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Volume 8 (1); June 1997
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Original Articles
The Evaluation of the Health Status of Migrant Workers
Sang Soon Kim, Ae Ryun Kim, Mi Han Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):3-20.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical and mental health status of foreign migrant workers in Korea, and to provide basic data for assessment of industrial Nurses, and to contribute to the improvement of their health status. There were 108 workers who participated in this study. They lived in Seoul and the capital region and the data were collected from 11th August to 23th, 1996. The C.M.I. was utilized for the study. The results obtained by this study were as follows: Digestive system and Inadequacy have the largest portion of the physical and mental illness respectively. With regard to physical and mental illness ac cording to the gender, the frequency of illness experienced by women was higher than men in Genitourinary system and Sensitivity. By ages, there were significant differences between those in their 20's and 30's and in their 40's, particularly Ears and Eyes system. There were significant differences in mental health illness according to educational levels. The middle school graduate group had more health ill ness than the group with higher than high school education in Anxiety. There were significant differences in the rate of job satisfaction. The dissatisfied group had more health illness in Eyes and Ears, Miscellaneous diseases, and Inadequacy. The lower the rate of working condition satisfaction, the higher the frequency rate of physical and mental health illness (Eyes and Ears, Musculoskeletal system, Nervous system, Frequency of illness, Habits, Total physical section, Inadequacy, Depression, Anxiety, Anger, Tension, Total mental section) By the accessibility of health services, the group who has respond to difficult had more health illness in Frequency of illness, Anxiety, Anger, Tension and Total mental section. There were significant differences in the reason of difficulty of health services use concerning Eyes and Ears and Miscellaneous diseases. The most important factor to explain the satisfaction of job and working condition was the satisfaction for supervisor.
A Study about the Directed blood donation program
Kye Suk Jo
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):21-30.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of the study is to establish the nurses engaged in blood donation business right cognition and supply base data to make out proper directed blood donation rule through investigation of actual condition and general issue related to directed blood donation. In this study I searched for related reference and computed the directed blood donors in seoul national university hospital blood bank. The directed blood donation in Korea have been increased for supplying fresh whole blood and plateletpheresis donor blood. The most blood donation in the blood bank belong to hospital are directed blood donation. The benefits of directed blood donation are enlargement blood donor, easy insurance a demand type of blood. But that program also give rise to recipient severe burden, additional cost and confused blood donation system. First of all for lessening the burden of the recipient and the directed blood donor, blood donation site, time, cost and procedure must be repared by proper rules. An alternative plans for the directed blood donation are autologous blood program and donor registration system.
A Study of Related Factors in the Bone Mineral Density of the Institutionalized Elderly
Hee Ja Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):31-44.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to measure and determine the relationship of femoral neck and lumbar bone mineral density with their and related factors. It were measured and determined the relationships among bone mineral density, bone mineral content in the lumbar and femoral neck, muscle strength (arm, back, leg), muscle endurance, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), quality of life, cognitive perceptual variables(self efficacy, perceived health status), age, age at menopausal period. The twenty five subjects participating in this study consisted of twelve males and thirteen females at a C-institution in Chung Buk province. The mean age of subjects was 73.64 years. The data was collected from August, 1993 to September, 1993. The data was analyzed with chi2-test, t-test, Correlation, multiple regression using a SPSS pc+ program. 1. The mean femoral neck bone mineral density was $0.636g/cm2, 66.7% of young bone mineral density, the mean lumbar(L2-L4) bone mineral density was 0.807g/cm2, 79.86% of young bone mineral density. The mean fermoral neck bone mineral content was 2.906g and the mean lumbar bone mineral content was 36.898g. 2. The mean muscle strength was 17.14kg(grip strength), 32.05kg(back lift strength), 17.14kg (leg lift strength) and the mean muscle endurance was 9.92times. 3. Men showed a significantly higher score (p<0.01) in muscle strength and muscle endurance than women, as well as a significantly higher score on self efficacy and perceived health status(p<0.05). 4. The femur neck bone mineral density had a significant correlation(p<0.0l) with leg lift strength, back lift strength, and their was a significant correlations (p<0.05) with arm strength and muscle endurance. Lumbar (L2-L2) bone mineral density had a significant correlation(p<0.05) with muscle endurance, grip strength and IADL. 5. With the multiple regression analysis the most significant predictor for lumbar bone mineral density were IADL, the most significant predictor for femoral neck bone mineral density was leg strength. This study concluded: As the mean bone mineral density and bone mineral content were low, the aged showed osteopenia. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and IADL were correlated. The aged could pro mote muscle strength, bone mineral density and IADL through Leg Press exercise which was safe and efficient for the aged. This Leg Press exercise contributed to prevention of osteoporosis and promoted the health of the aged.
A Study about Self-care for Hypertensives in Rural area
Young Im Park
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):45-60.   Published online June 30, 1997
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Essential hypertension is a typical chronic disease requiring adequate and continuous management. Many studies supported that self-care was the essential factor to promote the wellbeing of hypertensives and self-efficacy increased healthy, behavior. The comprehensive self-regulation program was conducted as a nursing intervention on the promotion self-care performance for hypertensives in company. And this self-regulation program was recommended to apply for hypertensives in rural area. The purpose of this study is to identify the general characteristics affecting self-care and interrelationship among the factors including self-care, self-efficacy, HLOC, perceived benefits, barriers and family support. 40 subjects were interviewed from Dec. 1996 to Jan. 1997 and the data was analyzed by the SPSS PC+ program with t-test and multiple correlation to determine the variables affecting the self-care behavior. The results were as follows: 1) Level of self-care was significant difference according to sex(t= -2.27, p=.0l9). religion (t=1.57, p=.055) and smoking habit (t=4.42, P=.000). Perceived self-efficacy was more significantly high among the non-smoking group (t=3.25, P=.000) and female group (t=-2.534, p=.0l3). 2) There were significant positive correlation among the variables: self-care and self-efficacy (r=.5460, p=.000), external-LOC and self-care(r=.2548, p=.056), external-LOC and self-efficacy(r =. 2901, p=.035), self-efficacy and perceived benefits (r=3307, p=.019). And there were significant negative correlation between self-care and barriers (r=-.5438, p=. 000), self-efficacy and barriers (r= - .4153, p=.004). From the above results, it can be concluded that the self-care is more required in male hypertensives and self-efficacy is one of the important factors to increase healthy behavior in cluding self-care. Thus self-regulation program can be recommended in the management of the hypertensives in community settings.
A study on the degree of perceived powerlessness of the elderly
In Hyae Park, Jeong Hee Lee, Ki Sun Kang, Hye Jin Kwon, Kyung Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):61-73.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of perceived powerlessness and the factors which influence the powerlessness of the elderly. Data were collected by self-reported structured questionnare from 210 subjects living in Kwang-Ju and Che-Ju cities on 5th to 17th February 1996. Data were analyzed using statistical package SAS. The findings were as follows : 1. The mean scores of the degree of perceived powerlessness of the subjects were 58.90 out of 85. The elderly people in Kwang-Ju city perceived more powerlessness than elderly people of Che-Ju city. 2. The factors which influence the powerlessness of the elderly were age, gender, education level, living standard, spouse, former and present job, health condition, family support, social and recreational activities. From the results of this study, to alleviate the powerlessness of the elderly, with the efforts of health maintenance and promotion various community based social activities and support system should be developed for the elderly.
A Study of the Relationship Between Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients receiving Gene therapy
Mi Kyung Chang, Kyung Hee Kim, Yeon Kang Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):74-88.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between perceived social support and the quality of life of cancer patients receiving gene therapy. The subjects for this study were 50 cancer patients receiving gene therapy at two general hospital in Seoul. The data were collected during the period from October 14, 1996 to November 11, 1996. The perceived social support was measured by the family support scale made by Hyun Sook Kang, by the medical support of life scale developed by Ok Soo Kim. The quality of life scale developed by Bang-Whal-Ran was used, among the questionnaire, physical factors was developed by U.S.A National Conference on Cancer Nursing. The data was analysed by the SAS statistical program. Percentile, means and standard deviations, t -test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation were utilized for analysis. The results of this study were as follows. 1. The mean score of the perceived social support of the subjects was 83.66, the item score was 3.8. 1) The mean score of the perceived family support of the subjects was 44.96, the item mean score was 4.5. 2) The mean score of the perceived professional medical support of the subjects was 38.70, the item mean score was 3.2. 2. The mean score of quality of life of the subjects was 120.38, the item mean score was 3.17. For each factor in quality of life scale, the mean score was follows: for attitude toward life, 3.95, for familial relationship and financial status, 3.53, for social activity 3.24, for emotional status, 3.08, for healthy perceptive, 2.90, for physical symptom, 2.80. 3. The result of the analysis of the relationship between perceived social support and quality of life showed a positive correlation(r=.4853, p=.0004). Therefore, the higher the perceived social support of the patients, the higher the quality of life. 1) The result of the analysis of the relationship between perceived family support and quality of life showed significant correlation(r=. 3566, p=.0110). Therefore the higher the perceived family support of the patients, the higher the quality of life. 2) The result of the analysis of the relationship between perceived professional medical support and quality of life showed significant correlation (r=.4477, p=.0011). Therefore, the higher the perceived professional medical support of the patients the higher the quality of life. 4. There was a significant difference in perceived social support according to sex(F=2.1437, p= .0371), others coping non-family (F=2.4863, p=.0164) and duration of treatment (F=4.16, p=.0218). 5. There was a significant differance in quality of life according to sex(F=2.6932, p=.0097), degree of education(F=2.3610, p=.0223), others coping non-family(F=2.0502, p=.0458). In conclusion, this study revealed that social support is an important factor that associated with the quality of life in cancer patients receiving gene therapy.
A Study of Variables related to Breast Self-examination Practice in Adult Women
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):89-101.   Published online June 30, 1997
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Breast cancer ranks as one of the major health problems in adult women. The purpose of this study is to determine relationships among the practice of Breast Self-Examination(BSE) and the variables of cancer risk and other genernal factors. This knowledge may be helpful in designing a BSE educational program to promote breast self-examination on a regular basis. The study population included 205 women who live in K city. Personal interviews were conducted to determine the individual's breast self-examination behavior, the level of Breast Cancer Risk according to general factors as well as her reasons for not doing a breast self-examination. The collected data was analyzed with an SAS program The results were summarized as follows : 1. The level of Breast Cancer Risk of the subjects is as follows: high risk(9%), moderate risk(11%), boderline risk(12%), no increased risk (68%). 2. There was no difference in the practice of BSE between women who were at high cancer risk and at no increased cancer risk. 3. BSE practice levels according to general foctors were significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The performing of regular breast self-examination in urban areas was 7% and in rural areas was 0%. Regularly practiced breast self-examination in women with a low education was 5% and in college educated women, it was 29%. 4. BSE education was significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The majority learned BSE through 'a magazine or journal'. 5. The reason of the majority of women did not perform a regular breast self-examination was, "Didn't know the BSE technique". On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the development of a BSE education program is needed to help women perform the examination correctly.
An Effect of the Health Camp Program for Promoting Self-efficacy in Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Sang Soon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):102-115.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to determine an effect of the health camp program on self-efficacy, sick-role behavioral compliance and glucose metabolism in juvenile diabetes mellitus patients. The quasi-experimental study was designed using a nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design with the framework of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Forty-two juvenile diabetes mellitus patients participating in this study were selected from outpatients. Of these, twenty-one were assigned to the experimental group and twenty-one to the control group. The period of data collection was from August 8 to December 9 in 1994. The health camp program for the experimental group was carried out over 6 days and the control group did not participate in the program. Collection data was analyzed by means of chi - square test, t - test, ANCOVA, Pearson correlation with SPSS /PC+. The result were summarized as follows: 1. The health camp program was effective in in-creasing the scores of self-efficacy for juven-ile diabetes mellitus patients. 2. The health camp program was effective in increasing the scores of sick - role behavioral compliance for juvenile diabetes mellitus patients. 3. The health camp program was not effective in decreasing the levels of glucose metabolism. 4. The more self-efficacy increased, the more sick - role behavioral compliance increased. 5. Boys showed the higher self-efficacy than girls and the group with diabetes patients whose family members are also patients, showed the higher self-efficacy and sick-role behavioral compliance than the group without diabetic patient among the family members. Thus, it can be concluded that the health camp program was a useful health intervention for juvenile diabetes mellitus patients.
A Study on the Nursing Profession as Stipulated by Health & Medical Laws of Korea
Eun Young Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):116-132.   Published online June 30, 1997
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The purpose of the study is to find out how laws related to the nursing profession can be improved by analyzing the rules and regulations concerning nursing. Furthermore, to help settle legal matters in the process of doing nursing work. The data used for the study are the Health and Medical Act, the Maternal and Child Health Act, the School Health Act, the Special Act for Health and Medical Service in Rural Areas, the Industrial Health & Safety Act and the Notice on Nursing Professional Courses analyzed by age and content. The results of the study are as follows : First, basic nursing practice includes "nursing care for recuperation and assistance in medical treatment and in special areas including the pre-vention of disease, maintenance of health, control of environment, and other therapeutic activities. It is suggested that the phrase "assistance in medical treatment" should be eliminated as it limits the basic nursing practice to the assistance of the medical treatment. Second, Article 56 of the Health & Medical Act prescribes a special nurse but it does not prescribe a specific job. Accordingly, the new provison concerning the specific jobs of a special nurse should be added or a job guide should be inseated. Third, it is prescribed that those who have completed the training course after obtaining a license are qualified to be a midwife, a special nurse and a nurse practitioner working in special areas. However, school nurses, occupational health nurses and maternal and health workers are required to obtain a nurse license, but not to take an additional training course. Nurses working in special areas should be legally recognized as nurse specialists. The regulations to control various qualification standards consistently should be established. Fourth, the qualifications and types of nurses by area prescribed by Article 54 of the Health and Medical Act are not consistent with those of special nurses as recognized by affiliated organizations of the Korean Nurse Association and some hospitals. Accordingly, the qualifications and types of special nurses should be adjusted in consideration of special nurses. Fifth, as Article 16, Paragraph 2 of the Health and Medical Act does not prescribe the type and scope of first - aid treatment that nurses can provide, the first-aid treatment of nurses might be considered as an unlicensed practice. The specific regulations regarding these matters should be established. Sixth, the contents of the nursing record, which are prescribed by Article 21 of the Health and Medical Act as a duty, include 1) matters concerning body temperature, pulse, breath and blood pressure 2) matters concerning drug prescription 3) matters concerning input and output 4) matters concerning the treatment and nursing care (Article 17 of the Enforcement Regulations, Health and Medical Act). However, these matters are limited to basic nursing care and assistance in medical treatment. The new recording methods on nursing process are suggested to be adopted legally. Seventh, the prescription right entrusted to nurses which are prescribed by the School Health Act, the Special Act on Health and Medical Service for Rural Areas, and the Industrial Health and Safety Act are not consistent with the rights of nurses as prescribed by the Health and Medical Act. New regulations prescribing the partial right for medical treatment entrusted to nurses in consideration of the restraint of time and place in emergency situations should be established.
A Q-Methodological Study on the Community Nursing Practice of Nursing Students
Lee Sun Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):133-143.   Published online June 30, 1997
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This study measures the subjectivity of nursing students' experience in community fields through community nursing practice. The purpose of this study is as follows: 1) to find out typologies based on opinions and attitudes toward community nursing practice. 2) to describe the characteristic of each type. 3) to provide alternative strategies for solving community nursing practice problems. A Q-Methodological method was used for that purpose. As a research method, Q-statements were collected through indepth interviews and review of the current literature. For this study 34 Q-statements were selected. 24 nursing students were subjects for the research. The 24 nursing students sorted 34 Q-statements using the principle of Forced Normal Distribution. The principle of Forced Normal Distribution, which has nine scales to measure individual opinions, was called, a Q- Factor Analysis by using a PC Quanl Program to supply the material. According to the results of this study, there were three categories of opinion concerning community nursing practice. The first type is the realistic problem-oriented approach: the second type is the self-responsibility or pursuit of life meaning approach: the third type is the group approach for problem solving. As a result, we need to develop and revise a more realistic way of community nursing practice for nursing students. Finally, the result of this study will provide to the educational program alternative strategies for community nursing practice for nursing students.
The Depression Scales and The College Students' Health Care
Kwang Hye Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(1):144-154.   Published online June 30, 1997
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This study is planned to gather necessary data for setting up a system on students' health care in the university. In order to obtain statistical data on the students' health care problems especially in "depression" among the mental health problems of the students, "The Beck Depression Inventory" by A. T. Beck and "Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale" by W. W. K. Zung were used for gathering numerical data of scale of depression. It is evident that we have to prepare for further medical examination and health care educations for several students. For these students, it is clear that they have problems not only in mental health but also in physical health. I have screened out the high scored students for comparison and analysis. And it disclosed that we have to build up a periodical and continuous "Health Screening System" utilizing Health Questionnaire for both physical and mental aspects, which will bring up us the very exact result to pick out any person who has healthy problem among the enormous number of the students with handy, convenient and effective procedures but with the least expense and effort. Also it is my firm confidence that this system will be applicable for primary health care control of mass population in local community or any organization.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing