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Volume 9 (1); June 1998
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Original Articles
The Development of Health Promotion Programs for Middle Aged Women
Young Nam Cha, Keum Ja Kim, Hye Kyung Lim, Hyo Soon Jang, Hae Sil Han
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):5-20.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The purpose of this study was to develop health promotion programs for middle aged women and to identify the adaptability and the effectiveness of the program in order to provide a model for health promotion programs as a basis for nursing intervention. The research design was a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control-group pretest-posttest design. The data were collected from October 30 to December 11, 1996. The study subjects were middle aged women residing in Chonju city, with ages from 40 to 59. The experimental group consisted of 42 subjects who were recruited through announcements of the local newspaper. The control group consisted of 49 subjects who were mothers of nursing college students. The health promotion program for middle aged women was based on the Bandura's self efficacy theory and Pender's heath promotion behavior theory consisting of exercise and heath diaries as performance accomplishments as well as education and group sessions as verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences. The study program was provided for 6 weeks, 3 hours a day per week. There was a pretest before the program and a posttest after the 6 week program. The instruments used for the study were a Self Efficacy Scale and a Health Promotion Behavior Scale developed by Park(1995). The data analysis was done by the use of a SPSS/PC. The study results were as follows: 1. In the analysis of the homogeneity between the experimental and control groups, there were significant differences in the socio-demographic characteristics, self efficacy and health promotion behavior. There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups in occupation, the number of children, and the status of involvement in social activities. 2. The first hypothesis, "The level of self efficacy of the experimental group will be higher than that of the control group." was supported(F=10.154, p=.002). The second hypothesis, "The degree of health promotive behaviors in the experimental group will be higher than that of the control group." was supported(F=17.349, p=.000). 3. There was a significant positive correlation between the self efficacy and the health promotion behaviors in pretest and posttests (pretest: r=.732, p=.000 ; posttest : r=.754, p=.000). 4. The significant variables for health promotion behaviors were religion(t=-1.97, p=.05), family income(F=4.85, p=.00), education level (F=6.38, p=.00) and involvement in social activities(t=-3.06, p=.00) in socio-demographic characteristics. In summary, a heath promotion program based on self efficacy theory has made an improvement on health promotion behaviors. Also, the results show that the higher the level of self efficacy, the better the health promotion is in middle aged women. The study has proved that nurses can provide nursing intervention for the improvement of health promotion in middle aged women through the adaptation of a program increasing the subject's self efficacy level.
Hardiness as a Stress-resistance Resource and as a Determinant of Health-promoting Behavior: in a Sample of Nursing Students
Mi Ra Lee, Hee Young So, Young Sin Song
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):21-29.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study was undertaken in order to examine the relationship of hardiness and health-promoting behavior and the effects of hardiness on stress-related physical symptoms. The subjects were 104 female nursing students of one college in Kongju. The instruments used for this study were a survey of general characteristics, hardiness(25 items), health-promoting behavior(44 items), and physical symptoms(35 items). Analysis of data was done by use of mean, Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression and a hierarchical multiple regression with an SAS program. The results of this study are as follows. 1) Significant correlations between health -promoting behavior and subscales of hardiness, that is, control(r=-.35, P<.00l), commitment(r=-.29, P<.0l), and challenge(r=-.23, p<.05) were found. 2) Control was the highest factor predicting health-promoting behavior. 3) Main and buffering effects of hardiness on current physical symptoms were not found.
Determinant of the Health Promoting Lifestyle of the Teachers in Choong-Buk province
Kyu Nan Lee, Soon Lae Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):30-39.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing health promoting lifestyle of teachers and to provide the data for efficient health management of teachers. The subjects of this study were eight hundred nine teachers, who were chosen in Choong-Buk province. Survey Questionaires for data analysis were collected through visiting or mailing from September 1 to 30, 1997. The instruments used in this study were HPLP(Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile) by Walker (1987), Internal Health Locus of Control by Walston et al. (1978), Self Esteem by Rogenberg(1965), Importance of Health by Muhlenkamp (1985), Self Efficacy by Sherer & Maddux(1982), and Family Function by Olson & Schellenberg (1985). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, ANOVA, Pearsons correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS/PC(v. 4.01) program. The results were as follows; 1. The mean of health promoting lifestyle was total 2.53 on the average, self-actualization 2.97, nutrition 2.90, interpers 52, stress management 2.33, exercise 1.91, and health responsibility 1.82 in order. The index of total health promoting lifestyle was significantly influenced by the factors including sex, age, religion, marital status, duration of work, teaching load, education level and number of family members. 2. The health promoting Lifestyle was significantly positive correlated with Self Efficacy, Family Function, Importance of Health, Internal Health Locus of Control and Self Esteem. 3. Self Efficacy was the most influential determinant predicting health promoting lifestyle of teachers. Self efficacy, Family Function, Importance of Health, Internal Health Locus of Control and Age explained 42% of the health promoting lifestyle. Based on the above findings, it is suggested to develop nursing intervention to improve Self Efficacy, Importance of Health, Family Function of teachers enhance health promoting lifestyle. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine factors which significantly influence health promoting lifestyle of teachers.
A Phenomenological Study for the Inquiry into Long Life Factors in Persons of One Hundred and Above on Cheju Island
Seong Hyuk Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):40-63.   Published online June 30, 1998
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A long life is the desire of many people. The purpose of this study was to describe long life factors for people aged one hundred and above on Chju island. The research was conducted using a phenomenological method to add understanding to this subject. The field work for this study was done from July, 1997 to February, 1998 on Cheju island. The sample consisted of 10 persons of one hundred or above and 12 families. They were audio-recorded and analyzed using Colaizzi's (1978) method. The results of the present study shows the following: The thoughts of the persons one hundred and above showed ten important concepts; 'dietary regimen', 'mental regimen', 'sleep regimen', 'residence regimen', 'health regimen', 'labor regimen', 'exercise regimen', 'being born', 'filial piety and posterity', 'attachment to life'. Concerning 'Dietary Regimen': Dietary regulation, Preferential food intake, Living on vegetables, Light eating, and concern for longevity in food intake were important. Concerning 'Mental Regimen' : Harmony, Clear-headedness, Mildness, Abstinence, Generosity, Relaxation, Gaiety, Inspiration and Strength were important. Concerning 'Sleep Regimen'; Enough sleeping hours, Sound sleep, Curved sleeping posture, and Comfortable bedding were important. Concerning 'Residence Regimen' ; Clean dwelling, Pleasant surroundings, Thatched house life, Living in the village with good-hearted people, and Regular life were important. Concerning 'Health Regimen'; Temperance of drug, use Proper temperature, Proper humidity, and a Clean body were important. Concerning 'Labor Regimen'; Agricultural labor, Diligence, and Domestic labor were important. Concerning Exercise Regimen': Proper exercise, and Sunbathing were important. Concerning 'Being Born' ; Strong physical constitution, Longevity lineage, and Destiny were important. Concerning 'Filial Piety and Posterity' : Showing respect to a long-lived elder and Reducing anxiety were important. Concerning 'Attachment to Life' ; The desire to live long was important. The following conclusion was made from the above results. Human beings cannot avoid death, but the span of life can be prolonged to the maximum span of human life by wisdom, health care, and proper environmental conditions. As a result, a health regimen must be imposed for longevity such as controling food intake, having positive thoughts, being relaxed, sleeping enough, clean dwelling, taking care of oneself which can improve immunity and resistance to decrease, as well as proper labor and exercise. In addition, when filial piety is served, the desire of longevity and retaining one's youthfulness for a long time can be achieved. These should be done to live long and lead a qualitative life. By the results of this research, the following is suggesed for nursing. To satisfy the basic nursing principle that nursing must be practiced to help people live long, education must be spread to people who are nursed and their family so that they can lead a healthy life. And in nursing elders, nurses must recognize that elders have a strong desire for life, even though they may have negative thoughts about life at times. Therefore nurses have to respect the elders' value of life, and help them improve their self-esteem and self-fulfilment.
A Study on the Effect of Sexual Education to Nursing Student Knowledge and Attitude to the Sex of the Aged
Jin Joo Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):64-71.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study uses [the instrument of ageing anxiety] in order to find if a negative prejudice against the old affects the attitude toward sex of the aged. The result shows no significant relation between ageing anxiety and the knowledge of and attitude toward sex of the aged. However, it does show that the higher the ageing anxiety is, the lower the knowledge of sex and the more restrictive the attitude toward it. The knowledge of and attitude toward sex of the aged shows meaninggul changes after education. Nursing students who were educated come to have more knowledge about and are more open to it. This result supports the preposition of this study. As society grows older the endeavour to guarantee a high-quality life for the old is necessary and the old should be regarded as an entity which has its own characteristic desires. Especially for the old to enjoy a good life as a sexual being, the mystical barriers about sex and old age ought to be removed. In the future the old themselves may maintain sexual desires regardless of age and society will be required to correct its prejudice against the old having sex. Particularly nursing students, as an effort to provide the old with overall care, should examine the elderly's sexual desires in a physical, psychological, and social context and consider the normal sexual changes occuring during the aging process and finally integrate this information into their nursing plans. In order to fulfill this role successfully they should overcome their own prejudice and educate themselves about this particular problem. As the proportion of the old becomes bigger and the concern about the quality of their life grows, sex among the old will become more important in the nursing field. By putting an educational mediation programme into operation with nursing students and estimating the effect, this study supplies the foundation to activate new educational programmes. In short it tells us that education can be a practical method to confront the myth and conventions concerning sex among the aged.
A Study on Health Perception and Health Promoting Behavior in the Elderly
Kyeong Sook Lee, Young Sook Chung
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):72-88.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study was designed to identify the relationship between health perception arid health promoting behavior in the elderly. The subjects for this study were 92 persons over 65, who could be easily met in households, pavilions for the aged, and parks. The data were collected during the period from March 24th to April 12th, 1997 by interviews with a structured questionnaire. The instruments used for this study are as follows: The Health Perception Questionnaire developed by Ware (1979) and translated by Yu Ji-Su(1985). The Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile(HPLP) developed by Walker, Sechrist & Pender (1987) and partially amended by the author of this study. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile(HPLP) was parameterized by nutrition, exercise, stress management, self actualization, health responsibility, and interpersonal support. The data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation using an SPSS program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Hypothesis 1 : 'The higher the level of health perception in the elderly, the higher the practice of health promoting behavior in the elderly' was supported(r=0.449, p<0.001). 2. The health perception mean score on a four point scale was 2.564. 3. For health promoting behavior, the mean score on a four point scale was 2.560. The factor of the highest mean score was interpersonal support(2.850) and factor of the lowest mean score was exercise(1.964). 4. Among the general characteristic variables, sex(t=4.12, p<0.001), religion(t=2.47, p<0.05), education(F=3.27, p<0.05), marital status (t=2.22, p<0.05), living situation(F=3.50, p<0.05), and hobby(t=-2.57, p<0.05) showed strong connections to health perception. 5. Among the general characteristic variables, religion(t=1.83, p<0.05), and marital status(t=2.12, p<0.05) showed strong connections to health promoting behavior. In conclusion, this study revealed that health perception is an important factor related to health promoting behavior in the elderly. The general characteristic variables showed strong connections to health perception and health promoting behavior. Therefore, nurses should consider health perception and general characteristic variables when they plan nursing intervention for the elderly. Also, educational programs encouraging constructive health perception should be developed.
Geriatric Health Problems and Directions for Nursing Improvements
Hee Ja Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):89-103.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The elderly population will increase from 5.8% in 1996 to 12.5% in 2020. The related problems of health will also become a very important issue in the future. Therefore it is important to address the problems of geriatric nursing and geriatric health. 87.6% of the aged were ill with chronic degenerative diseases in 1994. In 1995, hospital admission rates (86.8) for those aged 60 or older were higher than that (56.3) of the total age group. Such high medical utilization will increase national health costs. For the development of geriatric nursing, active nursing intervention in various settings combined with education and research should be developed. Considering the health and welfare of the aged and the present status and views in Korea, I suggest the following: First, the health needs of the elderly in the institution, must be met by a plan that fosters geriatric nurses and programmed service development. Second, health service for the residential elderly must be provided in day care centers, short stays, nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. Geriatric nursing services should be provided in home residential areas, public health centers, public health subcenters as well as having, community health practitioners in primary health care posts and home health nurses. Third, geriatric nursing curriculum must be developed adjust to situations and culture of Korea and be included in the nursing curriculum. And gerontological nurse practitioner or geriatric specialist must be fosteraged to provide the professional care for the aged. Geriatric nursing research should be also achived for geriatric nursing improvements.
The Influential Factors of Elderly Depression in Rural Areas
Kuk Hee Roh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):104-116.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The paper was studied those aged of 65 years or over who were attending 11 senior citizen's centers and 4 nursing home centers for the aged during the day in Junla-buk do. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of depression and related factors by using the 20 part Zung's self-rating interview schedule. The results of the study were analized using an SAS program. Data analysis included the following : percent, average, S.D, ANOVA, T-test, Person's simple correlation, multiple regression. The results of the study are as follows: 1. The mean value of depression was 45.54 out of a total of 80 and the mean depression scale was 2.28 on a Likert scale. Those over a 50 degree depression rate was 37.7%. 2. There was a significant decrease of depression when monthly pocket money increased. 3. There was a significant decrease in depression degree when they think their health is good and they have no chronic disease. 4. There was a significant decrease in depression degree when activities of daily living increased, r=-0.537 and p=0.0001. There was a significant decrease in depression degree when health promoting behavior increased, r=-0.752 and p=0.0001. 5. There was a significant decrease in depression degree when social activities increased, in meeting a relatives and attending a senior citizen's center.
Testing the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Prediction and Intention of Smoking Cessation Behavior
Hye Jin Hyun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):117-127.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The Theory of Planned Behavior has been shown to yield great explanatory power in health behavior as well as social behavior. This study was conducted to test the Theory of Planned Behavior in the prediction and intention of smoking cessation behavior in university student smokers. We conveniently sampled 204 university student smokers and investigated using questionaries, analyzing the data with the Pearson product-moment correlation, and multiple regression. The results are as follows : 1. There are significant correlations in direct and indirect measures of attitude toward smoking cessation behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. 2. Behavior belief is significant in predicting attitudes toward smoking cessation behavior. Normative belief is significant in predicting the subjective norm. Control belief is significant in predicting perceived behavioral control. 3. Attitude toward smoking cessation behavior, subjective norm are significant in predicting intention of smoking cessation behavior. In conclusion, this study demonstrated strong support for the Theory of the Planned Behavior and its use to predict smoking cessation behavior in university students smokers. But, as perceived behavioral control is not significant in predicting smoking cessation behavior, indepth research is needed to evaluate the usefullness of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Reasoned Action Theory.
A Study of the Relationship among Self-Efficacy, Sick-Role Behavior and Metabolic Control in Diabetic Patients
Kyung Shin Paek, Myoung Hee Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):128-142.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of self-efficacy, sick-role behavior and metabolic control in patients with diabetes and to identify the relationships among those variables. The subject of the study were composed of 204 NIDDM patients from 2 hospitals, who were visiting the outpatient clinic in Taegu. Data were collected from Sep. 18th to Oct. 5th, 1996. In data analysis, an SPSS/PC+ program was utilized for descriptives correlation, T-test, and ANOVA. The results are as follows. 1) The mean scores for self-efficacy were 65.74 (range 30.83-90.68), on a 100 point scale. 2) The mean scores for sick-role behavior were 3.36(range 1.80-4.67), on a 5 point scale. 3) The mean score for metabolic control was 7.63 (range 5.0-13.2). 4) Self-efficacy was significantly correlated with sick-role behavior(r=.3614, p<0.01) but there were no significant correlations with self-efficacy and metabolic control (r=-.1045, p>0.01), sick-role behavior and metabolic control (r=-.1288, p>0.01). 5) There were significant differences in self-efficacy according to sex(t=4.47, p=0.000) and education(F=8.27, p=0.000). 6) There were no significant differences in sick -role behavior according to demographic characteristics. 7) There were significant differences in metabolic control according to the duration of diagnosed diabetess(F=4.13, p=0.007) and complication (t=2.47, p=0.014). These results suggest that for improvement in sick-role behavior nursing intervention needs to be directed at promoting self-efficacy.
A Study of the Construction of Nursing Theory in Korean Culture: View of Medicine
Jeong Sook Park, Yun Jung Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):143-162.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This is a study for the construction of nursing care based upon the Korean attitude toward medicine. Factors which were investigated include the source of nursing care, the reason for choosing care, the type of heath care chosen, the accessability of caregivers, and the desired location of death. The population examined in this study consisted of 517 adults distributed in six large cities and 191 adults from five rural communities. Data was analyzed using frequency, percent, Cronbach alpha, chi2-test, t-test, F-test and scheffe post hoc contrast with an SAS program. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. Among sources of nursing care used, first rank rated-pharmacy(54.4), private hospital(18.2), general hospital(8.4), folk remedies in house (5.0), chinese hospital(2.8), prayer(2.8) and others(8.4), and the reasons for choosing nursing care rated 'the easiest method' (63.6), 'the best method'(15.7), 'reliable'(10.8) and 'lower cost burden'(4.6) in order of preference. 2. The type of nursing care chosen rated western medicine(6.80), chinese medicine(6.15), folk remedies(5.46), faith remedies(3.51) and divination remedies (1.41). There were significant differences in the effect recognition degree to various kinds of medicine. 3. The difference of the type of nursing care chosen according to general characteristics showed that urban residents were higher than rural community residents(t=2.15, p=0.0320) in western medicine, and urban residents, women, and singles were higher than rural community residents(t=2.04, p=0.0414), men (t=-2.89, p=0.0039), and married(t=2.50, p=0.0126) on folk remedies. With repect to age and education those 21-30, under 20 and 31-40, graduated from college and graduate school were higher than above 51, above 61 (F=7.76, p=0.0001), graduated from elementary school(F=4.39, p=0.0006) on folk remedies. In other categories, rural community residents, women, younger people. Christians were higher than urban residents (t=-2.73, p=0.0305), men(t=-4.15, p=0.0001), older people (F=2.48, p=0.0307), Catholic, Buddhist, or atheist (F=70.18, p=0.0001) on faith remedies. Those graduated from high school and Buddhist were higher than unschooled, graduated from middle school(F=3.18, p=0.0075), atheist, Catholic or Christian(F=18.32, p=0.0001) on divination redemies. There were significant differences concerning age and education level. 4. The accessibility of caregivers rated 'caregivers should be nearby if the patients need them' (50.0), 'caregivers must be there all day (24 hours)' (39.6), 'caregivers must be there at night only'(5.0), 'caregivers must be there during the day only'(2.6), 'caregivers always should visit during visiting hours' 0.4), 'caregivers don't need to be there at all' (1.2). The frist rank of suitable caregivers were rated as spouse(66.6), mother(24.2), daughter (3.6), daughter-in-law(1.9), and the reasons of thinking thus were rated as 'the most comfortable' (81.5), 'people should correctly with regards to family they'(7.1), 'the easiest' (5.4), 'take good care of the patient' (5.1) and 'lower cost burden' (0.4). 5. The desired location of death rated as the following: his/her house (91. 6) to the hospital(8. 4). A person going to encounter death in the hospital wanted his house(78.5) over the hospital(21.5), and a person dieing in the hospital prefered his house(52.9) over the hospital(47.1) as a funeral ceremony place. The following suggestions are made based on the above results. 1. A sampling method that enhances the re presentativeness should be used in regional and/or national related research and replicated to confirm the result of this study. 2. This study should be used to understand the Korean view of medical centers and to meet the expectations of patients in Korean nursing. 3. Research on the Korean traditional view of humans and expectations of the sick, health and illness, and health behavior, the perception of dying, the decision to heal, and the view of general medicine should continue to be conducted continuosly so that Korean nursing theory can be advanced on these concepts.
A Study for Reorientation of Home Care Service at Community
Hong Ja Lee, Chun Mi Kim, Soon Nyong Yun
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):163-180.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the community based home care service, and make reorientation for better service. The data was collected from the public health center, which was operated for one year, 1997. This case is evaluated and reoriented according to five elements of public health care system; system of resources for public health, organization and administration, health care delivery system of financing, management. In resources for public health, available health personnels are 15 physicians, 17 nurses, 11 nurse aides and 2 other persons. One professional health personnel take care of 609 clients, The equipments used for elderly and the disabled are 6 wheelchairs, 4 walkers, 1 hairwashers and 30 viberations. But these equipments are not enough to deal all clients. In organization and administration, planning and setting goals for community home care are made by the director, supervisor of family department and public health nurse. So there is no regular commitee for home care services in this community. The form of delivery of health care is focused on preventive health care. The important works of public health nurse are health education, preventive care for hypertension, D.M. and vaccination of communicable desease. In finaning system, funds come from central government(8.3%), local goverment(16.7%) and health center itself(3.8%), The services consist of health education, vaccination, clinical test and equipment. There are several local volunteers, which are local hospitals, a college, a christian association, a catholic association, a drivers association and a disabled association. The volunteer groups give physical and mental support to the clients. In management, this health center has three evaluation methods. One is done by local government, one is done by health center itself, and the other is done by clients with questionair. But the evaluation tools are deferent between agency. Home care services must be planned and evaluated. This public health center has to have more personnel, equipments, education for professional kowledge and meetings with community volunteer agencies.
A Comparative Study on Effective Factors Related to Home Nursing Care in Hospital and Community-based Care in Korea
Sung Sil Kim
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):181-199.   Published online June 30, 1998
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This study was designed to examine Home Nursing Care in Hospital-based and Community-based programs. This study investigates actual conditions of nursing needs and demands of clients and their family and the state of home nursing services. We hope that this study will improve upon the current home nursing care system. In Korea Home-Nursing Care programs are still developing and only now becoming a part of the health care delivery system. The data was collected by a questionaire the clients developed and modified through literature review by this writer and through 10 nurses who are members of 4 hospital and 3 community-based agencies. In this study 173 clients were selected. The study lasted from Oct. 1997 to March of 1998. The results show that the average age was 64.3, years older than most women clients (63.0%), the average age of a caregiver was 50.9 years old and most were female(77%). Two types of agency clients with a significant difference between social conditions [25.7%] used some form of insurance; 54.3% had the spouse pay expenses; pay 58.5% son and daughters of Hospital-based agencies: patients of social workers were 24.0%, the highest in the community agency. The condition of patients was 63.2% of the foley and nelaton catheter insertion at hospital based agencies. The range of nursing services offered is one of the highest among the 34 kinds of servies including nasogastric tube management basic nursing, ROM exercise, bladder irrigation, wound and sore dressing. For an effective care service factors that disturb each program such as a non-cooperatative family as well as patients themselves need to be lessened. Further more, the following must be emphasized, supportive counsel 27.0%, steady care for patient, 13.3%maintain a sense of security(11.7%), dressing sores and nutrition(10.0%). Although there were a large number of home nursing care services in the community, policy changes have gathered momentum. Fortunately, the scope and level at legal support will be increased in the future. The program should intergrate and link the district or community together. A project to develop a community based home nursing system as soon as possible should be developed. In conclusion, home nursing care nurses training curriculum should be strengthened.
Effects of the BSE Educational Program on BSE Practice: Based on the Individually Prescribed Instruction Model
Yeon Hee Choi
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):200-212.   Published online June 30, 1998
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Breast cancer ranks as one of the major health problems of adult women. Studies have shown that the BSE educational program based on the Individually Prescribed Instruction Model is effective in BSE practice. To motivate women in BSE practicing, a one-group pretest-posttest design was conducted. The subjects of the study were 49 Women who participated in the educational program of BSE and were mothers of D middle school in D City. The instruments of study were a BSE frequency & proficiency recording chart and a BSE confidence scale developed by Elearnor. The data was collected from September 4 in 1997 to April 30 in 1998 and was analyzed with an SAS program. The results were summarized as follows : 1) Frequency scores in BSE practice in the posttest was significantly increased after the intervention as contrasted with that in the pretest(t=1.32, P<.01). 2) Proficiency scores in BSE practice in the posttest was significantly increased after the intervention as contrasted with that in the pretest (t=1. 69, P<.001). 3) Confidence scores in BSE practice in the posttest was significantly increased after the intervention as contrasted with that in the pretes(t=l1.48, P<.01). 4) The Pearson correlation coefficient between BSE frequency scores and confidence scores in BSE practice was significant (r=.72, P<.001). On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that the BSE educational program has improved BSE compliance.
Risk Factors of Low Back Pain in General Hospital Nurses
Soon Lae Kim, Jae Min Oh
J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 1998;9(1):213-222.   Published online June 30, 1998
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The prevalence rate of low back pain in nurses is higher than that of other jobs, because there are many more risk factors(for example, standing postures, lifting and carrying heavy loads, transfering patients, changing a patient's position etc.). This investigation is to provide basic data for prevention of low back pain by analyzing the prevalence rate and related factors of low back pain in nurses(esp. operating room staff) in general hospitals. A self-reported questionaire survey was carried out on three hundred and five nurses of three general hospitals in Seoul from June, 1996 to August, 1996. Subjects of the survey were divided into a low back pain group(LBP) and a cotrol group to investigate the association between low back pain and the general characteristics and work related factors of each group. The results were as follows: 1. In the subjects of the survey, the prevalence rate of low back pain was 60.0% for the last year. 2. 73.6% of operating room(OR) staff complained of low back pain. 3. Standing for a long time and working in twisting postures were associated with low back pain, and so were the shift, the type of work, and the frequency of transfering patients. 4. The weight loads which nurses frequently carried were, under 5kg, 5-10kg, 15-20kg, 15-20kg, over 20kg, and all, except for 10-15kg, were associated with LBP. 5. 76.9% of the LBP experienced low back pain within 3 years after starting nursing jobs. 6. Concerning the degrees of low back pain: 75.8% was limited to waist; 18.8% reached the knees; 4.2% reached ankles. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of low back pain in general hospital nurses was associated with the works in operating room and other work related factors, therefore it is necessary to develop on educational program for the prevention of low back pain as well as and to improve working environments.

RCPHN : Research in Community and Public Health Nursing