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Volume 19 (3); September 2008
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Original Articles
The Effects of Walking on the Physical Health of Residents in Rural Areas
Chun Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):349-357.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of walking on physical health such as body composition, blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipids for residents in rural areas.
METHOD
Data were collected from 109 residents at 4 community health centers and during the 12 weeks' period between May and July, 2007 with quasi-experimental pre/post-test design. The data were processed with SPSS Win 12.0.
RESULT
69.5% of the subjects had chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension, arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Also, 52.9% had overweight and 14.7% had excessive obesity. There were significant positive changes in BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and LDL among obese residents. However, there was no significant difference in total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL among blood lipids.
CONCLUSION
This study showed that a 3 months' walking program had positive effects on physical health and it should be continued.
The Effects of a Smoking Prevention Program on Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoking and Smoking Coping Behavior among Preschool Children
Kyung Shin Paek, So Young Min, Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):358-367.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking prevention program among preschool children.
METHOD
This study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 141 preschool children aged 6 or 7 at two childcare centers in Jecheon City, who were divided into an experimental group (n=66) and a control group (n=75). The smoking prevention program was applied through 9 sessions and 30 minutes per session. Surveys were conducted before and after the smoking prevention program to examine the preschoolers' knowledge and attitude toward smoking and smoking coping behavior.
RESULTS
There were significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in smoking knowledge (t=-2.02, p=.044) and smoking coping behavior (t=-2.01, p=.047), but smoking attitude (t=-1.20, p=.230) was not statistically significantly different between the two groups.
CONCLUSION
As a result, further research is needed into the long term effects of a smoking prevention program on the future behavior of preschoolers so that the health benefits of early prevention can be quantified. It is necessary for parents to participate actively in influencing preschoolers' attitudes and behaviors with regard to the avoidance of smoking.
The Effects of Perceived Stress on Cognition in the Community Elderly
Su Kyung Chu, Jang Hak Yoo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):368-377.   Published online September 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of perceived stress on cognition in the community elderly.
METHODS
This was a descriptive study. Data were collected using individual-based interviews from 40 senior residents at the hall for the elderly in S City. The period of data collection was from June 19 to July 7, 2006. The tools of data collection were Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975) and Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983).
RESULTS
Cognition showed significant differences according to gender, education, and regular exercise. Cognition was significantly correlated to stress and age. Stress was significantly correlated to orientation, recall, and attention/calculation. In the results of stepwise multiple regression, factors affecting cognition were stress, age, and gender.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to prepare health promotion programs that can reduce stress level in the community elderly.
The Influences of Physical Health, Cognitive Symptom and Nutritional Status on the Depression of the Elderly Dwelling in a Big City
Ji Sook Kang, Yeo Sook Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):378-387.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purposes of this study were to investigate factors related to the depression of the elderly dwelling in a big city, and to explore the influence of physical health, cognitive symptom and nutritional status on the elders' depression.
METHODS
After the approval of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and obtaining the participants' consent form, a face-to-face and private interview was conducted with each participant from May, 2007 to Aug, 2007 by trained graduate level students. A total of 201 elders aged over 65 years participated in the study. The questionnaire consisted of K-GDS, PHQ-15 and Nutritional Screening Initiative (NSI). Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS 13.0 program, which was used for frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression.
RESULTS
The major findings of this study were as follows. 1) 28.4% of the subjects belonged to the depression group, 78.1% had one or more diseases, 85.6% had experienced somatic symptoms, and 49.7% belonged to the nutritional risk group. 2) Older age, lower educational level, more pocket money, a larger number of diseases, more severe cognitive symptoms and poorer nutritional status were significantly related to a higher depression score. 3) Significant factors influencing depression were nutritional status, cognitive symptoms and the number of diseases, which explained 38.1% of the variance of elderly depression, and nutritional status was the most influencing factor.
CONCLUSION
The finding of this study gives useful information for developing assessment tools and interventions for elders' depression.
The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Subjective Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Diseases
Hye Sun Jung, Yun Jeong Yi, Sook In Kim, Jong Eun Lee, So Young Lee, Kyung Mi Yang, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):388-397.   Published online September 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases.
METHODS
This study analyzed the data of '2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey' conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs.
RESULTS
When examining the complaining rate of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases according to body region, the rate was highest (6.0%) in the knee region, which was followed by the finger region (3.4%), the wrist regions (2.3%) and the elbow region (2.1%). All the regions of elbow, wrist, finger and knee had a high complaining rate of subjective symptoms such as stress, sad or depressed mood, and attempted suicide.
CONCLUSION
From the results of this study, it is identified that psychosocial factors such as stress, depression, and attempted suicide have significant influence on the complaining rate of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases. Consequently, in order to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases, we need to manage stress and to prevent feeling depression.
Change in the Sensation of the Arms, the Range of Motion in the Shoulders and Depression in Breast Cancer Patients
Suk Jeong Lee, Si Ja Chon, Young Sook Roh, Young Mi Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):398-407.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the association among change in the sensation of the arms, the range of motion in the shoulders and depression in breast cancer patients.
METHOD
This is a descriptive study on correlation. The participants were 132 patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and had mastectomy at a university hospital, and had participated in a breast cancer self-help group. The degree of depression was assessed by SCL-90-R scores. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 for Windows.
RESULTS
The participants complained of 'heaviness' as the most frequent and serious symptom of change in the sensation of the arms. 'Completely zip up the dress with a back-fastening zipper' was the most difficult motion of the shoulders. Participants who were in a worse stage of disease were in a worse condition in shoulder functions, and on a higher degree of depression. The degree of change in sensation and shoulder functions showed a positive correlation with each other, and both of them showed a negative correlation with the degree of depression.
CONCLUSION
Sensation and motion change in the arms and the shoulders were common phenomena that affected depression in patients who had mastectomy. Nurses should consider not only depression but also discomfort of the arms and the shoulders for patients with mastectomy.
An Explorative Study on the Health Behavior of Middle-Aged Women in the Middle East Area Using the Q-Methodological Approach
Chung Sun Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):408-418.   Published online September 30, 2008
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The purpose of the study is to understand the types and the features of the health behavior of middle-aged women in the Middle East using Q-methodology. A survey was carried out during the period from the 1st of October to the 30th of December, 2006. Data for thirty five (35) women out of forty-nine (49) were analyzed through Principal Component Analysis and WRAP (Weighted Rotational Analytical Procedure). Analysis results showed that the group was divided into four types: Type I is health management; Type II is social activity; Type III is exercise orientation; and Type IV is religious dependency. Types I, II, and III were in a positive correlation with one another, and Type IV was not correlated with the other types. Subjective perception on the health behavior of middle-aged women in the Middle East (Jordan) was investigated and compared with middle-aged Korean women. The results of this study may provide more effective ways to improve the condition of health management and to promote the quality of life.
Factors Influencing Suicide Ideation among Adolescents
Jae Soon Yoo, Jung Woo Son, Min Sun Nam
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):419-430.   Published online September 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify variables influencing suicide ideation among adolescents.
METHODS
Data were collected from 235 middle school students in Chungbuk Province from April to September 2007. We used the Korean versions of Reynold's Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory and Conners-Wells' Adolescent Scale, Beck's Hopelessness Scale and Internet Addiction Scale-K for measuring the research variables.
RESULTS
Of the subjects, 23.0% were classified into the risk group of suicide ideation. Overall, the score of the suicide ideation scale was 14.25 (+/-16.38). The score of the suicide ideation scale in female adolescents (17.45+/-19.04) was significantly higher than that in male ones (11.17+/-12.65). Depression was a major predictor of suicide ideation. ADHD, gender, internet addiction, and hopelessness were the other significant predictors of suicide ideation.
CONCLUSION
A strategy for school mental health education should be provided in order to prevent suicide ideation. The function of school health and Mental Health Center should be reinforced in terms of organization and staff personnel.
A Study on Obesity Stress and Related Factors among Female College Students
Young Sook Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):431-442.   Published online September 30, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of obesity stress and analyze factors having an effect on obesity stress among college women.
METHOD
The subjects were 347 female students from a university in J City. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire for general characteristics, health-related characteristics, and current and preferred somatotype. Obesity stress was measured using 10 items developed by Cho (1996) based on Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) of Ben-Tovim and Walker (1991). The survey was conducted from September 4 to September 7, 2007. Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Spearman's rank correlation test, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS 14.0.
RESULTS
The average score of obesity stress was 2.78+/-0.90 out of 5.00. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the major factors that affect obesity stress of female college students were perceived body shape, disagreement between current and preferred somatotype, history of weight control, body mass index (BMI), and perceived health status, and these factors explained 38.4% of obesity stress.
CONCLUSION
Subjective judgment in the perception of or preference for body shape was the most important factor affecting obesity stress in female college students. Therefore, a plan is necessary to mitigate obesity stress and evaluate individually subjects who perceive themselves to be fat or want to be thinner than the current somatotype. And consultation and constant management are needed to help the high risk group (experience of weight control, BMI > or =23kg/m2, not good health status).
Experience of Sexual Assault, Recognition of Sexual Assault and Attitude of Sexual Role in High School Students
Young Joo Cha, Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):443-449.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify relations among experience of sexual assaults, recognition of sexual assaults and sex role attitude in urban and rural high school students.
METHOD
The subjects were a 575 volunteer students sampled in Daegu City and Gyungbuk. Data were collected from March 19th to 31st, 2007 using structured questionnaires. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS program using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple regression.
RESULTS
The mean score of the rural students was significantly higher than that of the urban students in experience of sexual assaults. The mean score of the urban students was significantly higher than that of the rural students in sex role attitude. Gender, experience of sexual education and recognition of sexual assaults accounted for 29.8% of the variance of sex role attitude in the urban students.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to develop discriminative sexual education programs by regional group in order to prevent sexual assaults among adolescents.
A Study on Female Adolescents' Gender Role Identity according to Home Environmental Variables
Jong Hwa Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):450-458.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was done to investigate the relationship between the type of gender role identity and home environmental variables.
METHOD
This study used a descriptive survey design and convenience sampling. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires from 1,497 female high school students in Seoul. The data were analyzed by the SPSS 10.0 program, which included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square test, ANOVA, and Duncan test.
RESULTS
The androgyny gender role identity was most common (33.9%). The type of gender role identity had a significant correlation with home environmental variables (economic status, relationship with parents, father's education level, mother's education level. noninterference, reasonable guidance, affection, overprotection, achievement, active involvement, limit setting).
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to provide parent education programs to help female adolescents develop gender role identity toward androgyny.
Presenteeism and Absenteeism According to Health Problems on Nurses
Young Mi Lee, Moon Hee Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):459-468.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine the presenteeism and absenteeism in relation to the health problems of nurses.
METHOD
Informed consent was provided before study. Data was collected from January 7 to March 6, 2008 by Stanford Presenteeism Scale-13. Data was collected from 3 hospitals in Seou l.Gyeonggi area. The response rate of the questionnaires was 96.2%. Incomplete data was analyzed using SPSS program.
RESULTS
Shoulder, back and neck pain were the highest reported health problems and primary health problem of nurses. Impaired presenteeism was ranked in this order: depression or anxiety, cold, and uterus or ovary disorder. Absenteeism was ranked in this order: uterus or ovary disorder, cold, and dermatological problem. Impaired presenteeism was significantly increasing according to the number of health problems. But Absenteeism was not. Presenteeism was significantly different by age, educational level, religion, whether or not the worker lived with their family, marital status, whether or not the worker has children, time spent in the workforce, experience of turnover, shift work, night work, and level of satisfaction with salary. But absenteeism was not significantly different given these criteria.
CONCLUSIONS
Health problems of nurses can negatively effect the quality of nursing service and productivity at hospital. Therefore the hospital administrator should control the presenteeism and absenteeism through the management of health problems of nurses.
An Analysis of the Research on Effect of Smoking Cessation Intervention
Hye Jin Hyun, Hye Young Ahn
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):469-479.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
We reviewed all the articles on effect of smoking cessation intervention to find out the way of improvement of it.
METHOD
48 researches were published in Korean journals from 1980 to 2007. The research were analyzed according to: major of first author, subjects, application of theoretical framework, contents of intervention, a term of intervention, the time of evaluation on effect of interventions, research design, dependant variables, and effect of interventions.
RESULTS
Research on effect of smoking cessation intervention increased rapidly in the 2000's. At this time. 72.9% of research was published. Most of research subject were students. Theoretical framework were applied in 20.8% of articles. The most common intervention was education(39.4%). The effect of combined program on outcome variable was found to be stronger than only education program. Experimental design was used in 29.2% and quasi-experimental design was adapted in 43.8% of articles. 1-6 months intervention was in 35.4%. The long term intervention more than 1month was found to be effective. Health behavior related index was measured as a dependant variable in 62.3%.
CONCLUSION
Accordingly, long term program to apply to various subject is needed.
A Study on Middle-Aged People's Preparation for Old Age Life and Their Perception of Long-term Care Facilities
Kwuy Bun Kim, Min Suk Park, Sohyune R Sok
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):480-494.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
The study was to get basic data on the well-being of middle-aged people concerning their preparation for their upcoming old age and their quality of life.
METHODS
The subjects were 440 people aged between 40 and 59 living in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do.
RESULTS
First, physical preparation for old age was affected by religion, children, health, monthly income, and economical status, and these factors were shown statistically significant. Emotional preparation and spiritual preparation were also related to the above-mentioned factors. Secondly, in the subjects' mental picture, a nursing home was a place for the aged without anyone who is going to take care of them and without abilities to care of themselves. Preference for nursing home was based on two factors, i.e., nursing and treatment care, and the cost was about one million won per month. Also they wanted that the government should pay a certain amount for private users.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, people should lead a life of good health-related habits along with economical preparation for their old age.
The Relation between Farmers' Syndrome and Quality of Life of Residents in Suburban Area
In Hyae Park, Aeran Joo, Youn Kyoung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):495-505.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify the relation between farmers' syndrome and the quality of life of residents in suburban areas.
METHODS
A total of 994 subjects were selected through simple random sampling. Data were collected from June 25 to August 31, 2007. Data analysis included frequency, chi2-test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient using SPSS Win 12.0.
RESULTS
1. Analysis of farmers' syndrome showed that there were statistically significant differences according to age, gender, education, living with, family conversation, health security, monthly income, occupation, general health status, systolic blood pressure, and sleeping time. 2. Analysis of the quality of life showed that there were statistically significant differences according to age, education, religion, family conversation, health security, monthly income, occupation, and sleeping time. 3. Farmers' syndrome was in a significantly negative correlation with quality of life.
CONCLUSION
Considering the results above, we need to develop nursing interventions for decreasing hypertension, high blood sugar, and farmers' syndrome of residents in suburban area.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing