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Volume 17 (1); March 2006
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Original Articles
The Effect of the Walking Exercise on Physiological index, Physical Fitness, Self Esteem, Depression and Life Satisfaction in the Institutionalized Elderly Women
Jo Ug Son, Ji Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):5-16.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to show the effect of walking exercise on physiological index, physical fitness, self-esteem. depression. and life satisfaction in institutionalized elderly women aged over 70. SAMPLE AND METHOD: Data were collected from subjects who consented to participate in this program for eight weeks from the 2nd of July to the 27th of August 2005. The subjects were divided into two groups, 26 subjects in the experimental group who had walking exercise and 30 in the control group who did not have walking exercise. The intensity of the walking exercise allowed 50-65% of the maximum heartbeat.
RESULTS
The results of the experiment supported the hypothesis that the experimental group would have higher flexibility, left grip strength, sense of equilibrium, self-esteem and life satisfaction and lower depression than the control group.
CONCLUSION
Walking exercise has the effect of decreasing diastolic blood pressure together with improvement in flexibility, left grip strength, sense of equilibrium, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction for institutionalized elderly women aged over 70. According to the results presented above, walking exercise can be strongly recommended for improving the health of institutionalized elderly women.
Survival Analysis for Prognostic Factors of Occupational Low Back Pain
Jee Yoon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):17-25.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The goals of this research are to find out factors influencing the duration of work-related disability and to present implications for policies to prevent delayed recovery.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 238 workers who had been proved to be industrial disaster victims for occupational low back pain between January 1 2000 and December 31 2003. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the proportion of duration of disability associated with low back pain, and Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify factors predicting it. The model distinguished main symptom variables affecting acute(< or =90 days) and chronic phase of disability (>90 days).
RESULT
Fifty percent of the workers had not recovered in 408 days. The results of Cox regression show that delayed duration of disability was predicted by diagnosis, pain radiation (in chronic phase), sex, the size and labor union of the workplace, scheduled rest, compensation from the company, and operation.
CONCLUSION
Duration of disability associated with compensated low back pain is influenced not only by factors related to the company and compensation system but also by individual factors. Thus, future efforts to reduce duration of disability may need to take into account all these factors.
Current Status of Community Health Nursing Practicum in Bachelor Program in Korea
Chung Yul Lee, Hyang Yeon Lee, Gwang Suk Kim, Kyung Ah Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):26-37.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the current situation of community health nursing practicum in bachelor programs.
METHOD
Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of questions on education goals, teaching items, teaching methods, and evaluation methods and items. Forty five nursing departments/colleges or 84.9% of four-year nursing schools in Korea responded to the survey.
RESULT
Nursing process application and understanding about the role and function of community health nurses were major goals of practice education. Community health centers were the most significant practice fields because all nursing schools mentioned them as places for practice. All nursing schools used a specific evaluation tool to measure students outcomes and utilized guidebooks to help students.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that the goals of practice education should be standardized to improve the quality of education. Besides, evaluation tools that can be used commonly at all nursing schools should be developed to measure the effectiveness of practice education of community health nursing.
The Effects of Group Walking Exercise Program on Body Composition, Blood Lipids and Psychological Factors
Young Aie Go, Hee Chong Baek, In Young Hwang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):38-45.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group walking exercise program on body composition, blood lipids and psychological factors at a community.
METHOD
The subjects were 200 women(29 groups) who agreed to participate in group walking exercise for three months. Their ages ranged between 30 to 77 years. A simple walking exercise protocol was given to the participants, which was to do walking over three times a week and over thirty minutes each time. We compared the participants' body composition (BMI, PBF, BFM, FFM, WHR and VFA), blood lipids (HDL C, LDL C, total cholesterol, triglyceride) and exercise-self efficacy, self esteem, and quality of life before and after group walking. Collected data were analyzed through paired t test using the SAS program.
RESULT
BMI. PBF, BFM, WHR, and VFA were significantly reduced (p<.01). However. FFM did not increase significantly (p=.416). There were significant changes in TC and TG (p<.01) but not in LDL C (P=.340). HDL C decreased but within the normal range. Exercise-self efficacy and quality of life did not increase significantly. Only self esteem increased significantly (p<.0001).
CONCLUSION
Group walking exercise had positive effects on body composition, blood lipid and self esteem in community women.
The Level of Physical Function and Psychological Well-Being of Postmenopausal Middle-aged Korean Women according to Bone Health Status
Soon Lae Kim, Kyeong Sook Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):46-55.   Published online March 31, 2006
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OBJECTIVE: This study is to examine the physical function, psychological well-being, and subjective symptom of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.
METHODS
Data used for this study was collected from 397 women who had experienced one years or longer menopause and visited a hospital in Seoul, Korea during the period from May to December 2005.
RESULTS
The level of physical function of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly lower than the other three groups. The psychological well-being of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly lower than the other three groups. Subjective symptom of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly higher than the other three groups. The level of physical function was positively correlated with psychological well-being and negatively with subjective symptom. Psychological well-being was also negatively correlated with the level of subjective symptom. Based on the results, it is recommended that the prevention of vertebral fracture in osteoporotic woman is important, and nursing intervention is necessary for the physical function, psychological well-being, and subjective symptom care.
Comparative Analysis of Influencing Factors on Implementation of Mammography for Ordinary Women and Outpatients
Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Ji Yoon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):56-64.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is to conduct a comparative analysis of influencing factors on the experience of mammography targeting ordinary women and outpatients.
METHODS
The target subjects were 116 ordinary women and 105 outpatients, and the study period was around 8 months from May to December.
RESULTS
When mammography experience was examined, it was found that mammography experience was conducted in 44.8% of ordinary women and 59.0% of outpatients, but this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference. When the relation between the characteristics of the targeted objects and the experience of mammography was examined, it was found that ordinary women have a lot of experience when they have regular exercises and a high health belief. On the other hand, in case of outpatients. mammography experience was more frequent in the older group. In addition, outpatients had experiences in breast-related diseases or high self-efficacy. It was also found that the influencing factors on the experience of mammography were a high health belief in case of ordinary women, and old ages and high self-efficacy in case of outpatients.
CONCLUSIONS
In order to increase the rate of conducting early detection behavior for mammography, it is needed to conduct an intervention that increases health belief for ordinary women, while it is effective to conduct an intervention that increases self-efficacy for outpatients.
The Relationship among Powerlessness, Social Support and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly People
Seong Hee Park, Ji Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):65-73.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the correlation between the feeling of powerlessness, social support and life satisfaction in the elderly.
METHODS
The subjects were 158 old people aged over 65 who were attending one of one college and three settlement houses for senior citizens located in B city.
RESULTS
The relationship between the feeling of powerlessness and life satisfaction was in a moderate negative correlation with each other (r=-.433, p=.000). The relationship between social support and life satisfaction was in a moderate positive correlation with each other (r=.410, p=.000). It was found that the higher social support was, the higher life satisfaction was. There was remarkable difference in the form of family (F=2.69, p=.023), the form of residence (F=5.29, p=.002), whether to belong to a group (F=2.26, p=.025).
CONCLUSION
For the reasons stated above, as the feeling of powerlessness is lower and social support is higher, life satisfaction is higher. The results clearly show that in order to improve life satisfaction of the elderly, we need to ease their feeling of powerlessness and enhance social support to them. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a nursing intervention program to reduce powerlessness and to improve social support for the elderly.
A Study the Health Problems of the Living-alone Elderly Using MDS-HC 2.0
Kyung Min Park, Ae Hwa Jaung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):74-82.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
This study used MDS-HC 2.0 to identify health problems in the elderly who live alone.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 100 living-alone elders aged over 65 in Daegu city. This study was performed through home visiting interviews during the period from the 1st of September to the 30th of September 2005. Analysis in this study was made using SPSS Version 11.0.
RESULTS
Frequent health problems in the living-alone elderly were: preventive heath measure (90), health promotion (80), social function (78), visual function (75), depression and anxiety (61), pain and communication disorder (60), cognition (55), environmental assessment (48) and oral health (45) in order of frequency. Informal services were provided to 73% of the subjects for emotional support. IADL services were provided to 57% of the subjects, and ADL services to 66%.
CONCLUSION
Nursing intervention programs based on health problems from MDS-HC 2.0 should be provided in order to cope with individual health problems and living-alone elders needs. The results of this study suggest that MDS-HC 2.0 is applicable to help decide nursing interventions for the elderly who live alone in community.
A Study on Korean Adults' Health Status, Smoking Perception, and Self-efficacy of Smoking Cessation according to Smoking Status
Mi Kyung Park, Kyung Suk Kang, Nam Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):83-90.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The present study purposed to investigate Korean adults health status, smoking perception. and self-efficacy of smoking cessation according to whether smoking or not.
METHODS
This study conducted a questionnaire survey of 694 adults at D County in Korea during the period from the 10th of June to the 10th of July 2004. The instruments used for this study were scales on health status, smoking perception and self-efficacy: of smoking cessation. Data was analyzed by frequency and percentage, mean and SD, chi2-test, t-test, ANOVA using SPSS 11.0 program.
RESULTS
The subjects of this study were 503 men and 191 women, and 60.8% of the male subjects and 6.8% of the female subjects were smokers. With respect to health status (t=-2.58, p=0.010), smoking perception (t=10.59. p<0.000) and the self-efficacy of smoking cessation (t=-23.04, p<0.000), there were significant differences according to whether smoking or not.
CONCLUSIONS
It is necessary to make repeated study to find other variables that affect adults smoking and to develop smoking cessation programs that enhance the self-efficacy of smoking cessation.
The Effects of Aroma Foot Massage on the Anxiety, Pain and Sleep Satisfaction during Colonoscopy under Conscious Sedation
Myung Hee Kim, Ki Wol Sung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):91-101.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
This research is to know whether aroma foot massage has influence on the relief of anxiety and pain during colonoscopy under conscious sedation.
METHOD
This research was designed as a quasi-experiment of non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest. Data were collected from April 1 2005 to August 30 2005. The subjects were divided into three groups (control group, foot massage group and aroma foot massage group) with 30 persons each. Anxiety was evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), blood pressure and pulse. Pain response was measured with VAS and non-verbal pain behavior score. Sleep satisfaction was measured with a graphic rating scale. Data were analyzed through Chi-square test, t-test and repeated measure ANOVA.
RESULTS
Systolic blood pressure, pulse, subjective anxiety and pain scores from the aroma foot massage group decreased significantly. Sleep satisfaction score of the aroma foot massage group increased significantly. Diastolic blood pressure from the aroma foot massage group did not decrease.
CONCLUSION
The results show that aroma foot massage with refined oils can increase sleep satisfaction and decrease anxiety and pain during colonoscopy under conscious sedation.
A Structural Model for Health Promotion on 6th Grade Elementary School Students in Korea
Yeon Ran Hong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):102-111.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
This study was designed to test and develop a structural model that explains health promotion behaviors of elementary school students in Korea.
METHOD
Data were collected using questionnaires from 329 6th-grade elementary school students in a city. The data were analyzed using LISREL 8.0 program.
RESULT
Health promoting behaviors were directly affected by some of predictive factors particularly self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived health status, importance of health and internal locus of control. These predictive variables of health promotion behaviors explained 67% of the total variance in the model. Life satisfaction was directly affected by self-efficacy, health promotion behaviors, self-esteem, importance of health, internal locus of control and perceived health status. Powerful other locus of control was identified as an important variable that contributed indirectly to the improvement of life satisfaction through enhancing health promoting behaviors. These predictive variables of life satisfaction explained 46% of the total variance in the model.
CONCLUSION
The derived model in this study is considered appropriate in predicting health promotion behaviors and life satisfaction in elementary school students in Korea. Also it can be used effectively as a reference model for further study, and it is suggest that this study be used to set the direction of health promoting education.
The Relationships among the Suicidal Risk, Self-Esteem, and Spiritual Well-being of High School Students
Yeong Ah Kim, Young Sook Kwon, Kyung Min Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):112-124.   Published online March 31, 2006
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to investigate the relationships among suicidal risk, self-esteem, and spiritual well-being of high school students, and to provide basic data for developing suicide prevention programs.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 1.176 high school students from six academic high schools and two technical high schools in Daegu City. Data were collected from the 13th to the 25th of September 2004. The research tools were the Suicide Probability Scale developed by Go. Kim and Lee (2000), the Self-Esteem Inventory modified by Choi and Jeon (1993), and the tool of Spiritual Well-Being modified by Yoo (2002). Data were analyzed with SPSS Windows 11.0.
RESULT
Variables that showed statistically significant difference in suicidal risk were school type, whether to have the best friends, the number of close friends, current relationship with close friends, experience of school violation, respect for the teacher, grades, financial condition, parents marital status, father's education level, mother's education level, home atmosphere, conversation with father, conversation with mother, smoking, drinking, experience of counseling for problems, whether to have physical illnesses, experience of thinking about suicide, experience of attempting suicide. Suicidal risk was in a significantly negative correlation with self-esteem and spiritual well-being.
CONCLUSION
The researcher identified many different variables that affect the suicidal risk of high school students. Self-esteem and spiritual well-being were found to be in a significant correlation with suicidal risk. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as basic data and information for suicidal prevention programs.
The Relationship between Premenstrual Syndrome and Sex Role of College Students
Mi A Shin, Mi Hyeon Jeong
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):125-133.   Published online March 31, 2006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to identify the relationship between PMS and sex role.
METHOD
Data were collected from 417 female college students in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do area during the period from the 6th of September to the 15th of October in 2004. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS WIN 11.0.
RESULT
The results of this study were as follows: 1) Perceived subjective symptoms were clustered endogenous depressive feature (2.76+/-.97), anxiety (2.76+/-1.09), and impulsivity (2.72+/-1.02). 2) PMS was significantly different according to the general characteristics of menarche age (F=5.910, p=.003), pain (F=7.886. p=.000) and family history (F=5.366, p=.005), masculinity was significantly different according to menarche age (F=3.174, p=.043), and femininity was significantly different according to menarche age (F=3.742, p=.025) and pain (F=3.256. p=.040). 3) Femininity and PMS were in a positive correlation with each other (r=.623. p=.000).
CONCLUSION
This results showed that there is a significant correlation between PMS and sex role. For future research, it is recommended to identify major factors affecting PMS and the relationships between them and various subjects.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing