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Volume 4 (1); June 1993
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Original Articles
A Study on the Health Care Management of Industries in Seoul
Yeun Gang Jung, Shin Ae Park, Na Mi Lee, Soon Young Yoon, Young Im Kim, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Nam Lee, En Hee Kim, Young Ae Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):5-13.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The objective of this study was to analyze the status of health examination, and the health care management of industries in Seoul. This will provide effective industrial health care services. 46 industries were selected as a sample, and were given self administered questionnaire developed by the academic affairs of community health nursing. The results of this study are as follows: (1) The general characteristics of industries: The greater part of the industries were manu facturing companies, 300-900 workers, in a one shift system. (2) The general characteristics of health man ager: 96% of the companies had industrial nurses and the larger industries had comprehensive health managers. 90% of the industrial nurses were full-time employees and 77% of the industrial physician were part time employees. 80% of the industrial physician were age 50 or older, while 59% of the industrial nurses were 25-29 years of age. (3) Health examination and follow up care: The proportions of the workers who took general health examination was 94%. Of those, 12% took secondary examinations. In secondary examinations, 36% were evaluated at the C-grade, 20% were evaluated at the D-grade. The proportion of the workers who were required to take special examination were 29% and of that, the proportion of the workers who actually took the examination was 88%. 85% of the workers who were recommended for follow up cares were given follow up care while working. The physical agents among the special examination were done the most frequently to detect the examination effects. (4) Health care services: Industrial nurses performed health examination most frequently and health education was done the least. There were significant differences in health care services according to the size of the industries. Companies with 300 workers or less had higher health care services than other groups. The three primary reasons of health care management and examinations of workers are: First, industrial nurses are requires to accumulate professional knowledge and experience through continuos' activities. Second, systematic and concert examination for industrial workers should be performed periodically. Third, it needs developing health education strategies that are important workers for health promotion in industries.
A Study on The Periodic Medical Examination, and Health Care Management Programs of Industries: Busan City Province
Bo Sun Huang, Yu Sun Shin, Suk Ok Yun, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung Soon Kim, Lee Soon Kim, Bok Yong Kim, Young Mee Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):14-24.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The Purpose of this study was to explore the condition of periodic medical examination and the health care services of industries in order to offer some basic data on developing industrial nursing care. To achieve this goal a self - administered questionnaire (developed by the academic affairs of community health nursing) was provieded to the nurses in 56 industries from Dec. 10, 1992 to Jan. 20, 1993. The statistical computer package, SPSS, was used to manipulate the data along with T-test and ANOVA. The results were as follows : 1. General characteristics: The greater part of the industries were manufacturing company, and below 300 employees of industry were 55.4%. The shift system was mostly one shift(66.1%) and three shift(23.2%), and 50.0% them organized the Industrial Safety and Health Commitee. Average a number of employees was 631 person. 2. Periodic Medical Examination: Most of the workers were receiving periodic medical examination from the designated hospital (95.71%). From the about 12.89% were gone through a colse medical examination. In colse medical examination 58.41% were decided 'C' and 36.73% were decided 'D'. About 6.23% off those who had any clinical findings were work-time shortening(7.84%), work-transition(8.12%), recoverating at home. The majority of the workers receive the result of the periodic medical examination individually (78.5%). 3. Special medical examination: The rate of those who are receiving special medical examination were 76.82% and about 8.24% were decided 'C' and 1.23% were decided 'D' Those who had any health problems were receiving follow-up checking (9.10%) and medical treatment while working (15.04%). The health managers in the company can consult (85.7%) those who had any suspicious sign and symptoms of occupational disease. 4. Health care services: The average score of health care services were 17.57 point out of 28 point, and the score was lower in health assessment and environmental hygiene than medical diagnosis and health education. There were significant differences in environmental hygine (F=3.72, P=0.017), health care services(F=3.94, P=0.013) according to the size of the size of the industries The other's significancy is not shown by any type of industrial nurse. The level of health care services were higher in the wokers who had better health and showed no singificant differences(T=-0.73, P=0.470).
A Study on the Performance of Occupational Health Services in Kyung In Areas
Dong Ran Cho, Myung Soon Kim, Tae Sung Ahn, Bong Ryeon Ko
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):25-37.   Published online June 30, 1993
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This study was designed to identify the performance of occupational health services of 37 industries located in Kyung in area. The data was collected by a structured questionnaire developed by the Academic society of Community Nursing. This analysis had two factors, one was related to six of the industries, and the other was the actual assignment procedures of the health team members. This study was undertaken from December 4, 1992 to January 21, 1993. The results of the study were as follows: 1. The study group was primarily manufacturing industries which employed 300-1,000 employees. 2. The actual assignment state of occupation health team members with the exception of nurses was not kept to the regulations of the industrial safety health law. 3. The following was the analysis of the performance of occupational health services with two factors: 1). The larger the size of the six industries, the more the performance of health education, health assessment, and health screening. 2) The actual. practice of occupational health team members working environmental measurement, was more frequently performed by a nurse other than health team members together. 4. 1) The subscription rate of the laborers for primary health screening was 94%, and of these 10% had the need of secondary health screening. As a results of the secondary health screening the degrees were "A" 45%, "C" 92%, "R" 21%. Of these degrees "C", "R" 4% were follow up cases. 2) 43% of laborers needed special health screening and of these the subscription rate was 99%. The main item of the special health screening was physical factors. After the special health screening 46% required follow up, 30% required medical treatment, only reporting 18%, change work 8%, suspension from work place 2%.
A Study on the Status of Health Management in Industries Located in Taejon and Chungnam Province
Chun Sil Hong, Hyun Li Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):38-44.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The purpose of this study was to identify the status of health management from Dec 5, 1992 to March 10, 1993. The data. was. collected from 30 industrial nurses, through a structured questionnaire. The results were as follows : 1. 1.50%. of the companies surveyed were manufacturing companies, 24% of them were research center. 2. The sizes of the companies were as follows: 300-499 employees 11(37%). more than 1,000 employees 4(13%). 3. 18 companies(60%) had organized safety and health committees. 4. 25 companies(83%) had there own health clinics. 5. 60% of companies had a Health center assigned as were hospitals 83%. 6. Practical nurses were employed by all industries, 10 companies had their own physicians, and 3 had their own industrial hygienist. 7. The primary health examination rate was 96% and workers who took follow up examinations were 8.5% out of them, 73.6% were evaluated at the C & D grade. Follow Up management to D. evaluations was performed about 50%. 8. 13 personnel(43%) required, special examinations. 9. The relation between the workers health score and the health status, score was negative and not significant. Therefore the better health management the higher health level score.
A Study on the Actual Conditions of Health Management, and Health Management Levels According to The Types of Industries
Koung Hee Yang, Young Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):45-57.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The study was conducted with 27 health mangers working in manufacturing industries. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health manager's employment status, health examination, and it's follow. up health management level(about the industrial type). The results are as follows: 1. Characteristics of Manufacturing Industries: The ratio of nurse to employees is 1 : 552.6 and the percentage of physician employed was 51.9% All of the physicians were part time except one. 2. Health Examination and Follow Up ; 1) Periodic screening examinations were provided to 92.39% of the employees. Of these 11.56% required a detailed examination. Follow up on routine cases were done for 51.69%. Follow up on intensive cases were done 13.97%. 2) 62% of all employees working in hazardous conditions(noise, artificial light 74.1%) are required to receive a special health examination bi annually. Of these 96.66% were examined. 11.24% of these employees required a detailed follow up examination. 3. Relevancy between health management level, industrial type, and health manager's status 1) Health clinic operated separately except one case. Nursing activity level :. health diagnosis(0.27) Occupational condition (0.97) Health education(0.81) Health assessment(0.74) Health education level is higher at the industries working in environmental technician(P=0.017). The other's significance is not shown by any type of the staff.
A Study on the Periodic Medical Examination, and Health Care Management Programs in Industries: Kwang-Ju city and Chonnam Province
Heoi Young Kang, In Hee Park, Young Ae Choi, Mi Sung Oh, Hee Jung Choi, Su Ok You
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):58-66.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The purpose of this study was to explore the condition of periodic medical examination, and health care services in industries. This will offer some basic data in developing industrial nursing care requirements. To achieve this goal a self-administered questionnaire (developed by the academic affairs of community health nursing) was provided to the nurses working in 40 industries from Dec 20, 1992 to Jan 20, 1993. The statistical computer package SAS, along with t-test, and ANOVA was used to manipulate the date. The results were as follows : 1. General Characteristics: The greater part of the industries studied were manufacturing company, with over 500 employees. The shift system was used with most companies using one or three shifts, and 75.0% of them were organized with Industrial Safety and Health Committees. 2. Periodic Medical Examination : Most of the workers were receiving periodic medical examination from a designated hospital (96.7%). Of those 15.8% had a close medical examination. In the medical examination 9.4% were evaluated at "C" and 3.8 were evaluated at "D". About 55.0% of those workers received the result of the periodic medical examination individually(95.0%). 3. Special Medical Examination : The rate of those who were receiving special medical examination was 98.4% and about 11.7% were evaluated at "C" and 3.9% were evaluated at "D". Those who had any health problems (54.2%) were receiving follow-up care, 52.4% of them had medical treatment while working. The health care managers in the company consulted 97.1% of them who had any suspicious signs and symptoms of occupational diseases. 4. Health Care Services : The average score of health care services was 13.8 out of a possible 28 point. The score of health education and health assessment, was lower than medical diagnosis and environmental hygiene. There were no significant differences in health care services according to the size of the industries(F=.95, P=.429). The score of health care services was higher in the worker who had better health and showed significant differences (F=4.50, p=.025).
A Study on The Status of Health Examination and Health Management of Industrial Companies in the Taegu and Kyungbook Areas
Sang Soon Kim, Jung Nam Kim, Jung Park, Ok Ran Kim, Kyung Mi Cha, Ou Ke Kwak, Kyung Min Park, Yoon Hee Choi, Kyung Shin Bak
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):67-76.   Published online June 30, 1993
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The purpose of this study was to find the status of health examination and health management of industrial companies located in Taegu and Kyung book areas. It will provide basic information for the provision of effective health management of industrial workers. 49 companies were selected as a study sample group, and data was collected by using a structured Questionnaire which was developed by the members of the Community Health Nursing Academy of Korean Nursing. The health managers of the companies filled out the Questionnaire. The data was gathered from Dec 20, 1992 to Jan 20. The results of the study was as follows : 1. The Study sample showed 85.7% manufacturing companies having 300 or more workers. 2. All the companies had health managers, and companies which had 1,000 or more workers had industrial physicians and nurses. Only 12.2% of the industrial physicians were full time employees, and almost all industrial nurses were full time employees. Except for industrial physicians and nurses, the proportion of hygienists (6.1%), nurses aids (4.1%), and environmental engineers (22.4%) with full time employment statuss was very low. The mean age of industrial physicians was 49.2 while that of industrial nurses was 27.2. The length of work experiences currently ranges for 1 to 3 years for all health workers: physicians, nurses, hygienists, and environmental engineers. 3. Health examination and follow up care 94.31% took general health examinations. Of those, the proportion of the workers, who were determined as C grade(in need of close examination) was 43.86%. The proportion of the workers who were determined as D grade was 22.19%. 13.28% of the workers evaluated at the D grade were taken as a gauge for temporary leave from work. While 8.7% and .09% of them were taken as gauge for a change in job, and or shortening work hours respectively. The proportion of workers who must have taken special examination was 65.04% and of those the proportion of the workers who actually took, the examination was 98.55%. 75% of the workers who were recommended for follow up care were given follow up care. The special examinations were done the most frequently to detect the effects of physical agents (59.2%). Direct notice to individual workers was used the most frequently as a method of notification after a special examination (61.2%). The length of time taken to receive the result of a special examination was less than 1 month (38.9%) and 36.7% had taken up to two months (36.7%.). Most results of special examination were obtained within 2 months. The referral rate of consulting special examination by health managers was estimated at 95.9%. 4. 89.8% of the companies had. their own company dispensaries and 75.5% of those. had separate dispensaries. 32.7% of the companies designated local clinics for health management of workers. Industrial nurses performed health examination the most frequently(1.4 points). Health appraisal for work places were. done the least(0.83 points).
The Status of Occupational Health Nursing Service of Kyung Sang Nam Do
Jung Hee Park, Sun Heoi Woo, Young Sil Kang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1993;4(1):77-83.   Published online June 30, 1993
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This study was carried out to idedtify Worker's general health diagnosis and specific health diagnosis state and provide the basic data about occupational health nursing services in Kyung Sang Nam Do. Data was obtained from 36 industry in Chang-won, Jin-joo, Geo-jeoi, Chung-moo area during Dec. 20. 1992-Feb. 18. 1993 through questionaire survey. Data was analyzed into frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation and score sum. The main findings are as follows : 1) 83.3% of subject was manufactures. The factory which have over 1000 Worker's are 41.7% and 500-999 are 36.1%. 2) Health managers are composed of 5 man power. Doctors occupied in 44.4% of factories, average age of them are 43.9 years, average careers are 4.0 years. Nurses occupied in all factories and their average ages are 27.6, average careers are 3.0 years. Industrial hygienist occupied in 33.3% of factories, environmental hygienist occupied 69.4% of industries, and nurse aids occupied in 19.4%. 3) 99.9% of workers are received general health diagonosis. And 10.8% of workers are received elaborate health diagnosis. Among them 30.9% are C class and 23.4% are D class. Among D class, 50% of workers are treated as work time shortening, work replacement, being under treatment. Total specific health diagnosis' subject are 19.3% of workers but 79.9% of them are received specific health diagnosis. Among them 18.6% are needed follow up treatement. Only 44.9% of them are received follow up treatement. 4) 69.4% of industries have their referral hospital and 97.2% have their clinics. Among Occupational health services, health diagnosis are carried out first. of all and the next, environmental management, industrial diagnosis, health education are carried out.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing