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Soon Lae Kim 27 Articles
Physical and Psychospiritual Care Need by End-of-life Stages among Non-cancer Patient at Home: Based on the Importance and Difficulty of Care Need
Jong Eun Lee, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(2):127-133.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2012.23.2.127
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to assess needs at each end-of-life care stage and to analyze importance and difficulty of care needs for home care nursing among non-cancer patients.
METHODS
We used a retrospective design. Total eligible patients were 117 at the ages of 40 and over, who continuously received home care nursing throughout beginning, stable, and near death stages, and finally died at home from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Descriptive statistics, Cochran's Q test, Friedman's test were used for data analysis.
RESULTS
In the area of physical care, the care need for 'assistance for activities in daily life' was significantly highest in the beginning stage. The care need for 'aggravation or adverse changes in physical symptoms' was significantly increased in the near death stage. In the area of psychospiritual care, 'family's psychological burden' was revealed as having the highest rate of care needs in the every stage.
CONCLUSION
Future intervention should consider assessing care needs in end-of-life care for non-cancer patients who are provided with home care nursing.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • End‐of‐life care needs for noncancer patients who want to die at home in South Korea
    Jong‐Eun Lee, Jiwon Lee, Hanul Lee, Jin‐Kyoung Park, Younghye Park, Whan Seok Choi
    International Journal of Nursing Practice.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes of Nursing Activities on Patients with DNR Orders
    Ji Yun Lee, Jae In Jang
    The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care.2017; 20(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Home-Based Hospice Care Provided by a Free-Standing Hospice Center: Patients’ Characteristics and Service Conditions
    Hyoung Suk Kim, Kyung Ja June, Young Sun Son
    The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care.2016; 19(2): 145.     CrossRef
Workers' Health Belief in Health Promotion Programs and Related Factors
Young Im Kim, Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Souk Young Kim, Hyun Ju Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2009;20(4):465-473.   Published online December 31, 2009
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PURPOSE
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between worker's health belief in health promotion programs and their demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics.
METHODS
This study used survey data from 262 small- and large-scale workplaces. The study included 1149 male and female workers who completed the questionnaires.
RESULTS
The health belief score increased significantly with age and length of service. Male, married, shift-work, and white-collar workers showed a significantly higher health belief score than female, single, non-shift-work, and blue-collar ones. Workers with disease history, hypertension, or obesity had a significantly higher health belief score. Regular exercise was significantly correlated with the health belief score. When all the variables were included in the model, the health belief score was significantly higher in workers who were married, had a longer length of service, worked in the sales department, were diagnosed with hypertension, exercised regularly, and felt fatigue.
CONCLUSION
The results showed that workplace intervention programs meet more the needs of workers who have a higher health belief score. In addition, given that healthier life style was related to a higher health belief score, further research is required to find how to change health behavior in workers.
The Effects of a Stress Management Program on Job Stress in a Hotel Culinary Staff
In Sook Rhie, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(4):611-621.   Published online December 31, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a stress management program on Job Stress in culinary staff at a Hotel.
METHOD
This was a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were 52 culinary staff members(head culinary, first culinary) working at a S hotel.(25 in the experimental group, 27 in the control group) The experimental group was provided with an individual counseling program for 12 weeks and 30 min/week. The control group was provided with booklets. Data were analyzed with SAS Program using repeated measures ANOVA.
RESULTS
The stress management program was effective to improve job stressors and especially to relax interpersonal conflict among the sub-factors of job stress based on the results mentioned above.
CONCLUSION
This program was effective in reducing job stress. However, further studies are required to measure persistent and long-term effects through the application of the program, which is specifically designed for reduce to job stress, for over 12 weeks.
The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Subjective Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Diseases
Hye Sun Jung, Yun Jeong Yi, Sook In Kim, Jong Eun Lee, So Young Lee, Kyung Mi Yang, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2008;19(3):388-397.   Published online September 30, 2008
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PURPOSE
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases.
METHODS
This study analyzed the data of '2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey' conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs.
RESULTS
When examining the complaining rate of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases according to body region, the rate was highest (6.0%) in the knee region, which was followed by the finger region (3.4%), the wrist regions (2.3%) and the elbow region (2.1%). All the regions of elbow, wrist, finger and knee had a high complaining rate of subjective symptoms such as stress, sad or depressed mood, and attempted suicide.
CONCLUSION
From the results of this study, it is identified that psychosocial factors such as stress, depression, and attempted suicide have significant influence on the complaining rate of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal diseases. Consequently, in order to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases, we need to manage stress and to prevent feeling depression.
Needs of Home Care Nursing Services for Hospital Patients
Sung Suk Han, Soon Lae Kim, So Young Lee, Eun Ha Kwon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(1):165-176.   Published online March 31, 2007
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the needs of home care nursing services in relation to the patients in hospital.
METHOD
Subjects were 129 patients who admitted hospital and were selected through convenience sampling. Data were collected using the Home Health Care Need Assessment Questionnaire constructed by the Korea Health Industry Development Institute. Data were analyzed using SAS 8.12 program by applying percentage.
RESULTS
1. According to the diagnosis of the subjects, the majority had cancer (25.0%), followed by musculoskeletal disease (15,6%), neuro/cerebral vascular disease (14.1%), digestive (10.9%) and respiratory disease (10.9%). 2. With regard to fundamental nursing service, subjects wanted to receive home care services for the following reasons: Problem identification and diagnosis (77.5%), vital sign check (49.6%); and intake and output measure (20.9%). 3. With regard to clinical laboratory tests, 62.8% wanted to receive blood tests, and followed by urine tests 26.4%, and wound drainage 26.4%. 4. With regard to medication and treatment service, 40.3% of the subjects wanted to receive intravenous fluid therapy, 26.4% intravenous antibiotics, and 26.4% the monitoring of fluid therapy. 5. With regard to therapeutic nursing service, 33.3% wanted to receive wound care, 26.4% ROM exercise, and 27.9% foley catheter change and care. 6. With regard to educational needs, 42.6% wanted education on infection monitoring, 41.4% on medication, and 34.9% on diet. 7. With regard to counseling needs, 65.9% wanted to receive telephone counseling about patient condition, 52.7% counseling about re-admission and 51.9% direct counseling about patient condition. In the group of injury and toxicity, and cardiovascular/circulatory diseases, 100% wanted telephone and direct counseling about the patient condition.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, in order to improve the quality of hospital based home health care services, various factors that affect to the need of home health care should be analyzed and specified nursing care should be looked into.
The Association of Health Behaviors with Musculoskeletal Diseases in Adults
Yoon Jung Lee, So Young Lee, Soon Lae Kim, Hea Sun Jung, Kyung Mi Yang, Jong Eun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(1):102-111.   Published online March 31, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study attempted to understand health behaviors and analyze the association of the health behaviors with musculoskeletal diseases in adults.
METHOD
The subjects of this study were 6,946 adults aged between 20 and 65 who had participated in the 2001 National Health Nutrition Survey. The instrument was composed of Health Interview Survey (HIS), Health Behavior Survey (HBS) and Health Examination Survey (HES), which were used in the 2001 National Health Nutrition Survey. Data were analyzed using SPSS 10.1 by applying chi2 and multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS
1. The present smoking rate was 46.5% and the present drinking rate was 81.2%. 2. Of the subjects, 22.7% were overweight (BMI> or =25), and 28.1% were exercising regularly. 3. Major factors affecting musculoskeletal diseases were low education, poor economic state, smoking, and BMI. Middle school graduates were 2.54 times more likely to have musculoskeletal diseases than college graduates. The risk was 1.83 times higher in indigent respondents than in affluent ones, and 1.43 times higher in smokers than in non-smokers.
CONCLUSION
Therefore, in order to reduce musculoskeletal diseases in adults, other various factors should be looked into, and public education about appropriate posture and exercise should be carried out in community. Additionally, concentrated intervention programs for patients with musculoskeletal diseases should be performed.
Factors Influencing Workers' Need for Health Promotion Programs
Soon Lae Kim, Young Im Kim, So Young Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Young Hee Kim, Young Suk Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(4):530-541.   Published online December 31, 2006
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No abstract available.
Risk Factors of Arthritis in Middle-aged Women in Korea
Kyung Mi Yang, Soon Lae Kim, Jong Eun Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Sook In Kim, So Young Lee, Yoon Jung Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(4):512-520.   Published online December 31, 2006
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No abstract available.
A Survey of Workplace Health Promotion Activities and their Health Promotion Program Need
Young Im Kim, Hea Sun Jung, So Young Lee, Soon Lae Kim, Souk Young Kim, Kang Jae Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(2):195-209.   Published online June 30, 2006
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No abstract available.
The Level of Physical Function and Psychological Well-Being of Postmenopausal Middle-aged Korean Women according to Bone Health Status
Soon Lae Kim, Kyeong Sook Cha
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2006;17(1):46-55.   Published online March 31, 2006
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OBJECTIVE: This study is to examine the physical function, psychological well-being, and subjective symptom of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.
METHODS
Data used for this study was collected from 397 women who had experienced one years or longer menopause and visited a hospital in Seoul, Korea during the period from May to December 2005.
RESULTS
The level of physical function of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly lower than the other three groups. The psychological well-being of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly lower than the other three groups. Subjective symptom of the fracture osteoporosis group was significantly higher than the other three groups. The level of physical function was positively correlated with psychological well-being and negatively with subjective symptom. Psychological well-being was also negatively correlated with the level of subjective symptom. Based on the results, it is recommended that the prevention of vertebral fracture in osteoporotic woman is important, and nursing intervention is necessary for the physical function, psychological well-being, and subjective symptom care.
Factors related to Disturbing Behaviors, Premorbid Personality and Depression in the Pre-demented Elderly and the Mild Demented Elderly
Kyung Mi Yang, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(4):424-436.   Published online December 31, 2005
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify premorbid personality, depression and disturbing behaviors to provide information for developing nursing interventions for the pre-demented and mild demented elderly living as residents of their community.
METHOD
The survey was conducted through direct interviews using a structured questionnaire in J city. Among the subjects contacted, 89 made appropriate replies to the survey.
RESULT
The subjects' disturbing behaviors were significantly related to premorbid personality and depression. The predictors to disturbing behaviors of the pre-demented elderly were sex, extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. The predictors to disturbing behaviors of the mild demented elderly were agreeableness, depression, sex, conscientiousness, and extroversion.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, disturbing behaviors of pre-demented elderly and mild demented elderly are affected not only by their premorbid personality but also by their depression. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage and respond to them with understanding their disturbing, behaviors in relation to their premorbid personality. In addition. it is important to maintain positive emotion in order to reduce their disturbing behaviors.
The Relationship between of Calcium Intake and BMD in Middle-aged Women
Soon Lae Kim, Jong Eun Lee, In Sook Rhie
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(1):77-85.   Published online March 31, 2005
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No abstract available.
Factors Influencing Depression with Emotional Labor among Workers in the Service Industry
Bok Im Lee, Hye Sun Jung, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Yong Rhee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2004;15(4):566-576.   Published online December 31, 2004
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No abstract available.
Analysis of Gerontological Nursing Researches in Korea from 1997 to 2003
Kyung Mi Yang, Soon Lae Kim, Chai Soon Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2004;15(3):419-436.   Published online September 30, 2004
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PURPOSE
This study aims to analyze the trends of the gerontological nursing researches in Korea and suggest the direction for research in this nation.
METHOD
A total of 241 dissertations and other published articles in Korea from 1997 to 2003 were analyzed in this study focusing on the design of the research, key words, measurement tools for basic concepts, and the intervention outcomes in the case of the experimental research.
RESULT
Of those analyzed researches, it was found that 80.9% accounted for the published articles and 19.1% dissertations. There were no clear criteria for the classification of the old men. The most popular research design was an exploratory/ descriptive study (54.4%). The major concepts were about 'physical and mental health'. Most of the measurement tools used were developed by foreigners, which were translated into Korean. Among 56 experimental studies, nursing intervention programs in 22 studies were based on physical exercise programs.
CONCLUSION
It is necessary to analyze the trend of gerontological health research in comparison with multidisciplinary researches for elderly people. In addition, the experimental researches for both development and verification of nursing intervention programs are needed. Also, accumulation of research outcomes and development of a standardized instrument for the measurement of Korean elderly people are required.
The Effects of Job Stress on Workers' Physiological Somatic Complaints
Jong Eun Lee, Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Bok Im Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2004;15(2):289-297.   Published online June 30, 2004
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to determine factors affecting workers' physiological somatic complain using the Job Stress Model proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
METHOD
Data were collected from the 1st to the 30th of December 1999. The subjects were 2,123 workers employed at 155 work sites. Collected date were analyzed through SAS/PC program.
RESULT
According to individual characteristics, younger and women groups showed significantly higher physiological somatic complaint than elder men groups. By work condition, groups with higher physiological somatic complaint included workers of irregular shift work. Dark lighting, improper temperature in winter, improper ventilation, inappropriate humidity, unpleasant work environment and crowded work place were significantly related with physiological somatic complaint. By work-related factor, physiological somatic complaint was high in those with higher variance in work load, quantitative work load, role conflict, job burden, role ambiguity and future ambiguity. On the other hand, physiological somatic complaint was low in those with little underutilization of ability. As for the relationships between physiological somatic complaint and non-work related factors, physiological somatic complaint was high in workers who had a side job, were bringing up infants alone, cleaned the house alone, cared for the elderly and disabled persons, were studying, were volunteering at another organization, and were spending 5-10 hours in religious activities per week. Physiological somatic complain was in significantly negative correlations with overall social support, supervisory support and family support, but in significantly positive correlations with co-worker support.
CONCLUSION
The main predictors of physiological somatic complain were gender, shift work pattern, overtime work, ventilation, role ambiguity, role conflict, future ambiguity, job control, variance in work load, overall social support, worker with side job, worker who cleans the house alone, worker who is studying. These predictors explained 19.10% of the total variance of physiological somatic complain.
Effect of Health Promotion Program on Self-efficacy, Healthy Lifestyle and Serum Lipid Level in Employees with Hyperlipidemia
Eun Ha Kwon, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):200-210.   Published online June 30, 2003
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PURPOSE
This quasi-experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of a health promotion program(HPP) on self-efficacy, healthy lifestyle and blood lipid profile in employees with hyperlipidemia.
METHODS
The subjects were forty-three employees who were diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia during routine health examination at two worksites in Seoul in 2001. Of the forty-three subjects, thirty were allocated to the experimental group and the remaining thirteen were allocated to the control group. Data were collected from September 24, 2001 to March 16, 2002. The HPP was applied to the experimental group for 11 weeks and included health education, diet counseling, watching videos, conference, and so on. The health education included information about exercise, smoking cessation, and abstinence from drinking alcohol and seven sessions of hyperlipidemia education. The experimental group was requested to keep a daily health promotion lifestyle diary. This diary was analyzed by a dietician and subjects were instructed based on the results. As for data analyses, wilcoxon signed rank test and wilcoxon rank sum test and x2-test were carried out using SAS program.
RESULTS
1. Self-efficacy scores of the experimental group were significantly more increased than those of the control group (experimental: 5.86 10.80, control: -4.04 11.91, p=0.018). 2. Healthy lifestyle scores of the experimental group were significantly more increased than those of the control group (experimental: 0.19 0.26, control: -0.05 0.29, p=0.024). 3. Blood total cholesterol values of the experimental group were significantly more decreased than those of the control group (experimental: -13.07 30.10mg/dl, control: 10.00 26.57mg/dl, p=0.033). 4. Blood triglyceride values of the experimental group were significantly more decreased than those of the control group (experimental: -29.17 192.40mg/dl, control: 63.31 107.53mg/ dl, p=0.050).
CONCLUSION
These findings indicate that the HHP could be effective in improving self-efficacy, healthy lifestyle and blood HDL cholesterol and decreasing blood total cholesterol in employees with hyperlipidemia. Therefore, the HHP could be suggested as an effective nursing intervention for employees in the worksite by ultimately preventing cerebral and cardiac vessel complications related to hyperlipidemia.
Factors Related with Job Satisfaction in Workers: Through the Application of NIOSH Job Stress Model
Soon Lae Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Bok Im Lee, Jong Eun Lee, Kyung Yong Rhee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2003;14(2):190-198.   Published online June 30, 2003
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This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting job satisfaction in workers by using the Job Stress Model proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Data were collected from December 1 to December 30, 1999. The subjects were 2,133 workers employed at 155 work sites, who were examined using NIOSH Job Stress questionnaire translated by the Korea Occupational Safety & Health Academy and Occupational Safety & Health Research Institute. SAS/PC program was used for statistical analysis using descriptive analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA, and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows. 1. According to general characteristics of the subjects, job satisfaction was high in those with less number of children. 2. By work condition, job satisfaction was higher in those who were working in a permanent job position, were working with regular time basis than with shift basis, were working in regular shift hours than in changing shift hours, were working for a short period, and were working less hours and overtime works per week. 3. In terms of physical work environment, job satisfaction was significantly related to 10 physical environmental factors. In other words, job satisfaction was high in workers who were working in an environment with no noise, bright light, temperature adjusted to an appropriate level during summer and winter, humidity adjusted to an appropriate level, well ventilation, clean air, no exposure to hazardous substance during work hour, overall pleasant work environment and not crowded work space. 4. By work-related factors, job satisfaction was high in those with less ambiguity about future job and role, high job control/autonomy, and less workload. On the other hand, job satisfaction was low in those with little utilization of competencies, and much role conflict at work and workload. 5. As for the relationships between job satisfaction and the non-work related factors, job satisfaction was high in workers who were volunteering at different organizations or active in religious activities for 5-10 hours per week. 6. In the relationships between job satisfaction and buffering factors, significantly positive correlations were found between job satisfaction and factors such as support by direct superior, support by peers, and support by spouse, friend and family. 7. There were nine factors that affected job satisfaction in the workers: age, number of children, work hours per week, noise, temperature at the work site during summer, uncomfortable physical environment, role ambiguity, role conflict, ambiguity in job future, work load, no utilization of competencies and social support from direct supervisor. These nine factors accounted for 26% of the total variance in the multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, the following are proposed based on the results of this study. 1. The most important physical environmental factors affecting job satisfaction in workers were noise, role ambiguity, and work load, suggesting a need to develop strategies or programs to manage these factors at work sites. 2. A support system that could promote job satisfaction is needed by emphasizing the roles of occupational health nurses who may be stationed at work sites and manage the factors that could generate job stress. 3. Job satisfaction is one of the three acute responses to stress proposed in NIOSH job stress model (job satisfaction, physical discomfort and industrial accidents). Therefore, further studies need to be conducted on the other two issues.
Testing of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Prediction of Smoking Cessation Intention and Smoking Cessation Behavior among Adolescent Smokers
Mi Ra Song, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(3):456-470.   Published online September 30, 2002
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to test the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the prediction of smoking cessation intention and smoking cessation behavior among adolescent smokers, in order to provide basic data to develop a future smoking cessation program as a nursing intervention.
METHOD
The study subjects were 80 adolescent smokers who had smoked one cigarette and attended a five-day school smoking cessation program. The data were collected from October 24 to December 21, 1999. The instruments used in this study were the tools developed by Jee (1994) to measure TPB variables such as attitude toward smoking cessation behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, smoking cessation intention, and smoking cessation behavior. The data were analyzed with the SAS/PC program using descriptive statistics, hierarchical multiple regression, and logistic multiple regression.
RESULTS
1. Attitude toward smoking cessation behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were partially significant in predicting smoking cessation intention. 2. Smoking cessation intention and perceived behavioral control toward smoking cessation behavior did not significantly predict smoking cessation behavior. 3. There were partial interaction effects among the attitude toward smoking cessation behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control in the prediction of smoking cessation intention. 4. There were partial interaction effects between smoking cessation intention and perceiver behavioral control toward smoking cessation behavior in the prediction of smoking cessation behavior.
CONCLUSION
This study partially demonstrated support for the TPB model that was partially useful in predicting smoking cessation intention and smoking cessation behavior among adolescent smokers. Therefore, it is recommended that attitude toward smoking cessation behavior and perceived behavioral control should be considered in developing smoking cessation programs and implementing nursing interventions to change the smoking behavior of adolescent smokers.
Validity Field Testing of Family Nursing Phenomen in Korea by the Retrospective Method of ICNP
Soon Nyung Yun, Hyun Sook Kim, Yong Suk Kwon, Kyung Min Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Ae Ko, Ae Young So, Soon Ok Yang, Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Jin Joo Oh, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Sook Kang, Ji Yun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(3):423-432.   Published online September 30, 2002
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This study was conducted to test the validity of characteristics of family nursing phenomena in Korea identified in a previous study by Yoon, S. Y, et al.(1999). Data for this study were collected from 355 (first measurement 186, second measurement 169) nurses whose family nursing careers were more than one year using a cross sectional survey method. The distribution per one characteristic ranged between 0 to 5. The phenomena that had two or more characteristics and had a score of 3.0 points or more included 'disturbance in marital role', 'disturbance in family communication', 'inappropriate family coping', 'lack of family intimacy', 'unhealthy life style', 'deficit of financial management skill and support', 'inadequate care management sick member', and 'inadequate home-making'. The essential characteristics of the 8 phenomena presented above included 27 items. Further studies on family nursing phenomena in Korea are needed to support the evidence through surveys of families in the field. A reconfirmation study, as well as qualitative research on the low validity of the characteristics, needs to be more performed in the future.
The Effects of Smoking Cessation School Program on Smoking Behavior in Adolescent Smokers
Mi Ra Song, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):115-124.   Published online March 31, 2001
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This study was designed to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation school program on attitudes towards smoking cessation the subjective norm perceived behavioral controls the intent to cease smoking and smoking behavior. Also included was the goals of the program itself. Study subjects were 80 adolescent smokers who at least attended the smoking cessation school program without absence had smoked one cigarette at the time of the first study before the program and attended the first second and third studies (The study was conducted from September 26 to December 21 1999. a period of 59 days). Data collection was performed using the TPB questionnaire which was developed by Jee Yon-Ock (1994) The survey included questions covering the intended areas of study mentioned above. The first data was collected during the first day of the five day program. The second survey was conducted immediately after the last day of the program and the last survey was four weeks late. Data was analyzed with a SAS/PC program including N, %, a paired t-test. The results were as follows: 1. After the program the scores representing attitude towards smoking cessation (before program: 14.5 after program: 16.8) and perceived behavioral control (before program: 1.2 after program: 2.1) rose significantly but the scores for attitudes towards the subjective norm and the intent to cease smoking were not notably different. 2. After the program the frequency of daily smoking fell significantly (before program: 5.7 cigarettes after program: 3.2 cigarettes). In conclusion the five day smoking cessation school program increased attitude perceived behavioral control and decreased smoking behavior but did not influence subjective norm smoking cessation intention. Thus further study is required to better evaluate the effects of the program and th improve any shortcomings.
A Comparative Study on the Commitment of Home Health Care Nurses and Public Health Nurses
Soon Lae Kim, Sook Ja Yu, So Eun Choi, Sang Hee Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(1):39-48.   Published online March 31, 2001
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In order to confirm the level of professional commitment and organizational commitment of the home health care nurses and the public health nurses, this study was carried out by using the Commitment Inventory developed by Meyer and Allen and modified by Rhee and others. To compare the commitment level between two professionals, data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from the 61 home health care nurses and the 134 public health nurses working in 25 public health centers in Seoul. The results are as follows : 1. Commitment level of the Home Health Care Nurses(4.7+/-0.7) was significantly higher than that of the Public Health Nurses(4.4+/-0.7). The level of the professional commitment of the home health care nurses(5.0+/-0.9) was higher than that of the Public Health Nurses(4.5+/-0.8). The level of the organizational commitment of the of Home Health Care Nurses(4.5+/-0.7) was higher than that of the public health nurses(4.3+/-0.6). 2. The higher of affective professional commitment was shown in the home health care nurses, and the higher level of continuance professional commitment was shown in the public health nurses. The higher levels of normative professional commitment and affective organizational commitment were shown in the Home Health Care Nurses, and the higher level of continuance organizational commitment was shown in the home health care nurses. The higher level of normative organizational commitment was shown in the home health care nurses. 3. The level of professional commitment was statistically different in age and educational level. The level of affective professional commitment of the of home health nurses with higher-educated was higher than that of the lower-educated group. The level of organizational commitment of the Home Health Nurses in higher age was higher than that in lower age.
Current State of Occupational Health in Small-Scale-Enterprises of Korea
Soon Nyung Yun, Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Hae Yoo, Young Sook Song, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):90-104.   Published online June 30, 2000
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This study was carried out to investigate the current state of occupational health management and characteristics of employees working in small-scale-enterprises (SSE) employing less than 50 workers. Samples were chosen among the two thousands employees working in 838 factories where located in Youngdungpo-Ku, Seoul, Korea. The study results were as followed: 1. Most factories investigated in the study were manufactures (68.6%) which were established in 5 to 10 years ago (29.2%), employing less than 5 workers (72.9%) and registered in accident compensation insurance (23.0%). 2. Health screening was undertaken in 24.9% workplaces for periodic health examination and in 1.5% for special health examination. Environmental monitoring was done in 3.3% factories. Very few factories displayed Material Substance Data Sheet (MSDS) in 3.1% among the total factories. 3. Workplaces usually had their own toilets in 75.9% and washing basin in 58.6% as types of sociowelfare facilities. 4. Employees responded in the study were mostly in the range of age from 30 to 39 in 34.7%. male in 84.8%. the married in 70.3%. manual workers in 42.0%. mostly working regularly 51 hours per a week in 48.2% and earned 710.000 Won to 1.000.000 Won per month in 35.0%. Medical utilization for employees were covered by factories sponsored medical insurance in 12.7% and by provincial sponsored medical insurance in 83.4%. 5. Two point six percents of employees were suffered by diseases. The health complaints indicated were mainly digestive problems in 46.7% and hypertension in 24.4%. 6. Employees wore personal protective equipments for work such as gloves in 48.1%. safety shoes in 30.5%. ear plug in 5.5% and mask in 6.9%. Based on the results of study, we recommend that various types of occupational health management should be developed according to workplace working condition of each factory. In addition to the development of occupational health strategies. we think that it is more important to monitor and to allocate how effectively they operate each other on the basis of longitudinal continuity. Besides, we would like to insist that these all management effort should be focused on prevention of disease and occupational health education of employees.
Appropriateness Evaluation of Hospitalization for the Cerebral Ischemia Patients
Hyo Young Yeom, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1999;10(1):80-92.   Published online June 30, 1999
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The purpose of this study was to survey appropriateness of admission and days of care for the cerebral ischemia patients as a basis to provide an effectiveness of hospitalization. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of cerebral ischemia patients in two hospitals from November 1997 to February 1998. Of 194 medical records reviewed, there were 2108 medical days. It is used a 'Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol' previously developed by Gertman and Restuccia (1981) and translated by Department of Health Management, Seoul National University and Korea Institute for Health Services Management (1993), It was found that the 'Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol' had a high inter-rater reliability(kappa=.92), Statistical significant was tested by using the percentage, mean, and logistic regression by SAS 6.12. The results were as follows; 1. The appropriate admissions were 87.6%, days of care 63.4%, and the average length of stay 10.9+/-6.7 days. 2. The reasons of inappropriate admissions were for work-up(75.0%) and conservative care (25.0%). Major reasons of inappropriate days of care were 'cases in which the medical purpose of hospitalization has been accomplish or can be addressed in a less setting(45.0%)', and 'cases in which there is a delay in performing the work-up or treatment which required patients is hospitalized (44.4%)'. 3. Appropriate days of care were higher as ageing. Appropriate days of care were higher in patients with lower accademic back ground than those of upper college graduates, and in the patients who enter a hospital via emergency room than out-patients department. Appropriate days of care were higher in the patient with MCA infarction, and lower in the patient with cerebellar infarction than the patient with lacunar infarction. Appropriate days of care were higher in attack first than attack above second, in nomortension patients than hypertensive, and lower in groups who engaged in semi-private room and public room than private room in hospital. Appropriate days of care were higher in shorter length of stay than longer length of stay. 4. Diagnosis, admission path, and appropriate days of care explained appropriate admissions. Diagnosis, appropriate admissions, hypertension explained appropriate days of care. According to the above results, author confirms the substantial amount of inappropriate hospital bed utilization. To reduce inappropriateness, it is necessary to develop some alternative services such as home care services or nursing home with which can be replaced inpatient services and to introduce policy such as case management which includes Critical Pathway for consistent management. And, it should be followed the further study for the effectiveness.
Risk Factors of Low Back Pain in General Hospital Nurses
Soon Lae Kim, Jae Min Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):213-222.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The prevalence rate of low back pain in nurses is higher than that of other jobs, because there are many more risk factors(for example, standing postures, lifting and carrying heavy loads, transfering patients, changing a patient's position etc.). This investigation is to provide basic data for prevention of low back pain by analyzing the prevalence rate and related factors of low back pain in nurses(esp. operating room staff) in general hospitals. A self-reported questionaire survey was carried out on three hundred and five nurses of three general hospitals in Seoul from June, 1996 to August, 1996. Subjects of the survey were divided into a low back pain group(LBP) and a cotrol group to investigate the association between low back pain and the general characteristics and work related factors of each group. The results were as follows: 1. In the subjects of the survey, the prevalence rate of low back pain was 60.0% for the last year. 2. 73.6% of operating room(OR) staff complained of low back pain. 3. Standing for a long time and working in twisting postures were associated with low back pain, and so were the shift, the type of work, and the frequency of transfering patients. 4. The weight loads which nurses frequently carried were, under 5kg, 5-10kg, 15-20kg, 15-20kg, over 20kg, and all, except for 10-15kg, were associated with LBP. 5. 76.9% of the LBP experienced low back pain within 3 years after starting nursing jobs. 6. Concerning the degrees of low back pain: 75.8% was limited to waist; 18.8% reached the knees; 4.2% reached ankles. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of low back pain in general hospital nurses was associated with the works in operating room and other work related factors, therefore it is necessary to develop on educational program for the prevention of low back pain as well as and to improve working environments.
Determinant of the Health Promoting Lifestyle of the Teachers in Choong-Buk province
Kyu Nan Lee, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):30-39.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing health promoting lifestyle of teachers and to provide the data for efficient health management of teachers. The subjects of this study were eight hundred nine teachers, who were chosen in Choong-Buk province. Survey Questionaires for data analysis were collected through visiting or mailing from September 1 to 30, 1997. The instruments used in this study were HPLP(Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile) by Walker (1987), Internal Health Locus of Control by Walston et al. (1978), Self Esteem by Rogenberg(1965), Importance of Health by Muhlenkamp (1985), Self Efficacy by Sherer & Maddux(1982), and Family Function by Olson & Schellenberg (1985). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, ANOVA, Pearsons correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS/PC(v. 4.01) program. The results were as follows; 1. The mean of health promoting lifestyle was total 2.53 on the average, self-actualization 2.97, nutrition 2.90, interpers 52, stress management 2.33, exercise 1.91, and health responsibility 1.82 in order. The index of total health promoting lifestyle was significantly influenced by the factors including sex, age, religion, marital status, duration of work, teaching load, education level and number of family members. 2. The health promoting Lifestyle was significantly positive correlated with Self Efficacy, Family Function, Importance of Health, Internal Health Locus of Control and Self Esteem. 3. Self Efficacy was the most influential determinant predicting health promoting lifestyle of teachers. Self efficacy, Family Function, Importance of Health, Internal Health Locus of Control and Age explained 42% of the health promoting lifestyle. Based on the above findings, it is suggested to develop nursing intervention to improve Self Efficacy, Importance of Health, Family Function of teachers enhance health promoting lifestyle. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine factors which significantly influence health promoting lifestyle of teachers.
Industrial Fatigue and Low Back Pain of the Workers
Soon Lae Kim, Jung Soon Moon
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1996;7(2):400-409.   Published online December 31, 1996
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To investigate industrial fatigue and low back pain, the questionaire survey for subjective symptoms of fatigue and low back pain was carried out among 591 male workers aged 20-55 employed in an automobile industry in Korea. Workers participated to this study were divided into low back pain group(LBP) and control group, according to the self-reports by written questionaires. The subjective sysptoms of fatigue comprised three groups of 10 items each, representing dullness and sleepiness(level of cerebral activation), difficulty in concentration(level of motivation) and bodily projection of fatigue. The resultant data were processed for chi2-test, t-test and a pearson's correlation coefficient to confirm the relationships. The results were as follows: 1. 30 items of fatigue subjective symptoms exeptone item, 'lack in perseverance', were directly associated with low back pain. 2. The percentage of fatigue complaint were sig nificantly higher in LBP group. 3. Of the 30 items of fatigue subjective symptoms, the highest percentage was accounted for 'eye strain'(27.9%), followed by 'whole body feels tired' and 'legs feel heavy'(22.9%), 'feel like lying'(21.4%), 'feel a pain in the low back'(18.7%), 'feel drowsy'(16.4%) and 'feel stiffness in the neck or the shoulders'(16.2%) in the order of sequence. 4. The average weighted score for the first group of fatigue items(dullness and sleepiness) was the largest among three groups and was followed by the second group(difficulty in concentration) and the third group(bodily projection of fatigue) in the order of sequence, suggesting the heavier shift work stress of the workers. 5. In the groups of the aged 30-40, work duration of 5-7yrs, heavy work amount and irregular work speed, significant high fatigue complaints were revealed in terms of eye strain, whole body feels tired, legs feel heavy, feel like lying, feel a pain in the low back and feel stiffness in the neck or the shoulders. 6. A significant negative correlations were shown between age, work duration and eleven subjective symptoms while positive reciprocal correlations were shown between eleven items with one another.
Epidemiological and Lumbar x-ray Studies on the Low Back Pain of the Workers in an Automobile Industry
Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1995;6(2):319-334.   Published online December 31, 1995
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To investigate the risk factors of low back pain, an epidemiological study was carried out among male workers aged 20-55 employed in an automobile industry in Korea during the time period from February 1993 to October 1995. Workers participated to this study were divided into low back pain group(LBP) and control group, according to the self-reports by written questionnaires. General characteristics, medical history, work related factors, fatigue, and MMPI were compared between two groups. To clarify the relationship between job related low back pain and radiologic features of lumbar spine, radiographic study was carried out. The resultant data were processed for chi2-test, t-test, and stepwise logistic regression to confirm the adjusted odds ratios. The results were as follows: 1. History of back disease, lifting and carrying work, excessive physical fatigue, and weakend back strength of individual workers were directly associated with low back pain. Odd ratios of these 4 risk factors of low back pain were 5.07, 3.34, 1.49, and 1.22 respectively. 2. The frequency of low back pain history was significantly higher in LBP group. 3. Back muscle strength of lumbar spine of LBP group were significantly lower than control group. 4. The workers in LBP group revealed high fatigue symptoms. 5. In MMPI test LBP group showed higher scales in hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, and hypomania. 6. LBP group were more frequently involved in lifting and carrying, working in awkward position, bending, twisting and using lower extremities. 7. LBP group were exposed more to vibration during working. 8. In the Analysis of radiographs of lumbar spine, Jacob's line not crossing fourth lumhar disc space, transitional vertebrae and lumbar displacement more than 4.4mm in standing lateral view were more frequently observed in LBP group than control group. Through these results, it is concluded that identification of previous history of back problem, change of work or working environment for workers with previous back problem and measures to relieve both physical and psychological fatigue of the workers are required for optimal management of work-related back problems among workers. In the present study, several results were different from the previous reports: Jacob's line not corssing fourth lumbar disc space, lumbarization, and vertebral slipping (spondylolisthesis) more than 4.4mm are related to backache. Meticulous studies are required to elucidate the difference.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing