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Soon Nyung Yun 14 Articles
Successful Aging and the Influencing Factors in the Korean Elderly: Focused on Family Support
Song Yi Han, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2015;26(4):372-379.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2015.26.4.372
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This research was conducted to examine the successful aging and identify factors influencing successful aging in the Korean elderly.
METHODS
The subjects were 4,507 elders and data were collected from the 4th Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2012. The data were analyzed using frequencies, weighted percentage, chi2 test, and logistic regression.
RESULTS
The results of this study showed that 19.6% of the participants were categorized to successful aging. The domains of the absence of disease and disability and maintaining physical and mental functioning showed a high rate of achievement, while the domain of active engagement with life showed a low rate of achievement compared to others. Successful aging was influenced by gender, age, subjective economic status, subjective health status, and family support, particularly spouse's support.
CONCLUSION
Intervention programs to increase the prevalence of successful aging are required. Especially programs for strengthening spouse's support and enhancing subjective health status are required.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative analysis of successful aging in young-old and old-old adults based on Rowe and Kahn’s model: A secondary data analysis
    Ji Eun Lee
    Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing.2024; 26(2): 203.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Cardiovascular Disease Preventive Behaviors among Rural Residents Based on a Socio-Ecological Model in South Korea: A Mixed Method Research
    Bohyun Park, Juhyeon Yang, Youngsoo Kim, Gianpiero Greco
    Health & Social Care in the Community.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
  • Influence of Successful Aging, Quality of Life, and Factors Related to Potential Stressors on Older Consumers’ Purchase of Private Health Insurance in South Korea: An Empirical Study Based on Proactive Coping Theory
    Jimin Lee, Hyeyoon Bae, Euehun Lee
    Journal of Applied Gerontology.2022; 41(1): 253.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Successful Aging among Community-Dwelling Older Adults Based on Ecological System Model
    Hye-Young Jang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(9): 3220.     CrossRef
  • Social networks, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related quality of life in older adults with and without arthritis
    Minjoo Hong, Hyewon Shin, Jennie C. De Gagne, Kenzie Latham-Mintus
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(7): e0220180.     CrossRef
  • Relations of Sleep Quality, Lifestyle, and Successful Aging in the Elderly Attending a Senior Welfare Center
    Soomi Kim, Pilbong Kim, Seung Hee Lee, Eunyeong Lee, Jongeun Lee, Kyung Mi Kim
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2018; 21(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Basic Psychological Needs and Wisdom on Successful Aging in the Elderly
    Min-Jeong Nam, Young-Mun Cho
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2018; 30(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and related factors of successful aging among Chinese rural elders living in nursing homes
    Menglian Wu, Yang Yang, Dan Zhang, Yaoyao Sun, Hui Xie, Jie Zhang, Jihui Jia, Yonggang Su
    European Journal of Ageing.2017; 14(4): 419.     CrossRef
The Comparison of Health Behaviors, Use of Health Services, and Health Expenditures among Diabetic Patients according to the Practice of Exercise
Ji Eun Cha, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2015;26(1):31-41.   Published online March 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2015.26.1.31
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to compare the use of health services and health expenditures between non-exercise and exercise groups of diabetic patients and among three groups divided according to exercise intensity.
METHODS
Data were obtained from the Korean Health Panel Survey of 2011. The participants of this study were 864 diabetic patients who did exercise (walk, moderate exercise, or vigorous exercise) or not. Data were subsequently analyzed using the SPSS 21 Program.
RESULTS
The exercise group showed higher percentages of medication compliance, non-smokers, and regular diet than the non-exercise group. The hospitalization percentage, the number of outpatient hospital visits, and health expenditures were higher in the non-exercise group than in the exercise group. There was no difference among the three groups divided according to exercise intensity in the use of health services and health expenditures.
CONCLUSION
These results show that exercise is a way to reduce diabetic patients' use of health services and their health expenditures.

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  • Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Healthcare Costs in Adults Using the Criterion Referenced Fitness Thresholds: The Korea Institute of Sport Science Fitness Standards Study
    Seunghee Lee, Hyojin Lee, In-Hwan Oh, Hyeon-Kyoung Cheong, Mihyun Lee, Saejong Park
    Exercise Science.2021; 30(4): 501.     CrossRef
  • Effects of adults’ health behaviors and combinations thereof on health outcomes: an analysis using National Health Insurance Service of Korea cohort data
    Hyun-Jung Park, Eun-Jung Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2019; 41: e2019042.     CrossRef
  • Mediating Effects of Social Support on Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Older Korean Adults With Hypertension Who Live Alone
    Eun Jeong NAM, Jong-Eun LEE
    Journal of Nursing Research.2019; 27(3): e20.     CrossRef
An Exploratory Study of Factors associated with the Health Behavior of Working Elderly with Chronic Diseases
Dong Ok Kim, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(4):395-404.   Published online December 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2012.23.4.395
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aimed to identify the health behaviors of working elderly Koreans aged 65 over and examined the socio-demographic and disease-related factors by health behaviors.
METHODS
This study used data obtained from the 2nd basic survey of the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We selected 381 working elderly having one or more of the diseases hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or cerebrovascular disease.
RESULTS
78.9% out of the subjects have hypertension, 31.2% have diabetes, 12.3% have heart disease, and 6.3% have cerebrovascular disease. Compared to the health behaviors of the general elderly, the rate of the practice of regular exercise among the subjects was lower, but the smoking and drinking rate were higher. The significant variables associated with health behavior practice rates were gender, type of work, subjective health status and chronic diseases.
CONCLUSION
The type of work of the elderly with chronic diseases was significantly associated with health behaviors. Consequently, this study found that continuous care programs for the working elderly with chronic diseases should be developed and provided as an occupational health service when the jobs are offered to them.

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  • The Relationship between Health Belief and Exercise Compliance among Elderly Adults at Senior Centers
    Kyung Im Lee, Young Eun
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2015; 26(2): 79.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Health Behavior, Resilience, and Recognition of Well-dying on the Depression of Elderly with Chronic Disease
    Jeong-Hyeon Kong, Hyeon-Hwa Hong, Eun-Young Jung
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(10): 7146.     CrossRef
Conditions of Workplace Violence Experience among Workers in the Distribution Industry
Souk Young Kim, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2012;23(2):212-221.   Published online June 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.0000/jkachn.2012.23.2.212
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to explore violence experienced by workers in the distribution industry.
METHODS
The research subjects were 236 workers from 2 department stores and 1 large scale discount store located in Daejeon City, Korea. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, chi2-test, and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
72.9% of the research subjects experienced verbal violence, and 9.3% of the respondents experienced physical violence during last year. 17.8% of the respondents reported that they had experience of sexual harassment at their workplaces. The variables which affected verbal violence included working departments and stress level, whereas the variable that affected physical violence was educational level of workers. The variables that affected experience of sexual harassment turned out to be gender as well as the duration of work at the current workplaces.
CONCLUSION
The findings from this research revealed that many of the workers engaged in the distribution industry were exposed to workplace violence. For the reduction of risk of workplace violence for these workers, it is required to develop and execute programs including violence related policies and education about workplace violence.
International Migration of Korean Nurses
Chang Hee Kang, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2005;16(1):86-94.   Published online March 31, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Analysis of Phenomena and Characteristics of Family Nursing in Korea by INCP
Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung, Jin Kyung Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(4):608-617.   Published online December 31, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to analyze phenomena and characteristics of family nursing in Korea based on the study by Yun et al. (1999) by ICNP. The subjects of this study were 115 reports on family nursing care in Korea National Open University. The results of this study were as follows: 1. In the phenomenon of family nursing 'Inappropriate family coping' comprised of 17.0% and 'Inadequate care for a sick mumber' comprised of 16.8% 2. It was found that ' A few close neighbors was 62.5% 'Lack of communication between married couple' was 60.0% 'Neglet of general child rearing' was 40.9% 'Closed communication pattern of the head of a family' was 36.0% and 'Inadequate distribution of each family member's role' was 27.2% 3' Lack of family interaction in community' and 'Social isolation' were combined with 'Lack of family interaction in community' an 'Disturbance in family communication' and 'Lack of family intimacy' were combined with 'Disturbance in family communication' 4. 'Dual-loading with office work and housework' 'Overload of caring one's elders because of the status as a dual-income family ' and 'Lack of family support system' were added into 'Inappropriate family coping'.
Validity Field Testing of Family Nursing Phenomen in Korea by the Retrospective Method of ICNP
Soon Nyung Yun, Hyun Sook Kim, Yong Suk Kwon, Kyung Min Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Ae Ko, Ae Young So, Soon Ok Yang, Young Im Kim, Hee Girl Kim, Jin Joo Oh, Myoung Ja Wang, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Sook Kang, Ji Yun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(3):423-432.   Published online September 30, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to test the validity of characteristics of family nursing phenomena in Korea identified in a previous study by Yoon, S. Y, et al.(1999). Data for this study were collected from 355 (first measurement 186, second measurement 169) nurses whose family nursing careers were more than one year using a cross sectional survey method. The distribution per one characteristic ranged between 0 to 5. The phenomena that had two or more characteristics and had a score of 3.0 points or more included 'disturbance in marital role', 'disturbance in family communication', 'inappropriate family coping', 'lack of family intimacy', 'unhealthy life style', 'deficit of financial management skill and support', 'inadequate care management sick member', and 'inadequate home-making'. The essential characteristics of the 8 phenomena presented above included 27 items. Further studies on family nursing phenomena in Korea are needed to support the evidence through surveys of families in the field. A reconfirmation study, as well as qualitative research on the low validity of the characteristics, needs to be more performed in the future.
A Diagnostic Study on the Registered Beneficiaries of Health Centers - From the Perspective of the Precede Model -
Soon Nyung Yun, Jung Ho Park, Sung Ae Park, Hyeoun Ae Park, Chun Mi Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2002;13(2):292-305.   Published online June 30, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic assessment on the level of health status, and quality of life of the health care beneficiaries registered in health management programs of public health centers. In order to investigate the level of health status and the quality of life and to find factors affecting them, the PRECEDE model, that was developed by Green, et al. for the purpose of a comprehensive diagnostic research, was used.
METHODS
The subjects were 81 residents who resided K-gu, Seoul. Data were collected from September, 1999 to August, 2000 using a self reported questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, Kruskall-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and path analysis.
RESULTS
1. The quality of life and the level of health promoting lifestyle were moderate or more, but were not significantly different by sex, age, marital status, educational level, occupation, and monthly household income. 2. Self-efficacy was significantly correlated to be a perceived benefit, social support and health-promoting lifestyle. Perceived benefit had a significant correlation with social support and health promoting lifestyle. There was also a significant correlation between the level of satisfaction, and the availability of the health promotion program. 3. Social support, health promoting lifestyle, and health status were found to influence the quality of life directly, whereas self efficacy and perceived benefit affected the quality of life indirectly through social support.
CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that the health promotion program should include strategies to strengthen self efficacy and perceived benefit to enhance social support, and to encourage health promoting behaviors in order to improve the quality of life of the health care beneficiary.
Occupational Health Care Management Model in Small Scale Enterprises
Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(3):647-660.   Published online December 31, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Forming health care management model in small-scale enterprises was the purpose of this study. For the purpose, we tried to investigate the characteristics of small-scale enterprises and analyzed the pattern of their health care management. The results are as follow: 1. The strength of health managing agency and technical supporting program lies in team approach by specialized manpower. However, if the liaison between each part of the organization is not smooth, the overall management will be very difficult. 2. Small scale enterprises are characterized by their short life after the establishment, use of rental building, lack of welfare facilities, weakness in sanitary management and aggregation of factories of similar type of industry. Because of these characteristics, it is very difficult to solve problem basically, such as improvement of working environment. Therefore, it is important to focus on health education and community-based approach. 3. Many workers in small-scale factories are in middle and old age. They have health problems mainly related to personal habits. Implementation of an appropriate health promotion program is needed. 4. The number of workplaces, which should be managed by health managing agent, is increasing rapidly. But the number of health managing agent is limited. In the aspect of the requirement of manpower and equipment, training personal agent is more urgent than founding institutional agent. 5. The uniform method of health management hampers the choice of employer and workers. The types of provision of health management should be diversified. 6. For an efficient management, a frequent visit of personal agent and the following referral to a specialist should be done. The specialists in charge of secondary management are from the field of occupational medicine, occupational hygiene, ergonomics, etc. 7. The health management of small-scale facilities should have six components. They are community-based approach, multi-disciplinary cooperative system, program based on the need of recipient, forming partnership of employer and worker, change of lifestyle, and evidence-based program.
An Evaluative Study of Community based Health Promotion Project
Sung Ae Park, Jung Ho Park, Soon Nyung Yun, In Sook Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2001;12(2):532-546.   Published online September 30, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This report is the result of interim evaluation of a health promotion project which was operated by a public health center of K Gu in the year of 2000. It evaluated the aspects of the aim of a project, a target group, and adequacy and appropriateness of a approaching strategy by considering data of public health center's self-evaluation, and guidelines of a group assigned to evaluate the project. The way of evaluation was dividing the project into a colligated evaluation and a evaluation by projects in the aspects of the structure, the procedure, and the result of a result. Through this, a device to improve the health improvement project was derived. The target data for evaluation was the second data and data of self-evaluation, reported data, membership register data of a health management, and interview materials with the people in charge by projects that are all collected as a project management documents. The result of evaluation is stated below. 1. Main purpose of a health promotion project is building a environment of healthy life practicing and providing information through various ways to increase the rate of practicing healthy life. Through overall project, the ultimate purpose and definite purpose were same, however, it was not quite satisfied to offer planning of a time, and a target amount in detailed strategy. As the purpose was to build environment of healthy life practicing, most of the projects had the whole community citizen as a target group. That made difficult to operate detailed projects, so the result was hard to estimate as much as the effort put into it. Also, there were too many kinds of projects and target groups to be equal to by the human source of a health promotion project team, so we were just bent on operating a project, and could not prepare for the evaluation. As the most of former evaluation of public health service was just counting number of the objects, the new way of evaluating a project wasn't familiar to us, so the evaluation of a detailed project cannot be done well. Techniques and advices needed for all of these things weren't offered appropriately. For the forward direction of unfolding project, it is desirable to operate project by selecting focused target and considering a strategy of evaluation as a strategy of reasonable spread. The evaluation of the project became difficult as participation of citizen for it was poor. So, approach strategy that can lead the motivation of community citizen should be derived. 2. For the continuation of a health promotion project, technical assistance system, description of a field in charge, and arrangement of the amount of task should be developed as a central level. Furthermore, as the health promotion project focus on behavioral modification program whose purpose is to lessen dangerous factors, the public health service model which is incorporated with former project should be developed and spread out in the field for the object-centered project plan.
The Study on Medication Management in Small-to-Medium Sized Workplaces and the Level of Awareness about "Separation of Prescribing and Dispending"
Young Im Kim, Ju Ok Jee, Soon Nyung Yun, Hye Sun Jung, Sook Ja Choi, Jung Ok Lee, Hyun Jung Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(2):513-525.   Published online December 31, 2000
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was to investigate medication management and the level of awareness about separation of prescribing and dispending at small-to-medium sized workplaces which have less than 300 employees in Korea. The data were collected by questionnaires from May to June in 2000. The number of subjects were 127 workplaces and 130 employees. The SAS PC Program was used for the descriptive statistics. The results are as follows; 1. The over the counter(OTC) drug was provided sufficiently(91.1%). but medication management was not performed systematically. 2. On drug-providing rate and drug-using rate, the latter was high in the workplace and Health care management's nurses consume all of the over the counter drug provided. 3. When the separation of prescribing and dispending starts, employees shall be medically examined, treated and prescribed by physicians and drugs shall be dispended by pharmacists. It is necessary to make it possible to visit health care institutions whenever they want to. (eg. lunch time or after work) They should change their drug-dependent behaviour. We should focus on strengthening Health Promotion Program to prevent disease by making habitual of health promotion behaviour.
A Study on Health Behaviors and Problems of Female Retail Workers
Souk Young Kim, Soon Nyung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):127-145.   Published online June 30, 2000
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The objectives of this study are to identify health behaviors and health problems. and the relations between health behaviors and health problems of female workers in the retail business. The number of subjects were 200 female workers of 6 department stores in Seoul and Kyonggi area, whose jobs last more than 6 months as retail employees. The data was collected during 2 months from July 1 to August 30, 1998. The Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire(CMI) was used to measure their health problems, while health behaViorn were investigated in terms of 'smoking', 'alcohol', exercise', 'diet', and 'sleeping'. The data were analyzed with frequency. percentage, t-test, ANOVA test, and chi2-test by SPSS PC+ program. The results of this study are as follows: 1. Out of health problems. Digestive symptoms occupied the highest percent number. nervous ones the second and cardiovascular ones the third among physical health problems of retail female workers. The most frequent mental health problem was 'adequacy' and the next, 'tension' and 'anger'. 2. Health problems according to general characteristics of subjects were shown that the younger or the unmarried complained more than the older or the married, especially in the items of 'eye and ear', 'respiratory system', 'cardiovascular system', 'digestive tract', 'nervous system', 'adequacy', and 'depression'. The longer working duration they have had, the more they complained of 'respiratory system' and 'adequacy'. The lower academic careers complained of 'nervous' than the higher ones with statistical significance. 3. The analysis of daily health clinic notes showed that respiratory complaints were the highest percent, successively followed by digestive tract, nervous one, external injury, musculoskeletal system, urinary-reproductive system and others. 4. The level of their health practice was generally low in smoking, diet habit and alcohol intake, exercise, sleeping, very low especially in smoking, diet, alcohol intake, and exercise among them all. 5. Present smokers and ones with past experience complained of physical and mental health problems of 'respiratory system', 'digestive tract', 'skin', 'nervous', 'urinary-reproductive system', 'fatigability', adequacy', 'depression', 'anxiety', 'anger' and 'tension', than non smokers, with statistical difference. Workers without having breakfast and with irregular diet had more complaints on 'digestive tract', 'adequacy' and 'tension', than those who had regular dietary habit. The less the subjects slept, the more they complained of eye and ear, cardiovascular system. The subjects who drank alcohol complained more digestive problem. However, whether they exercise or not did not affect physical and mental health problems in a significant manner. 6. The subjects' age and marital status were statistically significant relating to health behaviors, as the younger or unmarried recorded a low level of health practice in smoking, drinking, dietary habit. Based on the results, the suggestions are made as follows: 1. Health education program on smoking, alcohol intake, diet habit is needed to improve health problems and health behavior of female retail workers. 2. The unmarried workers of late teen and twenties, who are transitional period from teenagers to adulthood are important targets for health promotion program especially for maternal health. 3. Better working environment with sufficient time and facilities for workers to relax is required to promote female sales workers' health. 4. Further research is required to identify the relation between workers' visual fatigue and intense lights for the display of goods.
Health Problems of Female workers in Small Workplace
Young Im Kim, Soon Nyung Yun, Jeong Myung Choi, Chun Mi Kim, Hye Sun Jung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):117-126.   Published online June 30, 2000
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For basic data to develop health management program of female workers. this study was intended to characterize factors affecting health problems of women at workplace which has less than 50 workers by Cornell Medical Index(CMI). 195 items of CMI questionnaire were simplified to 57 items which were composed of 35 items concerning physical health problems and 22 items concerning mental health problems. The data was collected during 6 months from July 10 to December 30 and analyzed with frequency, percentage, t-test and ANOVA. The 107 female workers included in this study was characterized to be mainly twenties(64.5%), single(69.2%) and working at production position(89.7%). The most frequent physical problem was fatigability and the next, neurological system and cardiovascular system. Main mental complaints were inadquacy. anger and tension. When the health problems were reviewed according to its general characteristics, anger in young age, adaptiveness in single and respiratory complaints in self-recognized unhealthy group were prevalent. According to life styles. the prevalent complaints were musculoskeletal one in alcoholic group and cardiovascular one in group who are sleeping just for four to five hours. The appropriateness of each items of CMI should be evaluated to reveal the reasons why meaningful results could not come from many items of this questionnaire. The repeated study should be carried out to figure out the health problems and its related factors of female workers at small scale workplace. Also, exercise program and abstinence from drinking and smoking should be carried out for female worker's health.
Current State of Occupational Health in Small-Scale-Enterprises of Korea
Soon Nyung Yun, Young Im Kim, Hye Sun Jung, Soon Lae Kim, Kyung Hae Yoo, Young Sook Song, Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2000;11(1):90-104.   Published online June 30, 2000
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to investigate the current state of occupational health management and characteristics of employees working in small-scale-enterprises (SSE) employing less than 50 workers. Samples were chosen among the two thousands employees working in 838 factories where located in Youngdungpo-Ku, Seoul, Korea. The study results were as followed: 1. Most factories investigated in the study were manufactures (68.6%) which were established in 5 to 10 years ago (29.2%), employing less than 5 workers (72.9%) and registered in accident compensation insurance (23.0%). 2. Health screening was undertaken in 24.9% workplaces for periodic health examination and in 1.5% for special health examination. Environmental monitoring was done in 3.3% factories. Very few factories displayed Material Substance Data Sheet (MSDS) in 3.1% among the total factories. 3. Workplaces usually had their own toilets in 75.9% and washing basin in 58.6% as types of sociowelfare facilities. 4. Employees responded in the study were mostly in the range of age from 30 to 39 in 34.7%. male in 84.8%. the married in 70.3%. manual workers in 42.0%. mostly working regularly 51 hours per a week in 48.2% and earned 710.000 Won to 1.000.000 Won per month in 35.0%. Medical utilization for employees were covered by factories sponsored medical insurance in 12.7% and by provincial sponsored medical insurance in 83.4%. 5. Two point six percents of employees were suffered by diseases. The health complaints indicated were mainly digestive problems in 46.7% and hypertension in 24.4%. 6. Employees wore personal protective equipments for work such as gloves in 48.1%. safety shoes in 30.5%. ear plug in 5.5% and mask in 6.9%. Based on the results of study, we recommend that various types of occupational health management should be developed according to workplace working condition of each factory. In addition to the development of occupational health strategies. we think that it is more important to monitor and to allocate how effectively they operate each other on the basis of longitudinal continuity. Besides, we would like to insist that these all management effort should be focused on prevention of disease and occupational health education of employees.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing