting nursing system in wider areas.
Physical Health Status, Depression and Activities of Daily Living of the Low-income Elderly Living Alone in Metropolitan Areas
Yeon Hwa Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):137-147.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate physical health status. depression. activities of daily living (ADL & IADL) of the low-income elderly who live alone in urban areas.
METHOD
The subjects were the 400 low-income elders who live alone in Daegu city and the following instruments were used: 1. The number of self-reported physical health problems and present diseases: 2. CES-D scale for depression by Jo Nam-Oak et al. (1998): and 3. ADL scale by Katz (1989) and IADL scale by Lawton and Brody (1969).
RESULTS
1. Visual difficulty was the most prevailing problem (55.3%) among physical problems. the second bowel elimination and the third hearing disturbance. As for present diseases. arthritis (26.5%), hypertension(24.3%) and DM (11.8%) were the most common diseases. 2. There were significant differences in physical health status according to age (t=3.115. p=.045). kind of medical security (t=-1.973. p=.049). perceived life satisfaction (F=4.966. p=.007) and the number of present diseases (F=2.937. p=.033). 3. There were significant differences in depression according to sex (t=-3.758. p=.000) . kind of medical security (t=-4.368. p=.000). perceived life satisfaction (F=35.743. p=.000) and the number of present diseases (F=4.246. p=.006). 4. There were significant differences in ADL according to sex (t=-2.136. p=.033) and age (F=4.863. p=.008). and in IADL according to sex (t=4.552, p=.000), age (F=3.090. p=.047) and kind of medical security (t=-3.306. p=.001). 5. Physical health state was correlated positively with both the number of present diseases (r=.140. p=.005) and depression (r=.352. p=.000), and negatively with ADL (r=-.176. p=.000) and IADL (r=-.230. p=.000). Depression was correlated positively with the number of present diseases (r=.169. p=.001) and negatively with both ADL (r=-.139. p=.005) and IADL (r=-.203. p=.000).
CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that general characteristics are important factors for physical health status, depression. ADL and IADL of the low-income elderly who live alone and there are close relations among physical health status, the number of diseases, depression, ADL and IADL. Therefore, these results must be reflected in community health programs for the low-income elderly who live alone. In addition, this kind of study must be extended to the low-income elderly who live alone in rural areas.
The Relations among Health-promoting Behaviors, Self-esteem and Depression in the Vulnerable Elderly of Urban Areas
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):148-156.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to identify the relations among health-promoting behaviors. self-esteem and depression in the vulnerable elderly in an urban community.
METHOD
The subjects were 185 vulnerable elderly adults aged over 65 in D city, who were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey. The tools used in this study are the HPLP developed by Walker(1987), the Self-esteem Scale developed by Rosenberg (1965), and the Geriatric Depression Scale developed by Yesavage & Brink(1983). Collected data were analyzed with the SAS program using descriptive statistics. Pearson's correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple-range test and stepwise multiple regression.
RESULT
Self-esteem and depression was in a negative correlation with each other (r=-0.21), but no significant correlation was observed between HPB and depression. HPB and self-esteem were in a positive correlation with each other (r=0.38). The most powerful predictor of depression was self-esteem and, next, leisure activity and the type of family living together. The three factors accounted for 41.1% of the variance in depression in the vulnerable elderly.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that self-esteem, leisure activity, and the type of family living together can be potential risk factors for old age depression. These findings may give useful information for developing visiting nursing service programs focused on depression in the vulnerable elderly.
A Study on Health as Expanding Consciousness of the Low-income Elderly Living Alone
Moon Suk Shim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):157-166.   Published online June 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
This study was to explore health experiences of the low-income elderly living alone reflected in Newman's Health as expanding consciousness theory.
METHOD
The researcher used Newman's praxis methodology because it is good for showing the process of interaction between the researcher and the low-income elderly living alone.
RESULTS
The significant characteristics of early health experience during a participant's lifetime were demonstrated that blamed themselves, being burden of themselves hopeless of their lives. However, after a turning point in health experience. The health experience of most of the participants evolved as expanding consciousness.
CONCLUSION
This study has provided support for Newman's theory of health. Most of the participants recognized meanings in their patterns and authentic caring relationships with the nurse as researcher, pattern recognition as a nursing practice was a meaningful transforming process in the participant-nurse partnership. This participatory approach expands the scope of sharing health experience with the elderly living alone and with caring community people.
Factors Predicting Condom Use for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Sex Workers
Yang Heui Ahn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):167-176.   Published online June 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify factors to predict of condom use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers in a Korean community. The theoretical ground of this study was the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior.
METHOD
A descriptive, cross sectional and retrospective research design was employed in this study. A total of 100 sex workers who take a clinical check-up on STDs regularly at W Public Health Center were recruited by convenient sampling, and with consent to participate in this study. All of the measures were piloted, and the reliability of each scale ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. Data were analyzed using discriminating function analysis with SPSS-PC.
RESULTS
Five independent measures (partner preference for using condoms, subjects desire to prevent STD, age, type of relationship and sexual self-determination) contributed significantly to the best discriminating function. The discriminating function analysis resulted in correct classification of 83.1% of the respondents into their corresponding groups.
CONCLUSION
Condoms are a main means of STDs prevention. Risk-reduction interventions that enhance communication skills and intrinsic motivation will be effective in increasing condom use to prevent STDs among sex workers.
The Effects of an Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Cardiopulmonary Function and Life Satisfaction for Adult Women
Kun Ja Lee, Chun Ja Chang, Jae Hee Yoo, Myung Hee Lee, Cha Nam Kim, Hee Kyo In
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):177-185.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to examine the effects of an exercise program on physical fitness, cardiopulmonary function and life satisfaction for adult women.
METHOD
The exercise program combined dance and resistance training. The subject group consisted of 114 women aged between 33 and 60. Three 8-week sessions consisted of 55-80% HR max for 60-90 minutes a day and 3 times a week from March to November, 2004. Data were collected through pre- and post-exercise tests before and after each session. Data were collected with dynamometer, sphygmomamometer, spirometer and structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed employing descriptive statistics and paired t-test with SPSS/PC(10.0version) program.
RESULTS
There were significantly positive changes in muscle strength, flexibility, balance quality, forced vital capacity and life satisfaction, but no significantly positive changes in agility and blood pressure.
CONCLUSION
This study showed that an exercise program has partially positive effects for adult women. The results of this study suggest that there should be programs of continuous exercise at community health centers for adult women's health.
A Study of Andropause Symptoms and Life Satisfaction among Middle-aged Men
Jung Hee Kim, Young Joo Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):186-195.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aims to understand andropause symptoms and life satisfaction among middle-aged Korean men.
METHOD
The subjects were selected among men in their middle age who visited one of two university hospitals or a convalescent center in Seoul. Korea. Eight items were used to measure their andropause symptoms. Life Satisfaction Index-Z was used to measure life satisfaction.
RESULTS
Major symptoms related andropause. in the order of frequency, include memory loss, muscle weakness. powerlessness and impotence. Among the subjects. 62.5% smoked and 70% drank alcohol. and life satisfaction was generally moderate in the participants. Current smokers and alcohol drinkers reported a low level of life satisfaction. Diabetic patients and subjects who had powerlessness and hot flashes of andropause symptoms experienced a low level of life satisfaction. Muscle weakness was more frequent in current smokers, and powerlessness more in alcohol drinkers.
CONCLUSION
This study's findings indicate that and ropause is one of major health concerns among middle-aged men. It reminds us of the smoking and alcohol drinking issues among middle-aged men. These findings show the necessity to improve strategies for nursing intervention in andropause symptoms and health risk behaviors.
Factors Affecting High School Students' Drinking and Smoking Behaviors and the Relation between Them
Jeong Ran Lee, Boc Nam Park, Kyung Hee Yang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):196-204.   Published online June 30, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the relation among social support, drinking and smoking and to identify factors affecting high school students' smoking and drinking behaviors.
METHODS
Data were collected from 361 high school students (182 students in 2 preparatory schools and 179 students in 2 vocational high schools) who were selected through convenient sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 for Windows.
RESULTS
Factors affecting smoking behavior were drinking(OR=15.86. p<0.01), school type(R=11.82, p<0.01), school record(OR=46.62. p<0.001), pocket money (OR= 10.91. p<0.01) and brother's smoking (OR=9.09. p<0.05). Factors affecting drinking behavior were smoking(OR=8.32. p<0.01), school type(OR=2.53. p<0.01), school record(OR=2.35. p<0.01), pocket money(OR=2.01. p<0.05), father's educational background(OR=2.126. p<0.05), mother's drinking(OR= 1.83. p<0.05) and relationship with teacher (OR=2.44. p<0.01).
CONCLUSION
The behaviors of drinking and smoking in high school students were highly correlated with each other. School record, school type, pocket money and family member's behaviors influenced student's behaviors. Further study is required to estimate the effect of drinking and smoking intervention programs according to student's characteristics such as school record, school type, pocket money management, and family members' influence.
Contents Analysis of Textbook Related to Safety Education in Elementary School
Mi Kyung Song, Jung Eun Lee, Sun Young Moon, Sook Ja Yang, Shin Jeong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(2):205-220.   Published online June 30, 2005
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to provide basic data to develop safety education programs in elementary school.
METHOD
Analysis is made based on textbooks for 1st-6th-grade elementary school students published by Korea Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development.
RESULTS
1) Among the textbooks. only , , , and courses dealt with safety education. 2) The contents of safety education included traffic safety, water safety, indoor and outdoor safety, fire, emergency measures, misuse and abuse of drug, smoking, toy safety, sports safety, leasure safety and disasters. However, the contents were theoretical, fragmentary, local and limited.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that the consents of safety education must be strengthened, and more practical and more behavior-oriented in consideration of activities.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing