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Volume 18 (3); September 2007
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Original Articles
The Effects of the Drinking-Reduction Program Adopting Transtheoretical and Leisure Models on Problem Drinking Behavior and Cognition
Eun Young Do
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):363-372.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is to examine the effects of the drinking-reduction program that utilizes transtheoretical model and leisure ability model on the problem drinking behavior, alcohol outcome expectancy, and abstinence self-efficacy of problem drinkers at workplaces.
METHOD
The subjects consisted of 54 male problem drinkers who scored over 12 points in the AUDIT-K with 23 persons in the experimental group and 31 persons in the control group. The research results were analyzed using the SAS program with Chi-square test, t-test, repeated ANOVA, and post-hoc comparison.
RESULTS
1) The experimental group showed a significantly lower score in problem drinking behavior than the control group. 2) The experimental group showed a significantly lower score in alcohol outcome expectancy than the control group. 3) The experimental group showed a significantly higher score in abstinence self-efficacy than the control group.
CONCLUSION
These results demonstrate that the drinking-reduction program effectively reduces the drinking behavior of problem drinkers at workplaces, reduces alcohol outcome expectancy, and enhances abstinence self-efficacy. Accordingly, it is considered that a drinking-reduction program can be a useful nursing intervention method for problem drinkers at workplaces to reduce drinking and improve the quality of life.
The Effects of a Low Intensity Excercise Program on Psychosocial Factors of Excercise and Physical Factors in Elderly Women
Mi Ra Nam, Young Hee Kim, Ok Hee Ahn, Bok Sun Yang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):373-381.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
An exercise program, which was composed of motions simple and easy to follow, was developed and applied to aged women as a way to improve their health conditions.
METHOD
To ascertain the effects of the exercise, which was conducted twice a week and 16 times in total for 8 weeks from September 10 to November 5, 2005 in two experimental groups (31 persons) and a control group (31 persons), this study conducted quasi-experiments of nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. Data were analyzed using SPSS/PC Win 10.0, the reliability of the measuring tools using Cronbach's alpha, the verification of equivalence for general properties and dependent variables using Chi-square test and t-test, and the verification of hypotheses using t-test and ANCOVA.
RESULTS
After the exercise program, the aged women showed profitable evaluation of decisional balance, high feeling of self-efficacy as well as improved subjective awareness of health. Their diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol were also reduced significantly after the exercise.
CONCLUSION
After the conduct of the exercise program for 8 weeks, aged women showed increased profitable decisional balance, self-efficacy and subjective awareness of health. This suggests that continuous and proper exercise is effective as an intervention for health improvement for the aged as well as the prevention of and recovery from geriatric diseases.
The Effects of Taekwon Aerobic Exercise on Obesity Indices and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Obese Women
In Hyae Park, In Hee Choi, Hyun Sook Ryu, Ae Ran Joo, Youn Kyoung Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):382-390.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of taekwon aerobic on obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged obese women.
METHOD
Data were collected from 19 middle-aged obese women who participated in taekwon aerobic exercise. This research adopted one-group pretest-posttest design. Taekwon aerobic was applied 3 times in a week for 12 weeks, and the obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors were checked before and after the program. Body weight, BMI and % body fat for obesity indices were checked, and total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol for cardiovascular risk factors were measured. The data was analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS/Win 10.0.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in body weight, BMI and % body fat after the taekwon aerobic exercise. There was a significant difference in total cholesterol. However, there were no significant differences in triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol after the taekwon aerobic exercise.
CONCLUSION
This study showed that taekwon aerobic exercise decreased obesity indices and lowered total cholesterol in the cardiovascular risk factors. The results of this study show that taekwon aerobic exercise is effective in enhancing the health of middle-aged obese women.
Stress, Depression and Health Risk Behaviors in Korean Elders
Ae Jung Kim, Ok Soo Kim, Sung Hee Baik, Jong Hwa Jang, Jung Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):391-399.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate stress, depression and health risk behaviors in elderly people.
METHODS
The subjects were 238 Korean elders who had visited the convalescent center. The level of stress was measured by the Korean version of BEPSI, which was developed by Bae, Jeung & Yoo (1992) and modified by Yim et al.(1996). CES-D was used to measure the level of depression. For health risk behaviors, we measured cigarette consumption and alcohol drinking during the last one month.
RESULTS
Of the subjects, 17.4% were excessive drinkers and 18.9% were currently smokers. The level of stress was between moderate and high, and 62.7% of the subjects were depressed. There were significant differences in stress and depression according to economic status and self-reported health. In addition, depression had positive correlations with stress and QF score.
CONCLUSION
Stress and depression management programs for the elderly are needed. These findings indicate that nurses must consider stress and alcohol drinking when they take care of depressed elderly people.
Subjective Health Status, Religiosity and Fear of Death of the Elderly in Rural Communities
Young Ran Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):400-409.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to investigate the level of subjective health status, religiosity and the fear of death of the elderly and to identify the relationships among them.
METHODS
This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study using a questionnaire. Fear of Death Scale that was made by Loo & Shea (1996) and translated and revised by Kim(2003) was used to measure the fear of death. The data was analyzed using SPSS.
RESULTS
The subject was 128 community dwelling elders who had a religion. Of the respondents, 50% felt 'not healthy', and 69.5% was moderately religious. The mean score of FODS was 3.18 (out of 5). The mean score of each subcategory of FODS was as follows: Death anxiety about the death of self was 3.00. Death anxiety about the dying of self was 3.18. Death anxiety about the death of others was 3.31 and death anxiety about the dying of others was 3.23. There was a statistically significance correlation between the level of religiosity and FODS (F=3.29, p=.040).
CONCLUSION
Health professionals may make efforts to learn about healthy attitudes toward death and aid for the elderly and to comfort them. Death education programs are needed for the elderly.
Job Stress and Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Care Workers at Medical Welfare Facilities for Elders
Young Mi Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):410-419.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study is a descriptive survey to find out musculoskeletal symptoms in care workers working at medical welfare facilities for elders and factors affecting such symptoms.
METHODS
Data were collected from 115 care workers selected through convenient sampling from 6 medical welfare facilities in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do during the period from May 15th to May 19th, 2006. The Korean version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) were used.
RESULT
Of the subjects, 81.7% complained of musculoskeletal symptoms in two or more parts of their body. The frequency of body parts with musculoskeletal symptoms was high in order of shoulder, leg/foot, waist, neck/hand/wrist/finger and arm/elbow. The average job insecurity instability in the age group of 50-59 was 9.19, the average degree of regular exercise was 59.68, and the average job demand in those diagnosed with musculoskeletal diseases was 47.06, and the average job demand in those wounded during exercise or by an accident was 47.78, and all these were statistically significant. The heavier physical load in their work was, the higher their complaint of musculoskeletal symptoms was. In the lower social support group, the degree of complaint on musculoskeletal symptoms was remarkably high.
CONCLUSION
The physical load of their duty and social support worked as the factors affecting musculoskeletal symptoms in care workers.
Factors Related to Regular Mammography Screening for Outpatients
Young Im Kim, Chang Hyun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):420-430.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was to identify factors affecting regular mammography screening behavior of outpatients. The target subjects were 150 women who had visited the breast clinic at the university hospital, and the study period was around 10 months from March to December 2006. Data were analyzed by using chi2-test, t-test and logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
Of the subjects, 50% experienced mammography and 31.6% took mammography regularly. In the relational analysis between various factors and regular mammography, there were significant differences among the 41~50 year old group, the employed group, the high income group, the regular exercise group, the non-drinking group, and the previously chi-rayed group. And, in the Logistic Regression analysis, those who preferred bean food were 3.20 times more likely to take mammogram regularly, and those who married were 3.49 times more likely to do than the unmarried. Also, those who had low health belief and who were under age 51 were less likely to take regular mammogram.
CONCLUSION
In order to increase the rate of conducting regular mammography, there must be different intervention strategies according to food habit, marital status and age, and a support system must be devised to increase health belief about breast cancer.
Stages and Processes of Smoking Cessation among High School Students in Rural Community
Mi Young Kim, Soon Lim Suh, Ok Kyung Ham
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):431-440.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to describe stage distribution of current and former smokers and to analyze significant variables that used by adolescents at each stage using the Transtheoretical Model.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was performed with 145 students attended to five high schools in one rural area. The survey instruments included stages and processes of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and knowledge related to smoking.
RESULTS
Among the participants, 47.6% were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages, 20.7% were in the preparation stage, and the other 31.7% were in the action and maintenance stages. Analysis of variance tests revealed that behavioral processes, pros and cons of smoking, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with the stages of smoking cessation, while among 10 processes of change, self-reevaluation, self-liberation, and reinforcement management were significantly different by the stages.
CONCLUSIONS
The study results suggest that smoking cessation programs should emphasize behavioral strategies, self-efficacy, and decisional balance to help students adopt and maintain smoking cessation
The Influence of Depression, Temperament and Character of Female Adolescents on Smoking Behavior
Ggod Me Yi, Kyung Ja Jeon, Shin Young Son, Ae Young So
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):441-451.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is to analyze the smoking behaviors and to identify the impacts of depression, temperament, and characteristic on smoking experience in the female adolescents.
METHODS
This study surveyed 691 highschool girls in the Gangwon area using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0. using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression.
RESULTS
The smoking rate of the highschool girls was lower than that of the national average. Depression was observed to be seriously in the highschool girls. There were a positive correlations among smoking experience, the school records and novelty seeking and a negative correlation between smoking and cooperativeness. The significant predictors of smoking experience were the type of school, the satisfaction with school, the school records, novelty seeking, reward dependence and cooperativeness.
CONCLUSION
These results suggest that femalel adolescents who have the factors identified in this study are considered to have the potential for smoking. These results provide the basis for developing smoking prevention and cessation programs.
Stress and Social Support According to Internet Addiction
Yeon Hee Choi, Boo Deuk Suh, Eun Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):452-459.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to examine stress and social support according to Internet addiction in juveniles.
METHOD
Subjects were middle and high school students in Daegu (N=492). Data were collected using a self-rating questionnaire including demographic data, which was the Korean versions of an Internet addiction scale, a stress scale and a social support scale.
RESULTS
Stress and social support were significantly different according to Internet addition. Significant correlations were observed between Internet addiction and stress and between Internet addiction and social support.
CONCLUSION
These results indicate that the more addictive to the Internet a student is, the more stress and the less social support he/she has. Therefore, further studies are needed to generalize these results and examine widely the effects of Internet addiction.
The Effects of Internet Addiction on Mental Health Among Adolescents
Young Soon Byeon, Hea Shoon Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):460-468.   Published online September 30, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between adolescents' internet addiction and mental health.
METHODS
The Internet addiction level was measured with K-Scale developed for Korean adolescents by Korea Agency Digital Opportunity & Promotion (2006) and the mental health level was measured with SCL-90-R developed by Derogatis (1977) and adapted for Korean adolescents by Kim, Kim. & Won (1984). Collected data was analyzed by the mean+/-SD, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe and Pearson correlation coefficient (SPSS 12.0).
RESULTS
1. The Internet addiction level appeared to be 'Addiction' in 19%, 'Latency addiction' in 27% and 'Normal' in 54%. 2. The Internet addiction level was different according to sex, use, frequency and using time per day. The mental health level was different according to grade, sex, the father's education, the mother's education, frequency and using time per day. 3. The correlation between Internet addiction and mental health was found significant.
CONCLUSION
The Internet addiction level was confirmed to have an influence on mental health. We offered basis data for preventing and treating Internet addiction in adolescents.
Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Related to Obesity in Elementary School Children
Myung Ha Lee, Hyeon Ok Kim, Hee Kyoung Hyoung, Hee Sun Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):469-479.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was carried out to investigate the knowledge of obesity and exercise, attitude to dietary habits and exercise, and physical activities and exercise in elementary school children to provide basic data for obese programs.
METHODS
The subjects were 850 elementary school children of grade 3-6 in C City and data were collected with a questionnaire.
RESULTS
Higher grade, female and overweight children recorded a higher knowledge score than lower grade, male and normal weight children. As for attitude to dietary habit, lower grade and female children had more positive attitude than higher grade and male children. Overweight children were more aware of the seriousness of exercise than normal weight children. In physical activity, lower grade and male children were higher than higher grade and female children. The more interested the children's family were in exercise, the higher score of physical activity they showed.
CONCLUSION
In planning education for preventing obesity, it should give consideration to lower grade and male children. In addition, education for changing dietary habit attitude must be extended to higher grade and male children as well. It is effective to develop and apply physical activity improvement programs in the cooperation and involvement of their families.
A Study on the Needs of Health & Community Services Among the Disabled at Home in Rural Areas
Hyeon Ok Kim, Kyoung Hwa Joung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2007;18(3):480-491.   Published online September 30, 2007
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PURPOSE
This study was to investigate the needs of health & community services among the disabled at home in rural areas.
METHODS
The subjects were 146 persons with disabilities living in J-gun. The questionnaire was based on the needs of 8 categorical services. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, t-test, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test.
RESULTS
Among the respondents, 27.4% visited the public health center in community for rehabilitation therapy. The average score of need was 2.62+/-.79: education services (2.92+/-1.05); medical services (2.81+/-.82); nursing care services (2.75+/-1.08); connection services (2.62+/-1.20); housing services (2.60+/-1.09); emotional services (2.41+/-1.03); other services (2.24+/-1.06); and support of self-sustenance service (1.92+/-1.15). The items in highest need were medical checkup (70.7%), medication (62.1%), traditional oriental therapy (60.4%) and physical therapy (58.9%), and those of lowest need were device repair (8.7%) and guidance of facility admission (7.1%). Needs were significantly different according to age (F=4.751, p=.001), employment status (t=2.108, p=.037) and medical fee payer (F=5.061, p=.002).
CONCLUSION
The needs of education & medical services were relatively high. Demographic factors were statistically significant in determining needs. For the disabled at home in rural areas, more various services or programs should be executed based upon the needs and characteristics of based upon the needs and characteristics of the subjects.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing