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HOME > J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs > Volume 26(3); 2015 > Article
Original Article
The Effects of Socio-demographic Factors, Acculturation Stress and Resilience on Depression among Mothers-in-law in Multicultural Families
Dong-Hee Kim, Sang-Hwa Lee, Young-Sil Bae, Yi-Kyung Ha
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing 2015;26(3):221-229.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2015.26.3.221
Published online: September 30, 2015

Collage of Nursing, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.

• Received: June 17, 2015   • Revised: September 3, 2015   • Accepted: September 14, 2015

© 2015 Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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  • Purpose
    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing depression among mothers-in-law in multicultural families.
  • Methods
    For this study, 159 participants from multicultural familieswere recruited through administrative units of the B. & U. Metropolitan City and G. Province. Data related to acculturation stress, resilience, and depression were collected fromApril to August 2014 and analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 22.0 for Windows program.
  • Results
    The participants had a moderate level of acculturation stress (2.43±0.75: range 1~5) and resilience (4.74±1.14: range 1~7). About 58% of the participants had depression. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that mothersin-law's depression was affected by resilience (β=-1.17, p<.001), acculturation stress (β=0.85, p=.026), perceived economic level (β=-0.83, p=.016), difficulty in physical activity (β=-0.62, p=.027), relationship satisfaction (β=-0.51, p=.035), and education level (β=-0.48, p=.033). The explanatory power of these factors was 35%.
  • Conclusion
    The findings indicated the need to lower the level of depression by enhancing resilience and reducing acculturation stress among mothers-in-law in multicultural families. Future research to reduce depression among mothers-in-law inmulticultural families should consider how to enhance resilience and reduce acculturation stress.
Table 1

General Characteristics (N=159)

Characteristics Categories n (%) or M±SD
Residence Metropolis 90 (56.6)
Micropolis 21 (13.2)
Rural 48 (30.2)
Age (year) 69.4±7.42
≤64 40 (25.2)
65~70 48 (30.2)
≥71 71 (44.6)
Education level None 39 (24.5)
Elementary school 69 (43.4)
≥Middle school 51 (32.1)
Perception of economic level Highly 12 (7.5)
Average 99 (62.3)
Lower 48 (30.2)
Chronic disease No 31 (19.5)
Yes 128 (80.5)
Difficulty in physical activity No 57 (35.8)
Yes 102 (64.2)
Meeting time with someone (time/yr) ≤6 18 (11.3)
7~12 33 (20.8)
≥13 108 (67.9)
Cohabitation period (month) 44.0±40.45
≤12 38 (23.9)
13~60 79 (49.7)
≥61 42 (26.4)
Daughter-in-law's Korean-level High 65 (40.9)
Moderate 36 (22.6)
Low 58 (36.5)
Relationship with daughter-in-law Satisfied 70 (44.0)
Somehow 53 (33.3)
Unsatisfied 36 (22.6)
Ethnocentrism Disagree 18 (11.3)
Somehow 105 (66.0)
Agree 36 (22.7)
Table 2

Level of Acculturation Stress, Resilience, and Depression (N=159)

variable n (%) M±SD Range
Acculturation stress 2.4 ±0.75
 Inconveniences of living 2.4 ±0.79 1~5
 Perceived discrimination 2.3 ±0.91 1~5
 Conflict due to value differences 2.4 ±0.75 1~5
Resilience 4.7 ±1.14 1~7
 Personal competence 4.8 ±1.17 1~7
 Acceptance of self and life 4.7 ±1.18 1~7
  Very high 6 (3.8) 91.0 ±0.00 91~98
  High 8 (5.0) 84.5 ±2.51 82~90
  Moderate high 26 (16.4) 77.2 ±2.10 74~81
  Moderate low 34 (21.4) 69.4 ±2.88 65~73
  Low 27 (17.0) 61.0 ±2.49 57~64
  Very low 58 (36.5) 46.1 ±7.86 14~56
Depression 5.5 ±3.65
 Normal 66 (41.5) 2.0 ±1.40 1~4
 Mild depression 65 (40.9) 6.7 ±1.34 5~9
 Sever depression 28 (17.6) 11.1 ±1.35 10~15
Table 3

Differences of Acculturative Stress, Resilience, and Depression according to General Characteristics (N=159)

Characteristics Categories n (%) or M±SD Acculturation stress
(1~5)
Resilience
(1~7)
Depression
(0~15)
M±SD x2 or t or F (p) M±SD x2 or t or F (p) M±SD x2 or t or F (p)
Residence Metropolis 90 (56.6) 2.4±0.70 0.96
(.385)
4.7±1.07 0.61
(.543)
3.5±0.37 1.21
(.385)
Micropolis 21 (13.2) 2.3±0.65 4.5±1.00 3.7±0.81
Rural 48 (30.2) 2.5±0.87 4.9±1.33 3.8±0.55
Age (year) 69.37±7.42 1.76
(.176)
0.41
(.664)
0.20
(.817)
≤64 40 (25.2) 2.6±0.81 4.9±1.16 5.3±3.41
65~70 48 (30.2) 2.3±0.74 4.7±1.13 5.4±3.90
≥71 71 (44.6) 2.4±0.71 4.7±1.15 5.7±3.65
Education level None 39 (24.5) 2.5±0.64 0.78
(.462)
4.5±0.98 1.43
(.243)
6.7±3.51a 3.60
(.030)
a>c
Elementary school 69 (43.4) 2.5±0.78 4.9±1.20 5.4±3.87b
Others 51 (32.1) 2.3±0.79 4.7±1.16 4.7±3.25c
Perception of economic level Highly 12 (7.5) 2.1±0.88a 10.16
(.006)
a>b>c
4.9±1.02 0.29
(.865)
2.8±2.13a 13.14
(.001)
a>b>c
Average 99 (62.3) 2.3±0.68b 4.8±1.18 5.2±3.66b
Lower 48 (30.2) 2.7±0.78c 4.7±1.10 6.8±3.51c
Chronic disease No 31 (19.5) 2.5±0.73 0.40
(.689)
4.7±1.15 -0.16
(.874)
5.2±3.74 -0.49
(.624)
Yes 128 (80.5) 2.4±0.76 4.8±1.14 5.6±3.64
Difficulty in physical activity No 57 (35.8) 2.4±0.70 0.48
(.632)
4.8±1.13 -0.60
(.547)
4.5±3.48 2.70
(.008)
Yes 102 (64.2) 2.5±0.78 4.7±1.15 6.1±3.64
Meeting time with someone (time/year) ≤6 18 (11.3) 2.2±0.79a 2.90
(.235)
5.3±0.86a 6.27
(.044)
a>b
5.1±3.59 0.94
(.624)
7~12 33 (20.8) 2.5±0.45b 4.4±1.17b 5.9±3.35
≥13 108 (67.9) 2.5±0.81c 4.8±1.15c 5.5±3.77
Cohabitation period (month) ≤12 38 (23.9) 2.4±0.53 0.36
(.697)
4.3±1.03 3.52
(.052)
5.6±3.51 0.77
(.465)
13~60 79 (49.7) 2.5±0.84 4.9±1.18 5.2±3.79
≥61 42 (26.4) 2.4±0.75 4.9±1.09 6.1±3.54
Daughter in law's Korean-level Low 58 (36.5) 2.7±0.72a 7.91
(.001)
a>c
4.5±1.14 2.85
(.061)
6.2±3.64 2.24
(.110)
Moderate 36 (22.6) 2.4±0.71b 4.9±1.15 5.6±3.65
High 65 (40.9) 2.2±0.72c 4.9±1.11 4.8±3.60
Relationship satisfaction Unsatisfied 36 (22.6) 3.1±0.79a 24.93
(<.001)
a>b>c
4.4±1.12 2.49
(.087)
7.7±3.54a 10.57
(<.001)
a>b>c
Somehow 53 (33.3) 2.4±0.57b 4.9±1.05 5.5±3.52b
Satisfied 70 (44.0) 2.1±0.65c 4.8±1.19 4.4±3.35c
Ethnocentrism Disagree 18 (11.3) 2.0±0.95a 8.08
(.018)
a<b
4.9±1.51 6.10
(.047)
5.1±3.76 0.52
(.771)
Somehow 105 (66.0) 2.5±0.71b 4.6±1.07 5.5±3.73
Agree 36 (22.7) 2.5±0.72c 5.1±1.07 5.8±3.43

a, b, c=Scheffé test; Kruskal wallis.

Table 4

Relationship among Acculturative Stress, Resilience, and Depression (N=159)

Variables Acculturative stress Resilience
r (p) r (p)
Depression .39 (<.001) -.43 (<.001)
Acculturative stress -.25 (.002)
Table 5

Factors Predicting Depression (N=159)

Predictors B SE β t p
(Constant) 15.45 2.33 6.63 <.001
Resilience -1.17 0.21 -0.37 -5.51 <.001
Acculturative stress 0.85 0.38 0.18 2.25 .026
Difficulty in physical activity -0.62 0.28 -0.15 -2.23 .027
Perception of economic level -0.83 0.34 -0.16 -2.43 .016
Education level of mother-in-law -0.48 0.22 -0.14 -2.15 .033
Relationship satisfaction -0.51 0.24 -0.16 -2.13 .035
R2=.38, Adj. R2=.35, F=15.43, p<.05

Durbin-Watson=1.78; SE=standard error; Adj. R2=adjusted R2.

This study was supported by Research Institute of Nursing Science, Pusan National University.

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      PLOS ONE.2022; 17(9): e0274224.     CrossRef

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