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Volume 8 (2); December 1997
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Original Articles
A study on a nursing curriculum after a basic 3-year diploma course for the baccalaureate degree
Hwa Joong Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):159-177.   Published online December 31, 1997
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For the development of nursing curriculum after the completion of a basic program, this study was conducted by comparing the 4-year baccalaureate degree program with the 3-year diploma program. The results are as follows: 1. The curriculum of the 4-year baccalaureate and 3-year diploma program are similar to each other in philosophy, educational objectives, and practical experience. However, advanced nursing courses in practical experience were taught by the 4-year baccalaureate degree program only. 2. For the development of a more advanced and effective curriculum, the 3-year diploma program should concentrate on nursing core courses (80 credits) such as "adult nursing" "maternal nursing" "pediatric nursing" "psychiatric nursing" "community health nursing" "fundamentals of nursing" "managerial nursing". Furthermore, nursing related courses (20 credits) and liberal education courses (20 credits) should also be offered by the 3-year diploma program. 3. This nursing curriculum should be conducted by registered nurses who have graduated from a 3-year diploma program. The nursing educational philosophy and the educational objectives of this curriculum are the same as the 4-year program recommended by the Korean Nurses Association. This curriculum consists of 2 parts: advanced nursing courses and liberal education courses. The advanced nursing courses (20 credits) include "nursing theory(4 credits)" "nursing research(4 credits)" "nursing leadership(4 credits)" "nursing curriculum(4 credits)" and "seminar of nursing issues(4 credits)" total is 40 credits.
Literature Review on the Stress Management Programs throughout Life-span: By foreign research for 1993-1996
Soon Nyoung Yun, Jeang Sook Choi, Kyung Sook Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):178-196.   Published online December 31, 1997
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The purpose of this study is to identify the kind, the frequency, and the type of Stress Management Program(SMPs) throughout life-span used foreign, recent research. The period of this study was from July 1 to Dec. 10, 1997. The data were collected through Medline using two concepts: stress management programs and life-span. The number of these research were 106 and thirty-one experimental researches that were tested the effectiveness of SMPs throughout life span were selected. The data were analysed by the kind, frequency, and life-span. The results were as follows: 1. The kind and frequency of SMP : The total number of the kind of SMP were twenty-two. The most used SMP was relaxation therapy, 22 out of 31. The second biofeedback was 10, the third, cognitive behavior program was 9, the fourth, nutrition and diet, and education were 7. The others were coping skill(4), cognitive therapy(4), breathing(4), imagery(3), autogenic training(3), sleep and rest(2), meditation(2), information(2), desensitization(2), hypnosis(2), behavior therapy(1), time management (1), visualization(I), yoga(I), diversion(1), and problem solving skill. 2. Throughout life-span: Most SMPs were applied to adolescents, young adults, and middle-adults. Other subjects could not be found under the schooler. 3. The type of SMPs : 28(90.3%) out of 31 research used combined-SMP : two-combined SMP, 5: three-combined SMP, twelve: four-combined SMP, seven: five-combined SMP. 4. Afterward, further study such as meta-analysis are needed in order to identify effective ness of the SMPs.
The Effect of Cognitive Stimulation Training on Elderly Persons with Dementia
Jung Soon Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):197-210.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study was conducted to test the effect of cognitive stimulation training on elderly persons with dementia. The design of the research was one group in pre-test-post-test design. The subjects were nine demented persons over sixty years, with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Training was administered by research assistants on a one to one basis for thirty to forty minutes, three times a week for eight weeks. In order to evaluate the effect of cognitive stimulation training, we measured cognitive function before and after three training sessions each. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a paired t-test analysis using a spss pc package. The results are as follows: 1) The recipients of the training program showed improvement in overall cognitive functioning. The MMSK - K score, recall levels of concepts, daily tasks, personal past history and performance of word fluency were significantly increased after training. 2) There was a significant improvement in cognitive functioning over the training period: recall levels of concepts, daily tasks, past personal history and performance of word fluency significantly increased over the training period progessively. The results suggest that cognitive stimulation training is effective in improving and maintaining overall cognitive function of elderly persons with dementia.
Elderly people's understanding level of their life style in next generation
Hee Chung Kim, Yeong Kang Chung, Young Mi Gwun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):211-224.   Published online December 31, 1997
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The purpose of this study is to find a solution to effectively nurse elderly people in the aging society of next generation by analyzing relationship among the social problem of elderly people in the future society, their preferred life style, and their understanding level of an asylum for the aged. Data for this study were collected by questioning 316 persons(257 visitors at C University hospital and 59 residents in Chun - Ra Nam Do) from December 1996 to March 1997. The results were as follows: The assumption that an individual's preferred life style at old age depends on his /her understanding level of the social problem of elderly people was verified (chi2=9.75, p<0.00). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on his /her understanding level of the social problem of elderly people was verified (chi2=4.40, p<0.05). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on his/her pre-ferred life style at old age was verified(chi2=34.51, p<0.01). Among those who want to live together with children when they get old, the following differences in their conception were noted: Elderly people who has lost his/her wife/husband should marry again(p<0.01). Children should take care of their parents(p<0.01). Children should live with their parents(p<0.01), A desirable living style for an elderly people. An undesirable living style for an elderly people. Among those who want to live alone when they get old, the following differences were observed: It is okay for children to live separately from their parents as long as they provide financial support(p<0.01). Any child, regardless of the distinction of sex or the order of birth among siblings, can take care of his/her parents(p<0.05), It is desirable for an elderly people to live alone (p<0.01). It is undesirable for an elderly people to live in an asylum for the aged(p<0.05). It was verified that those who view an asylum for the aged in a negative way believe that children should take care of their parents. Also, it was verified that those who view an asylum for the aged in a positive way believe that children should provide financial support to their parents even though they do not live together(p<0.01). Regardless of the subjects' opinions on seriousness of the social problem of elderly people, the assumption that any child, regardless of the distinction of sex or the order of birth among siblings, can take care of his/her parents was verified(p<0.01) (p<0.05). Regardless of the subjects' view on asylum for the aged, the assumption that it is undesirable place for an elderly people to live was verified (p<0.01). The assumption that one's understanding of an asylum for the aged depends on the distinction of sex among general characteristics such as sex, age, educational background, occupation, and religion was verified(t=-2.82, p<0.01). The assumption that an individual's preferred life style at old age depends on the distinction of sex among general characteristics such as sex, age, educational background, occupation, and religion was verified(t=l.68, p<0.l).
A Comparative Study of ADL, IADL in Urban and Rural Elderly: Taejon, Koje Area
Chun Yu Li, Keum Ee Kim, Hyun Li Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):225-236.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study was conducted to investigate the elderly in urban and rural ares. The subjects were selected in a convenient sampling and the total number was 189(Urban : 95, Rur al : 94). The data were collected by one to one interviews in the period of Sep. 1-30, 1995(Koje) and March 15-28, 1997 (Taejon). The study tools for this study were 1) ADL and IADL 2) Self rating scores for health status. The data were analyzed by percentage, T-test, ANOVA, chi2 Test, Pearson correlation coefficiency by SPSS pc WIN. 7.0 program. The results were as follows: 1. The self rating score for health status of the elderly in urban area was lower than that of the rural when compared in the same age group. 2. In the comparison of ADL scores between the elderly in urban and rural areas, there was no statistically significant difference. The IADL score of the rural elderly were higher than that of the urban elderly and there was a statistically significant difference. 3. In the comparison of ADL & IADL scores according to the self rating score for health status, there was a statistically significant difference among health status levels.
A Comparative Study on the Health Status of Urban and Rural Elderly: Pusan, Kyeungnam Area
Yoo Sun Shin
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):237-249.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study was conducted to investigate and to compare the health status of urban and rural elderly in Korea using the following factors: 1 the number of self-reported health problems 2 a self-rating score for health status 3 the number of diagnosed diseases 4 ADL, social health status by IADL and the psychological health status by Life Satisfaction scale developed by Wood and others. The study subjects were the elderly who lived in Pusan(N=150) as an urban area and Kyeungnam(N=300) province as a rural area. The study subjects were sampled at random and the data were collected by trained interviewers from Feb. 1 to Feb. 14, 1995. the data was analyzed in SPSS. The results can be summarized as follows : 1. According to the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, the urban elderly group was significantly higher in extended family groups and in practicing regular execise than the rural elderly: and the rural elderly group was higher in having spouses and occupations than the urban group. 2. Concerning health status, the numbers of self-reported health problems(eye problems, back pains, headaches, dental problems, arthritis) and number of diagnosed diseases(hypertension, heart problems, diabetes mellitus, neuralgia, arthritis) were significantly were higher higher in rural areas: the self - rating scores for health status and life satisfaction were higher urban areas. ADL and IADL were similar in both the rural and urban elderly. 3. The correlations were the following: Self-reported health problems and self-rating for health status were significantly correlated negatively(r=-.039, p=.000), but self-reported health problems and the number of diagnosed diseases were significantly positively correlated(r=0. 30, p=.000). IADL and health problems were negatively correlated(r=-0.16, p=.000), but IADL and ADL were significantly positively correlated (r=0.49, p=.000). Life satisfaction and self-rating scores for health status were significantly positively correlated(r=0.26, p=.000).
A Study on Job Characteristics, Job Motivation and Job Performance of Public Health Nurses
Kyung Ja June, Hee Gerl Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):250-261.   Published online December 31, 1997
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In Korea, visiting nursing services in pubic health centers have been in place since 1991. The purpose of this study is to compare the job characteristics, job motivation and job performance between visiting nurses and other public health nurses. 196 subjects were sent mailed questionnaires from Aug. to Sep., 1997. The response rate was 65.3%. Data were analyzed by a SPSSWIN program with a t-test, chi2-test, ANCOVA. The results were as follows : 1. The level of job ability in visiting nurses was higher than that of other public health nurses, but it was an insignificant difference(t=1.5975, p=.2078). Among job characteristics, skill variety was significantly higher in other public health nurses(t=8.2121, p=.0046); autonomy and feedback were significantly higher in visiting nurses(t=8.1877, p=.0047/t=7.7026, p=.0085). 2. There was no significant difference in the level of job motivation(t=.6485, p=.4216) and in job performance between the two groups (t=2.7393, p=.0995). In job performance, general nursing and organizational jobs were significantly higher in other public health nurses (t=4.8486, p=.1288/t=9.4237, p=.0024). 3. It was reconfirmed that there was, a significant difference in the level of skill variety, autonomy and feedback in analyzing age and career as covariates. 4. Significant positive relationship was found in job characteristics and job motivation(r=.5488, p=.0000). No significant relationship was found in job characteristics and job performance(r=.0486, p=.498). Through these results, it was supported that there were differences in some of the job characteristics and job performance between visiting nurses and other public health nurses. Therefore, it is requested to redesign job standards, training programs and management styles focusing on the job characteristics of visiting nurses.
The Relationship between Health Belief.Self-efficacy and Exercise.Diet Compliance in Coronary Heart Disease Patients
Myung Hee Nam, Chung Nam Kim, Yun Jung Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):262-276.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study evaluates the relationship between health belief.self-efficacy and exercise and diet compliance in coronary heart disease patients. The study subjects were 96 CHD patients who visited the outpatient clinic at 3 general hospitals in Taegu city from April 3, 1997 to May 3, 1997. Data was collected by the researcher and two registered nurses who work at a cardiac outpatient clinic. Face-to-face interview was conducted. Moon's health belief scale(l990) and Hicky and others' Cardiac Diet Self-Efficacy Instrument (CDSEI, 1992), Cardiac Exercise Self-Efficacy Instrument (CESEI, 1992) were used. The instrument developed by the researcher based on the reference review was used to measure exercise and diet compliance. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA, Tukey verification and Stepwise multiple regression with the SAS program. The results of this study were as follows; 1. The degree of health belief(score range: 1-4) perceived benefit: 3.06 barrier: 2.04 severity: 2.93 2. The degree of self-efficacy(score range: 1-5) exercise self-efficacy: 2.91 diet self-efficacy: 3.32 3. The degree of compliance (score range: 1-4) exercise compliance: 2.34 diet compliance: 2.95 4. The exercise compliance had a positive correlation with perceived benefit(r=0.5327, p=0. 0001), severity(r=0.2780, p=0.0061), exercise self-efficacy(r=0.6675, p=0.0001), and a negative correlation with barrier{r= -0.4236, p=0.0001). The diet compliance had a positive correlation with perceived benefit (r=0.6439, p=0.0001), severity(r=0.4244, p=0.0001), diet self-efficacy(r=0.6629, p=0.0001), and a negative correlation with barrier{r= -0.5098, p=0.0001). 5. According to pt's education level, (F=3.02, p=0.0336), received massage from mass media on exercise and diet(t=3.81, p=0.0002), presence of cardiac patients in the family members or friends(t=2.00, p=0.0478), created significant differences in exercise compliance. According to occuption(F=3.03, p=0.0215), hospitalized experience(t=4.59, p=0.0000), presence of chest pain(t=3.63, p=0.0005), there was also a significant difference in diet compliance. 6. The combination of exercise self-efficacy, perceived benefit and pt's education level explained 50.18% of the variance in exercise compliance. The combination of diet self-efficacy, perceived benefit and barrier explained 56.76% of the variance in diet compliance. On the basis of the above findings, the follow ing recommendations are suggested: 1. To promote the exercise. diet compliance for CHD patients, a well organized health teaching and nursing intervention program should be developed. 2. More research is needed to investigate other variables affecting exercise and diet compliance of CHD patients. 3. To promote self-efficacy and a positive health belief in CHD patients, a well organized and an approachable nursing intervention program should be developed. 4. Factors other than diet.exercise compliance should be evaluated to discover the impact on CHD patients.
Health Behavior of the Obese Adult - Based on the Johnson's Behavioral System Model
Jeong Hee Kim, Soon Nyoung Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):277-288.   Published online December 31, 1997
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The purpose of this study is to identify the behavioral subsystems of the obese adult and contribute to the utility of Johnson's Behavioral System Model. The subjects were 167 obese adults in out-patients clinics of 2 hospitals and health clinics for 4 companies. These data were collected by a structured questionnaire with 52 items from July 1 to Sep. 30, 1995. The instrument used for this study was modified from the DBSM-self reporting instrument (1983) and Grubbs(1980)'s. The reliability of this method was cronbach's alpha=.8476 and the construct validity of it was accepted by using a factor analysis. These data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, pearson's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis with an SPSS PC+ Program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The 9 behavioral subsystems of the obese were indentified : sex-related, attachment-affiliative I(social), dependency, ingestive, eliminative, restorative, aggressive-protective, attachment-affiliative and II (familial), an achievement behavioral subsystem. 2. Out of 9 subsystems, the highest significant positive correlation between dependency and acheivement subsystem was found(r=.5357, p<.01), The next, attachment-affiliative I and attachment-affiliative II subsystem was correlated significantly (r=.4526, p<.01). Significant positive correlations among sex-related, achivement, attachment-affiliative I, II, dependency, restorative, and aggressive-protective subsystems were found. But, ingestive and eliminative subsystems were not correlated with the above seven subsystems significantly, only the positive correlation between the ingestive and eliminative subsystems was found. 3. The explained variance of the 9 subsystems was explained as 56.1% out of a total of one. The sex-related subsystem was the first factor explaining 16.3% of the total variance and then the next 8 factors which resulted in 39.8%. According to the results of this study, the suggestions were as follows: 1. In the nursing practice, nursing assessmentand intervention of the obese should be in cluded not only in ingestive and eliminative subsystems but also in sex-related, attachment-affiliative I, dependency, restorative, aggressive-protective, attachment -affiliative II, and achievement behavioral subsystem. 2. Concerning instruments, some items to measure the eliminative, dependency, and aggressive-protective behavioral subsystems with relatively reliability are needed. 3. Johnson's concept of a dependency subsystem should be clarified. 4. Correlation among the 7 subsystems, and the ingestive and eliminative subsystems should be clarified.
An Analysis of Relations between Perceived Family Characteristics, Experienced Abuse and Mental Health in Childhood
Hee Gul Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):289-303.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study analyzes the relations between perceived family characteristics, experienced abuse and mental health in childhood. For this, this study used row data by questionnaire, analysis, and frequency, ANOVA, t - Test, Pearson' correlation analysis. The sample was 118 children 10-12 years old in primary school. The findings are as follows. First, children perceived family cohesion and family adaptability highly, family adaptability showed a significant difference from the relations with a parent's job, a parent's academic level, and type of residence. Second, it appeared that some children experienced physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Third, in general the mental health of children was good. Their mental health showed a significant relation to economic level of family, and type of residence, creating problems such as depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, psychoticism. By family size, their mental health showed a significant relation to somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Fourth, family cohesion and mental health perceived by children supported a linear relation to phobic anxiety, and family adaptability and mental health perceived by children supported the reverse -linear relation to somatization, anxiety, paranoid ideation, etc. Fifth, connections with perceived abuse and mental health as well as emotional abuse and mental health were also supported. Further more, on somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, etc, a reverse-linear re lation existed. Physical abuse supported a reverse-linear relation with interpersonal sensitivity, depression, paranoid ideation, etc. and sexual abuse supported a reverse-linear relation with depression. These findings suggest that school and family have to concern themselves with the mental health of children because experienced abuse and family characteristics do indeed affect the mental health of children.
A Study on Perceived Self-efficacy in Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):304-313.   Published online December 31, 1997
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This study was designed to identify the degree of perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem in non - insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The 278 Diabetic patients participating in this study were selected from a diabetic clinic. The period of data collection was September 2 to September 10, 1996. Collected data were analyzed by means of Frequency, Mean, SD, t - test, Pearson correlation, ANOVA using SPSS/PC+. The result are summarized as follows: 1. The mean score of perceived self-efficacy were 3.52 in total, 3.91 for medication, 3.40 for exercise, 3.60 for diet control, 3.18 for glucose test, 3.53 for general management. And the mean score of self-esteem were 3.51 2. Perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem had statistically significant positive correlations (r=.3125, p=.001). 3. The results of testing for the degree of perceived self -efficacy, according to the subject's demographic variables, showed that there were significant differences in sex (t=4.14, p<0.001), the level of education(t=6.24, p<0.01) and diabetic education(t=3.25, p<0.05). These results suggest that perceived self-efficacy and self-esteem is an important variable in the compliance of diabetic patients.
For the Improvement of Nosocomial Infection Control in Korea
Sung Eun Lee
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):314-326.   Published online December 31, 1997
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In Korea, the nosocomial infection control program is not well developed. This situation is created by a lack of interest from medical personnel and the medical payment system. This study identifies current problems and develops a model for nosocomial infection control. The studies of Lee & Kim(1995), Lee (1993) and SENIC project model were used to construct this model. 1. The problems of nosocomial infection control were identified as the following: dis approval by hospital authorities, lack of sources for program direction, lack of overall structure and function in the program, inadequate direct action, lack of education and training, and so on. 2. The problems are reorganized according to the 5 elements of system theory. 3. As a result, the new nosocomial infection control model was developed. The inputs of the model were the elements, resources and boundaries of nosocomial infection. With the new model, each hospital can evaluate their current programs and plan a new program for the better control of nosocomial infection.
A Study of the Professional Self Concept of Clinical Nurses
Hyun Mi Kim, Mi Hye Hwang, Sung Ju Jeon, Gun Ja Jang
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):327-336.   Published online December 31, 1997
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The major purpose of this study was to survey the professional self concept of clinical nurses. The subjects consisted of 894 nurses who are working at 10 general hospital in Daegu, Pusan, and Kyungsang-do. The nurses were surveyed from November 22, 1996 to March 7, 1997. The data were analyzed using an SPSS/PC program. The results were as follows: 1. The average score of PSCNI was 72.11 points. And average item score was 2.67 points, this score means mid level in professional self concept. 2. A comparison of the scores for the dimensions of the PSCNI were as follows: the mean item score of professional practice, 2.76 points; satisfaction, 2.39 points; communication, 2.83 points. Thus, the score for communication was highest. 3. The relationship between general characteristics and the PSCNI showed a significant difference in regard to age(P=.000), religion (P=.012), educational level(P=.001), marital status(P=.000), period of nursing career(P=.000) and position(P=.002). But, there were no significant differences with regard to the field of work. In conclusion, this study suggests that we need to develop a program for improving professional self concept of clinical nurses.
The Characteristics of Unmarried Mother in some Shelters
Yeon Ok Ju, Sang Sun Kim, Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):337-346.   Published online December 31, 1997
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To know the characteristics of the unmarried mother. We need to investigate what kind of circumstances the unmarried mother comes from and under which conditions created her situation. This investigation's purpose is to provide general information on how to prevent this situation. There are many unmarried mothers registered in support groups for single mothers in A City. We surveyed 67 single mothers registered from Nov. 1 '96 - April 30 '97. The questions of the survey asked for general characteristics, family background, friendship, attitude and knowledge toward sex and the relationship with the baby's father. We analysed this research data into a percentages.
A Cross-sectional Survey on Drug Abuse among High School Students in Taegu City
Hyun Sook Lee, Chung Nam Kim, Yun Jung Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1997;8(2):347-367.   Published online December 31, 1997
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The purpose of this study was to investigate drug abuse and to find related factors among high school students. The subjects for this study were 973 students from 10 high schools in Taegu city. The data were collected from September 30, 1996 to October 30, 1996. The questionnaire developed by Kim Soyoaja (1991) surveyed adolescent drug use and questions on smoking and drinking were readjusted and added by the researcher based on review. The data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, chi2-test, t-test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient with the SPSS/PC+. The results of this study were summarized as follows: 1. The proportion of students who drank alcohol 1-2 times or more per year was 52.4% and smoked Cigarette 1 -2 times or more per year was 20.8%. The 7 different drugs(Analgetics 5.7%. sleeping pills and sedatives 4.2%, antihistamines 1.1%. stimulants 7.7%, hallucinogens 0.8%, inhalants 3.3%, and narcotics 0.6%) were also evaluated. 2. There was a significant relationship between drinking and type of school(chi2=62.97, p<.0l), grades(chi2=33.86, p<.001), school life(chi2= 19.04, p<.001), and delinquent friends(chi2= 64.72, p<.001). 3. There was a significant relationship between smoking and type of school(chi2=153.65, p<.001), grades (chi2=67.53, p<.001), their respect for teachers (chi2=33.80, p<.001) school life(chi2 =50.87, p<.001), and delinquent friends(chi2 =85.28, p<.001). 4. There was a significant relationship between the 7 different kinds of drug abuse and type of school (chi2=14.65, p<.01), grades(chi2=12.89, p<.01), their respect for teachers (chi2=8.46, p<.05), and delinquent friends(chi2=22.42, p<.001). 5. There was a significant relationship between a parent's habitual drug abuse and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(chi2=7.78, p<.01), as well as a parent's attitude toward drugs and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(chi2=6.33, p<.05). 6. There was a significant difference between drinking(t=-12.53, p<.001), smoking(t=-15.98, p<.001), the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(t=-5.77, p<.001), and the respondant's delinquent experience. 7. There was a correlation between drinking and smoking(r=.4166, p<.001), drinking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.2200, p<.001), smoking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.1428, p<.05). There was a correlation between drinking and smoking(r=.5977, p<.001), drinking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.2849, p<. 001), smoking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.1711, p<.05) among male students. There was a correlation between drinking and smoking(r=.4219, p<.001), drinking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.2611, p<.001), smoking and the 7 different kinds of drug abuse(r=.1764, p<.001) among female students. 8. There was a correlation between drinking and family stability(r=.0709, p<.05) drinkry and parent -child relationships (r=.1321, p<.01), drinking and mother's rearing attitude(r=.0704, p<.05), smoking and parent -child relationships(r=.0813, p<.05). There was a correlation between drinking and family stability(r=.14S7, p<.01), drinkng and parent-child relationships(r=.2147, p<.001), smoking and family stability(r=.1544, p<.01), smoking and parent. -child relationships (r=. 2018, p<.01) among male students. There was a correlation between drinking and family stability(r=.1l21, p<.05), drinking and mother's rearing attitude (r=.0988, p<.05), smoking and parent -child relationships (r=. 0940, p<.05) among female students. 9. There was a significant difference between the 7 different kinds of drug abuse and family stability (t=2.23, p<.05), parent-child relationships (t=4. 34, p<.001), satisfaction with family (t=4.02, p<.001), father's rearing attitude(t=3.04, p<.01), mother's rearing attitude(t=2.87, p<.01). The distribution channel of drugs including alcohol beverages and cigarettes should be evaluated and restructured to discourage student's temptation and to limit accessibility. The step by step preventive teaching on alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking is needed from middle school to help prevent further drug abuse.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing